Communication And Language Development Education Essay

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At this age, a child starts enjoying company of other children and loves to be in a group. They are often same sex although some play activities will encourage boys and girls to play together. Now he/she is less dependent on close adults for support.

Physical Development:

A child's physical skill develops a lot and sometimes depends on his/her interests. He/she has more fine motor skills. Puberty starts for many girls from the age of 10 years and finishes by the age of 15 years and during this period their body undergoes various physical changes. For boys, this usually starts at around 13/14 years and finishes at around 16 years. A child develops hand eye co-ordination which leads to proficiency in climbing, running, balancing and skipping.

Intellectual Development:

7 years onwards, most children are fluent speakers, readers and writers of their language. At this age, a child can read more complex texts and develops writing skills. At the age of 7 - 12 years, a child has great reasoning ability and can apply logic to solve problems. He/she has longer attention span so he/she enjoys various board games and computer games. His/her preferences for subject increase. He/she starts dealing with abstract ideas.

Communication and language development:

A child becomes highly verbal and enjoys making up and telling jokes. He/she has a wide range of vocabulary and can use more complex sentence structures. He/she can share ideas and feelings in more depth. He/she can share a very detailed account of past events and anticipate the future. He/she can listen to follow and execute more complex instructions.

Emotional Development:

A child is now aware of wider environment. He/she becomes very proud of his/her won achievements and sometimes can be very competitive. Usually, boys friendships are likely to be of group based while girls prefer closer but fewer friends.

AGE 12 - 19 YEARS:

Social Development:

Young people want to spend more time with each other than with their family. Individual friendship is important for them and along with they enjoy being into a group. Sometimes, it can be seen young people can be strongly motivated by role models in media. They participate in teen games and enjoy group activities including clubs.

Physical Development:

By the age of 14/15 years, most girls have completed the process of puberty. Most girls have already started their menstrual cycle and become regular by the age of 16 years. For boys, the process of puberty has already started and for most finishes at around the age of 16 years. The body of a young people undergoes change in appearance because of many physical developments during this period.

Intellectual Development:

Young people are able to understand more complicated things in mathematical and scientific process. They extend their writing skills and can develop more creative skills and can understand other people's point of view. They have a very high level of concentration. They develop logical thinking ability and may enjoy practising their new intellectual and verbal skills through debating either formally of informally.

Communication and language development:

Young people have extensive and varied vocabulary. They can use appropriate language styles, vocalises their ideas and feelings in greater depth. They can justify their own views and ideas. They enjoy more complex texts including fiction, poetry and factual books.

Emotional Development:

At this age, young people are very sensitive to their own feelings. Emotional maturity is constantly switching on between childish needs and adult desires. They are confident in their own skills and ideas. They have a good understanding of complex issues. Young people can find themselves caught between their desire to remain in a group but reluctant to adopt group's values and behaviour.

Difference between sequence of development and rate of development

To find the difference between sequence of development and rate of development we need to understand the basic meaning of 'sequence' and 'rate'. The sequence of development is a process where an event is followed one after another and achieves a level of succession with a series of changes or growth that a process goes through to improve. It is related to the previous events and normally improves on the process. For example: A baby goes through different phases before he starts walking. First he just kick legs with movements, learns to roll on and then he tries to sit that may take 6-7 months. After that he learns to crawl and stand and gradually learns walking holding parent's hands and finally they reach the ultimate goal i.e, they can walk independently.

Rate of Development is a quantity of something in comparison with a unit of another thing. It is related to the development that occurs at a definite age and at a definite time. Each and every child has a different rate of development although they ultimately follow more or less the same pattern of rate of development. For example: Some babies start walking at the age of 9 months while others may start a little late. Some babies can start making sentences at the age of 1.5 years while others can speak only a few words. But by the age of 3 years, most of the children can walk independently and can speak using small simple sentences.

Importance of Differences

Children develop at different rates. This helps to monitor and expect what children can and can't do at a particular phase in their lives. In the sequence of development one must finish with one of area of development before a move on to the next one. The rate of development is the rapidity with which a child develops. These can be the speed within each phase of development or cover all the set areas in the phase. These principles run through all the areas of development from physical, social, intellectual and language no matter what the age of the child. If at all one is skipped or slow it can be a cause for concern. It will also help to plan effectively to ensure they get the attention they need, in the areas in which they find challenging. 

Physical development follows a definite sequence an example of this would be that a baby would have to first learn how to hold his/her own head up before they would be able to sit with just its lower back supported.  While the sequences are common amongst most children what often changes is the rate in which they develop the skills. It is important to recognise the difference so you can identify where children need help or may be at risk of having a special recommendation or having a special need in or outside school.

Child development means the biological and psychological and emotional changes that take place within an individual since birth to the end of adolescence. It would be clear to us if we discuss the theories of development presented by Montessori, Piaget and Vyogotsky.

Montessori:

Montessori Method of education was developed in Italy in circa 1900 by Dr Maria Montessori. The core philosophy behind the method is that every child is unique in comparison to adults and also to other children and that their individuality must be respected throughout the educational process. Montessori was of the opinion that a child's mind is always eager to learn, explore and wants to try new things. Keeping these in mind the activities for Montessori education was designed. It involves the education of individual senses and individual muscle movements.

Piaget:

Jean Piaget's ideas on the development of a child's mind influenced the development of the modern education theory. His theory is that a child can only do certain tasks when they are psychologically matured enough to do so. So they begin to understand the world around them gradually as they grow up. Also, his view is that a child's thinking and understanding don't develop gradually in a smooth developmental curve and kick start at certain points. His opinion is that these critical points occur at about 18 months, 7 years and 11 or 12 years. So, his opinion suggests that before these ages, most of the children are not capable of understanding certain things and is not dependent on their individual brilliance. This theory formed the basis for scheduling the school curriculum.

Vygotsky:

Lev Vygotsky's theory is intellectual development. His theory is that children learn new skills by being guided by cares and parents. An example of this is when a parent sings to their child and helps them clap their hands until the child can clap their hands themselves. He believes that every new scene or interaction is a learning experience to a child that he/she must be guided through until they know how to react correctly. We also give praise when children handle social interactions with good behaviour to prove that we are pleased and they have behaved appropriately.

He expressed that "Every function in the child's cultural development appears twice: first, on the social level, and later, on the individual level; first, between people (interpsychological) and then inside the child (intrapsychological). This applies equally to voluntary attention, to logical memory, and to the formation of concepts. All the higher functions originate as actual relationships between individuals." - Cole Michael; Vygotsky, Mind in Society: the development of higher psychological processes.

"Vygotsky felt that development was a process and saw periods of crisis in child development during which there was a qualitative transformation in the child's mental functioning. " - Carton, Aarons; Vygotsky, Collected works of L S Vygotsky 5, Child Psycholgy.

The EYFS (Early Year Foundation Stage) is a framework for all registered providers of services for children under 5, which became statutory in September 2008. It marks the first time that practitioners from all sectors of the early childhood workforce, from the head teachers of primary schools to registered childminders and after-school play-workers, have been required to observe the same guidelines relating to the education and care of young children. The framework provides statutory guidance, not only on the ways in which development and learning are to be supported within schools and settings, but on the ways in which relationships with families are to be established in support of these goals. EYFS ensures:

Children learn through play

Providers work closely through parents

Parents are kept up to date on their child's progress

The welfare learning and all round development of children with different backgrounds and levels of ability, including those with special educational needs and disabilities

The National Curriculum is a set of subjects and standards used by primary and secondary schools to ensure that every child receives a broad and balanced education. It covers type of subjects that are taught and the standards each child should achieve in each subject. The National Curriculum had a positive impact in improving practices to teach reading, writing and maths. It also ensures lifting of the level of average achievement and updating practices to improve the efficacy. The use of the curriculum also enables schools to prevent racism, reduce discrimination and promote cultural diversity.

Every child is unique and individual in nature. However, the growth and development of a child depends on a step by step progress that a child makes during a definite period. A developmental delay is defined when a child doesn't reach an expected developmental milestone. When a child has been detected by any kind of developmental delays, he or she can be promoted by different sorts of intervention to achieve the developmental goal. A child can be given support to develop his social, physical, intellectual, language and emotional development.

Social development:

We can always encourage a child with socially acceptable behaviour. We could appreciate a child when he is taking turns while playing with others. Children should be encouraged to join in a team game/sports. Sometimes a child takes time to do things independently. Being an adult, we must be patient with them. Sharing books, stories, puppets with children helps them to understand ideas of different situations and also how to deal with them.

Physical development:

Children need opportunities for both indoor and outdoor activities to develop their physical skills. A child enjoys exploring and experiment, so that they should be encouraged to be explored and helping them to play with or without their play apparatus. We can help a child to become independent. A child can be encouraged for doing his/her everyday routines like using a spoon, getting dressed, dealing with fastening the shoe laces. While dealing with a child in indoors or outdoors we keep in our mind about a child's safety by checking the equipment the child is playing with and supervising the child whether he is using the equipment in a proper way.

Intellectual development:

Cognitive and intellectual development plays important roles in a child's development. It is an adult's responsibility to increase the child's curiosity by promoting the different sorts of books, games, posters, play equipments and toys.

Children enjoy going for an outing. They learn a lot from the environment. We can encourage them by answering the questions. A little unsure or unconfident child can gain confidence from verbal prompts or encouragement. Too much complex activities sometimes put a child off due to the frustration of not being able to do the activities. So it is always helpful for the children to do with the activities which they enjoy. Sometimes, repetition of games/activities helps them to discover different aspects of the activities. Child's intellectual skills can be developed by playing memory games with them. We can increase their concentration by presenting activities, games and stories in an interesting way. A child can always be encouraged to use their senses to experiment with different materials.

Language development:

A child learns or develops his language by listening to an adult. When a child listens or whenever he is being talked he improves his language skills. A child can be talked about anything and everything. It is always advisable to use a simple sentence while talking to an infant. Sometimes, repetition is required to reinforce unknown or new vocabulary. Sharing books, stories and exchanging ideas also help to develop language skills.

Emotional development:

Praise and encouragement always help to build self-confidence and to focus a child into which he/she is good at. Sharing resources, helping others and contributing ideas increase an interest in the pupil's efforts and achievements.

Importance of early identification:

Speech, language and communication play a vital role in all our lives. We begin our communication development skills from birth. Speech, language and communication allow us to be social. Some children may have some speech, language and communication delays and disorders which can affect their personal, social and academic life. Sometimes some children overcome their speech and language problem by the time they enter school and some will not be able to do so. Hence, it is important to identify those children who will find it difficult to overcome language or speech problem. An adult acts as a facilitator by providing appropriate activities and experiences to enable children to develop their speech ,language and communication skills in meaningful situation  A child can quickly fall behind if speech and language learning is delayed. Sometime, the problem can be very severe, when an individual cannot communicate at all without alternative or augmentative communication such as signs or communication aids. Early identification of speech, language and communication delay is extremely important as the chances to alleviate these problems and improving these skills are greater. Early identification helps children to conquer their communication difficulty, language and speech delays with the assistance.

Potential risks:

The potential risk for late recognition of speech, language and communication is child's learning and development will suffer, which may affect their behaviour when they are not understood. If these delays are not identified the delay will continue and the child may suffer from lack of confidence, less able to manage their thoughts and will more than likely experience emotional problems. Other aspects of development will also be affected, e.g. cognitive, social, emotional and behavioural. They may struggle to keep up their views and ideas and will have trouble getting others to understand what they are trying to communicate. Many children with communication problems will go on to develop mental illness if untreated. Often underlying health and medical conditions go unnoticed and undiagnosed in children with communication problems. They would also struggle to understand what they are being told or asked them in a learning environment which may lead the child to a negative effect on their self esteem and confidence. A child will also find it difficult to form a relationship with other children and will then feel angry and could lead to behavioural problems and isolation.

Play and activities are important throughout our life. These encourage and promote development of speech, language and communication skills. Children practice and develop the language skills whilst playing with their friends. The continuous practice and the encouragement to communicate during activities help in the development of language skills.

Speech language and communication play a crucial role in children's development. Language helps an individual to express thoughts, ideas feelings emotions and information. Children can communicate through actions and gestures as well as through language. Children through their play and structured activities can communicate through verbal and nonverbal interactions. Play and activity contributes and supports child's learning .It helps them to learn discipline. Play activities enable child to impose some structure or organisation on a task, make sense of their experiences.

During play children combine many skills such as movement, thinking, attention, seeing, listening and, of course, communicating. It follows that children with a difficulty in one or more of these skills can be helped to progress through play.

Children use toy in a different way than expected usually by a grown up. They use their fantasy in their play with different objects to replicate their expectations of their fantasies like boxes become cars in a race track, a sand tray becomes a desert, a cricket bat becomes a rifle to play a war game. It would be helpful for the children if we do not try to limit the toys as children can learn so much in normal day to day play and playing with others, using different languages, turn taking, problem solving and feelings for others, decision making, knowledge exchange between their friends or grownups.

When a child is encouraged with different kinds of activities it helps them to express themselves. Children are usually very receptive to any forms of games and activities and learn quickly and feel encouraged. These activities also help them to experiment with different playing equipments which may also help to bloom up their personality. For instance using of painting utensils encourages the child to use fingers, thumbs, hands and develops their fine motor skills and brings in them some innovative ideas. When a child is participating in a musical activity by singing, dancing, clapping and playing instruments he or she is developing a sense of music along with that they are coordinating their hands, feet. It promotes experimenting their ideas and feelings which in turn helps to develop or boost their confidence. Hence, it can be concluded that a child's development gets a boost and encouragement through various activities, games and play.

Transition is defined as any significant period in the life or experience of a child or young person that can affect their behaviour and development. Transitions can occur different times and any time throughout an individual's life. Transition starts at a very young age of a child and passes through various forms of transitions. These can be as follows:

Emotional - affected by personal experiences like happiness, bereavement.

Physical - affected due to moving into new home, new place (town, country) and/or new school.

Intellectual - affected due to progress from nursery to infant schools or infant to junior schools.

Physiological - affected due to adolescence or puberty.

Transitions can bring a positive and also negative experience in the lives of children and young people. We do need to support a child or young people to manage transitions in their lives by sharing a good positive relationship with them.

Positive relationships are very important for our well being. Human beings are social animals, so to develop a good relationship is an extremely important step on the path to get the best out of his/her life. Being a social animal we have a natural urge to connect with other people and to belong to a social group.

The sense of getting into or belong to a group, leads one to form a good relationship with the people around them in their families, at work or school and also with their friends. The quality of relationships that one has with children and young people plays a huge effect on the way in which one works with them. Positive relationship with children and young people are important because a child can participate in a play activity or learning when he is emotionally secured and can be a very confident person in future.

When a child has a strong positive relationship, they are less likely to show unwanted disruptive behaviour. Children's developmental needs and interests become easier to plan accurately if we have a positive relationship with a child. Each child or individual is different and so, there is a need to adopt a unique way in which we could approach and communicate with them according to their age, needs and personality.

Every school produce a range of policies to set out the guidelines and procedures to promote equality and value diversity. Policies should include the values and practice which are part of all aspects of school life and not limited by the learning and teaching within the classrooms. Everyone working with children and in school should gain an understanding of relevant legislations and their purposes. It is important to understand the legal duties of the school. This will help one to understand their own role and responsibility to comply with the legislation and policy.

The rights of all children and young people are stated in the United Nation's Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989). The UK government ratified the treaty in 1991 and must ensure that the rights of children in the UK are protected through law. These rights are extensive and include the right to education for children and respect of their views. The following lists of relevant legislation, which forms a basis for government statutory codes of practice and frameworks and school policies and procedures relating to equal opportunity and inclusive practice.

Disability Discrimination Act 1995

Protects the rights of all those with disabilities. It also places a duty on schools (and other organisations) to eliminate barriers to ensure that individuals can gain equal access to services.

Disability Discrimination Act 2005

Places a duty for schools to produce a Disability Equality Scheme (DES) and an Access Plan. Schools must encourage participation in all aspects of school life and eliminate harassment and unlawful discrimination

Special Educational Needs and Disability Act 2001

Makes it unlawful for educational providers to discriminate against pupils with a special educational need or a disability

Race Relations (Amendment) Act 2000

Outlines the duty of organisations to promote good relationships between people from different races.

Human Rights Act 1998

Sets out rights of all individuals and allows them to take action against authorities when their rights have been affected

Children Act 1989

Sets out the duty of local authorities (including schools) to provide services according to the needs of children and to ensure their safety and welfare

Children Act 2004

Sets out the duty to provide effective and accessible services for all children so that every child can achieve the five outcomes set out in the 'Every Child Matters' green paper:

Be healthy

Stay safe

Enjoy and achieve

Make a positive contribution

Achieve economic well-being

Education Act 1996

Sets out the school's responsibilities towards children with special educational needs. The Act also requires schools to provide additional resources, equipment and / or additional support to meet their needs.

Equality Act 2010

Sets out the legal responsibilities of public bodies, including schools, to provide equality of opportunity for all citizens. This brings together nine equality laws.

To support schools in their duty to implement this legislation there are a number of statutory frameworks, codes of practice and guidelines, some of which are listed as follows.

The Special Educational Needs Code of Practice 2001

This outlines the statutory guidance for policy and the procedures and responsibilities towards children with special educational needs. It includes the levels of support which should be provided to children, depending upon their individual need.

Removing Barriers to Achievement: The government's strategy for SEN (2004)

This provides a framework for schools to remove barriers and raise achievement of children with special educational needs and disabilities.

Code of Practice on the duty to promote race equality (2002)

This is a statutory code which supports public authorities (including schools) to meet their duty set out in the Race Relations (amendment) Act. It requires all schools to produce a written race equality policy which includes information on practical ways in which schools will work to promote race equality. School policies must demonstrate that they are working towards the following outcomes of:

reducing the gap of educational achievement between different ethnic groups

improving relationships between different racial groups

improving the behaviour of pupils

promoting greater involvement of parents and the community

ensuring that staff working in the school reflect cultural diversity of society

an admissions policy which does not discriminate.

The policy must also include the strategies that will be used to monitor the difference that policy makers to individuals and the school.

Removing barriers to achievement: the government's strategy for SEN (2004)

This document sets out the government's vision for the education of children with special educational needs (SEN) and/or disabilities. The principles included are the need for:

early intervention

removal of barriers

raising achievement

delivery of improvements through partnerships across services.

Disability Equality Scheme and Access Plan

The Disability Discrimination Act 2005 builds on the 1995 Act by requiring all schools to produce a Disability Equality Scheme (DES). The DES must set out ways that schools promote equality of opportunity and promote positive attitudes towards pupils, staff and others with disabilities. In addition there must also be an Access Plan. This plan must identify how discriminatory barriers are removed. For example:

an improvement to the physical environment, such as ramps, lifts, room layout, lighting

providing information in different ways for children with a disability, such as audio, pictorial, larger print.

School policies

Most schools have their own policies towards inclusion and equal opportunity. These provide guidance for staff and visitors and aimed at reflecting the responsibilities of all those working in the school. Usually the policies include the following to ensure inclusion and equal opportunity:

cultural diversity

equal opportunity

safeguarding children

special educational needs

disability and access.

Policies are developed in response to legislation, codes of practice and statutory frameworks. The policies must include the different ways in which schools promote the rights and equality of opportunity for children and young people. Schools should monitor the strengths and any weaknesses in policy and amend as applicable.

Legislation is frequently amended in response to outcomes, so it is important that the practitioners are familiar with up-to-date policies and procedures within their own work environment. Hence, the development of legislation, policies and practice should be considered as a cyclic / dynamic process.

All children have the right to access a broad and balanced curriculum irrespective of their background, race, culture, gender, additional need or disability.

Participation of all children and young people always help in raising achievement and promote good relationships. Hence, it is always useful to promote the policies on inclusion and equality of opportunity.

Raising achievement

Promoting equality of access to the curriculum will maximise the personal achievement of children and young people. Equal opportunity not only means treating pupils the same, but also ensuring that the curriculum meets the individual needs of all pupils. This involves understanding the obstacle such that intervention strategies, such as additional support, can be put into place at an early stage before any children fall too far behind. Hence, high expectations from all children are fundamental to raise their levels of achievement.

Improving participation

Participation involves everyone within the school and should provide opportunities to talk to children and their parents about all aspects of the school and the curriculum. This may include the development and the review of school policies. Participation can be achieved formally through student councils and parents' meetings. Also, children and young people can be asked to express about their ideas on how they learn best, what works for them and what could be improved.

Developing a sense of identity

Schools must recognise and support all pupils' access to everything that is happening in the school. This will promote a sense of belonging and self-esteem. Children and young people feel valued for who they are and their contributions, when they are able to participate fully. Children and young people must also have the opportunity to become independent learners. Children feel to be more motivated and achieve their full potential when they are able to make own choices and have control of their own learning. This gives children a feeling of self-worth and well-being.

Culture refers to a shared way of life of a particular group of people or community or nation. It includes shared customs, beliefs, thoughts, arts, language, music and social activity or ritual. Culture gives groups of people in our society their identity. Recognising and promoting the cultural diversity of individuals and groups within the school will enrich learning and promote the knowledge and understanding of all pupils. Learning about other culture also allows kids to derive a deeper interest in their own culture. Having people belonging to diverse backgrounds, nations and races is always advantageous to organisations belonging to different sectors of the economy. Talking from the educational point of view, diversity in terms of nationality of students and subjects taught can improve the educational system.

Where cultural diversity is only recognised through posters, or at only particular times of the year through festivals, it could be viewed only as a symbolic effort. Promoting an understanding of cultural diversity will help to prevent stereotyping and reduce prejudice and discrimination.

It is important to understand the cultural diversity of the pupils within the school. One will then be able to help pupils to make sense of their learning by making connections to their own lives. The role may include providing pastoral support to individual children. Understanding and taking account of their background and culture is essential for one to build effective relationships and provide support.

One may work with children whose home language is not English, particularly if the person him/herself is bilingual. It is important to celebrate the bilingual or multilingual skills of pupils. Schools need to ensure inclusive practice and provide additional support for those children with non-english first language to improve on their English.

The diversity in cultures in our society should be recognised and to be imparted and taught to children at an early age. Incorporating music, foods, stories and drama from a range of cultures will contribute to a rich curriculum. Early days are good time for a child to know about different types of culture and how they vary. This will help them to appreciate that how different ways are adopted by different cultures to meet the same basic requirements. Children can learn and gladly accept to the various forms of styles in art, craft, music and dance associated with various cultures. However, it is also important to establish a sense of pride in every child's own culture. So, it is important to impart to all children that everyone should values of different cultures and understand their own culture at the same time.

Prejudice and discrimination can only have negative effects on children and young people. People working in schools should be aware that children can experience prejudice and discrimination. Lack of knowledge and understanding of diversity is the reason behind prejudice and discrimination. It is widely accepted that discrimination is the action, while prejudice is the thought. 

Prejudice is picked up by a child at a very young age from parents, other children and people. By about 4 years of age, children are aware of differences among people, primarily in characteristics like appearance, language and names, but later they are aware of religious and cultural distinctions also. Children begin to define and identify themselves through their understanding of these personal differences. Sometimes with their little understanding they try to label about others. This sort of things results into twisted views of the youngsters, and they may start to deny and overlook the common, universal human elements and traits that would bring people together. As a result, intolerance may develop in place of friendship.

When people demonstrate prejudice, they can even go on to label children. A label may be given to an individual or group. It happens when a particular characteristic or label is given as a result of prejudices. For example, a group of children who receive additional support with numeracy or reading may be labelled as the 'slow' group. Boys may be expected to be active and girls are calm and quiet. Prejudice and labelling can often lead to discrimination.

Discrimination means when children do not receive equality of opportunity. Some individuals or groups are more likely to experience discrimination. This may happen because of their race, culture, social background, sexual orientation, special educational needs or disability.

Discrimination affect adversely the academic progress of a child and can also affect their overall health and psychology. Hence the following experience can result from continual discrimination:

loss of self-esteem, self value and confidence

disempowerment

confusion

anger

lack of motivation

depression

fear of rejection

isolated and withdrawn

feel stressed to cope

Discrimination among children has a profound negative impact on their self-esteem and self-worth. They tend to suffer from inferiority complex and keep themselves aloof of the people around them. Prejudice and discrimination can undermine the self-esteem and self-confidence of those being ridiculed and make them feel terrible, unaccepted and unworthy.  They often spend their time alone and becoming shy and introvert. They prefer to opt out from any participation. They are hesitant to respond in a classroom discussion or activity as they are afraid to commit mistakes. They start to lose confidence and goes for a preconceived idea that they will be wrong and their repetitive mistakes will result in insult and further discrimination.

People working in the school have a legal duty to protect the rights of children and young people. Hence, it is important that one examines his/her own attitudes and values critically and to consider how these may impact on the way one work with children.

An individual's background, upbringing and experiences can have an effect on attitudes towards individuals and groups, so it is important to recognise these. Personal prejudices may lead to discriminatory practice. However, this can be overcome through developing an understanding of diverse groups in society and children and young people attending the school from different groups. One can overcome these by finding out about the different religious beliefs and cultures of the children they are working with and by knowing about any special educational needs or disabilities. It is important that one shouldn't make assumptions about children and young people. It is then important to find out about their backgrounds, interests, abilities and individual needs. This will help to provide more effective, appropriate and personalised support to the children and young people.

Hence, the following attitudes and behaviour of all individuals dealing with children and young people in the school should have a positive impact:

Avoiding prejudices and fixed expectations and promoting positive values and attitudes;

Learning about the different groups represented in the school community and use knowledge of diversity to facilitate the services provided;

Understanding how difference influence learning and behaviour of students, families, teachers, and oneself;

Engage in critical reflection to identify one's own biases and ensure that these biases do not negatively affect students and families;

Consulting with families, community members, teachers, and staff to understand more clearly student and population needs;

Working to establish positive, productive relationships with students, families, and colleagues from all backgrounds;

One should constantly evaluate and monitor one's own practice.

Discrimination is defined as the unjust or prejudicial treatment of different types of people on the grounds of caste, creed, race, age or gender. Discrimination always have negative effects on children and young people and often lead to low self esteem, disempowerment, confusion, anger, lack of motivation. It is essential to promote anti-discriminatory practice since it is not always so straight forward to prove discrimination.

Best practice checklists for promoting anti-discriminatory practice are as follows:

Be a good role model and be positive in demonstrating activities and behaviour to support anti-discriminatory practice.

Appreciate and promote diversity and individuality of children and young people by acknowledging their positive attributes and abilities.

Listen to and involve children and young people in the delivery of services, and respond to their concerns.

Recognise that the child or young person is at the centre of the learning by treating each one as an individual.

Have realistic but the highest expectations of all children and young people.

Support a positive ethos within the school.

Give pupils the confidence and skills to challenge prejudice or racist behaviour of others and also to give support and encouragement when they experience discrimination.

Recognise and question anti-discriminatory practice.

Children should be talked about prejudice and discrimination and let them to think the impact of it when it is applied on to others.

It is also about creating a secure, accepting, collaborating, stimulating school community in which everyone is valued and all pupils can achieve at their best. Inclusion should pass through all school policies so that they increase learning and participation for pupils, and every member of school staff, through their practice, behaviour should reflect the inclusive culture and policy of the school. The promotion of anti-discriminatory practice should emphasise all work in schools. It is not sufficient to have policies in place which make statements about anti-discriminatory practice or just to pay lip service to it. One must demonstrate anti-discriminatory practice. While working with children and young people, one must implement the ways that has positive practice and impacts on the education and well-being of the children and young people. As a member of the school team, one shall share responsibility to ensure that anti-discriminatory practice is promoted. One must also recognise when discrimination is happening.

Anti-discriminatory practice can be developed by promoting the following:

Diversity and the valuing of difference - One need to promote and value differences in identities, cultures, faiths, abilities and social practices

Self-esteem and positive identity - One will recognise the effect of discrimination and inequality on pupils and staff. One will identify and remove practices and procedures that discriminate

Fulfilment of individual potential - One need to value pupils, staff and other adults for their individuality and ensure a sense of belonging that promotes self-esteem. It will respect where pupils come from, what they bring to learning and what they achieve

Full participation of all groups - One would adopt practices that lay the foundations of a more just and equitable society.

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