Collecting Theories About Motivation And Attitudes Education Essay

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In this study, the researcher finds and collects theories about motivation and attitudes from many sources such as libraries, textbooks, graduate research, theses, Thai and foreign websites, and journals. They can be categorized into five categories as follows:

2.1 Background and rationale of the Thai subject

2.2 Theory of Motivation

2.3 Theory of Attitude

2.4 Some problems about learning and teaching Thai as L1

2.5 Related research

2.1 Background and rationale of the Thai subject

Rattana Lucharit (2546) indicates that the Thai subject began in the Sukhothai period. It was one of four parts of the education system; learning about morals and virtue, learning about physical education (for males only), learning about house-work (for females); and learning about general knowledge. (some foreign languages and also Thai)

The old way of Thai language education is not standardized. Even standard textbooks were not provided for students as learning media. Teachers would create textbooks themselves.

In the Ayutthaya period, King Narai the Great realized the importance of education. He ordered Pra-Horatibodee to write the first Thai textbook called "Jin Da Ma Nee". This textbook was used for learning Thai. Students started with reading practice, remembering final consonants, and meaning of words until they can compose a poem by themselves. As this textbook brought difficulties to students in learning; Jin Da Ma Nee was only used from the Ayutthaya period until the early Rattanakosin period. Suriya Rattanakul (2540: 11) states that 'Jin Da Ma Nee' is the oldest Thai textbook of Thailand.

After that, many Thai textbooks were written to teach Thai students. Nowadays, the Thai subject is also part of the curriculum of the Ministry of Education. Rattana Lucharit (2546: 184) states that the objectives of Thai learning and teaching are as follows:

- To develop Thai language in four skills; listening, speaking, reading and

writing.

- To understand the basics of the Thai language.

- To use the Thai language for listening and communicating accurately.

- To use the Thai language appropriately.

- To persuade Thai students about reading habits.

- To use the Thai language for making decisions.

- To obtain a good attitude towards the Thai language and Thai literature learning in the context of Thai culture.

Recently, The Ministry of Education realized the importance of the Thai subject, so it announced the Development of Quality in Thai Teaching and Thai Using Scheme. Janjira Parethongkam (2549: 342) states that there are seven policies as follows :

- To develop Thai teaching and learning in schools so students can fully learn, both Thai language and Thai literature. Moreover, students have good reading/writing habits, exploring new knowledge and improving wisdom that correlates with Thai society and Thai culture.

- To support and develop Thai teachers, other staffs, and administrators realizing the importance of the Thai subject and also being a good model for students in using Thai language accurately. Accordingly, Thai teachers should often learn new teaching methods.

- The Institute of Thai Teachers' Production chooses people who would like to build their career as Thai teachers, and supports them to become specialist in the Thai language. Consequently, they will become a qualified Thai teacher in the future.

- To develop Thai teaching aids and other teaching media used to help students in their learning process. Enough teaching aids and media should be widely distributed and their price should be reduced so that more schools will be able to afford teaching resources.

- To support classroom research, Thai teaching and learning innovation for designing good-quality teaching and learning.

- To give people an opportunity to learning the Thai language and use the Thai language accurately.

- To cooperate with every parts of society to support students and Thai people. There are four objectives as follows:

To develop students knowledge of Thai.

To develop the knowledge of Thai teachers.

To make teachers realize the importance of the Thai language.

To raise their concern in sustainable development of teaching and learning Thai.

All of the details above illustrate the importance of the Thai language. Furthermore, the Ministry of Education continually develops the Thai subject by announcing new schemes regarding Thai education. In contrast, learning and teaching Thai in the curriculum and in the classroom does not follow the scheme. This might be because Thai teachers, students or other administrators do not realize the important of our first language enough.

To survey students' motivation and attitudes towards the Thai subject is the first step to develop the Thai subject curriculum in the future. If this study can identify what are factors influencing motivation and attitudes towards the Thai subject, Thai teachers will then be able to utilize the research results to improve their teaching methods.

2.2 Theory of Motivation

Regarding the theory of motivation, there are some issues concerning motivation and learning motivation that stated as follows:

The definitions of motivation.

Learning motivation.

Understanding human motivation.

Promoting academic motivation.

The definitions of motivation

Many psychologists and academics gave their definitions of motivation as follows:

McClelland, Atkinson, Clark, and Lowell (1953:28ff cited in Russell, William and Robert, 1984:243) say motivation may be defined as the "red integration of a change in affect by a cue."

Jones (1955: vii cited in Weiner, 1992:2) say motivation has to do with why behavior gets started, is energized, is sustained, is directed, is stopped, and what kind of subjective reaction is presented in the organism when all this is going on.

Young (1961: 24 cited in Weiner, 1992:1) defines the study of motivation broadly as a research for determinants (all determinants) of human and animal activity.

Frymier (1974:6) indicates that motivation is related to man's inner impulses and is closely associated with his values. Motivation gives direction and intensity to man's behavior. It significantly affects his abilities and his achievement.

Buck (1976:5) says that traditionally, motivation has been defined as the control of behavior; that is, the process by which behavior is activated and directed toward some definable goal. The specific nature of the control varies widely according to the behavior. Thus the control mechanisms involved in simple reflexes, in eating and drinking, in attachment and aggression, and in curiosity and exploration, are quite different from one another.

Gardner (1985:10) says that motivation refers to the combination of effort plus desire to achieve the goal of learning the language plus favourable attitudes toward learning the language.

William (1988:1) talks about motivation in learning that it is a moment-to-moment process that must be recognized as such. New insights and ideas that assist teachers in motivating students to learn must be continually available, because the ultimate daily responsibility for student motivation rests with them. Teachers and school administrators must consciously strive to provide an enhancing environment while helping each student learns how to succeed academically.

Weiner (1992:1) gives his opinion that the most encompassing definition of motivation is concern about why human and subhuman organisms think and behave as they do.

In conclusion, the concept of motivation is about a mental state or feeling that affects human behavior. It is what we use when we describe the forces acting on or within an organism to initiate and direct behavior. The concept of motivation is also used to explain differences in the intensity of behavior. More intense behaviors are considered to be the result of higher levels of motivation. Additionally, we often use the concept of motivation to indicate the direction of behavior. As for this study, William's concept of motivation in learning is used for determine students' learning motivation.

Learning Motivation

Learning motivation is based on the idea as Gardner (1985: 10) mentioned that "the extent to which the individual works or strives to learn the language because of a desire to do so and the satisfaction experienced in this activity". There are many views about motivation in learning. William (1988:2) mentions that "once you motivate a student, that student is set for life". In the same way, once any given student has been motivated to do something, he/she would keep doing that thing for the rest of their life. Motivation is a day-to-day and moment-to-moment commitment. It requires a variety of supportive skills and strategies. If students are ready to learn, they will. If not, they won't, and nobody can force them (Gardner, 1985:10; William,1988:5). Encouraging students' interests and involvement through a supportive approach, sincere concern, and attention can inspire students' motivation.

Furthermore, some efficient ways to motivate students is to let them listen to a speaker who can motivate students. Long-lasting motivation must be more than fleeting attempts to inspire students. Motivation is best sustained through a mutually developed plans and progress monitoring and evaluation.

Besides that, William (1988:3) states that "attitude is 100 percent of school success". Several factors influence school success, including home influence, self-concept, confidence, basic skills, experience infer to things happened in the past, future aspirations, available assistance, reasonable chance of success given current skill levels, attention, needs, feelings, and the perceived ability to influence their destiny given their best effort.

Nevertheless, there is no magic solution to the problem of student motivation. But if teachers can motivate their students, learning will be accomplished. To know a student's motivation, the researcher has to survey and observe first. Additionally, studying and reviewing human motivation is the other way to understand a student's motivation.

Understanding Human Motivation

Chery (1992:4; Aree Panmanee 2546: 269 cited in Siripan Suwanchandee 2548:11) talks about motivation in the classroom, divided from behavior, and comments that many theorists and researchers point to two generic types of motivation: extrinsic and intrinsic.

Extrinsic motivation exists when individuals are motivated by an outcome that is external or functionally unrelated to the activity in which they are engaged. For instance, in the context of school, a student who works hard on a report because she needs an A in order to remain eligible to play softball, is extrinsically motivated to write a good report.

Alternatively, intrinsic motivation exists when someone works with an inner desire to accomplish a task successfully, whether it has some external value or not. People who are intrinsically motivated to engage in a specific activity do not have to be enticed into participating in that activity. Instead, they actively seek opportunities to participate.

These two points are very important for teachers to understand. They should know about the differences between extrinsic and intrinsic motivation in order to identify and foster their students' motivation in the classroom.

Promoting Academic Motivation

Grossnickle Don R. and Thiel William B (1988) suggest that teachers may create extrinsic motivation in order to help their students achieve in learning. Some of the following statements help teachers promote their students' motivation.

First, is setting a curriculum that is concerned with individual differences and the basic knowledge of students. It will help if they are interested in learning. Second, teachers must learn objectives and outcomes that make students realize the usefulness of study and support a good attitude towards learning. This can help students accomplish their study. Thirdly, teachers should offer opportunities to students to participate in planning lessons and ask for students' feedback. This may help encourage students.

In addition, the classroom environment should be attractive for students to learn new things, without pressure or limitation of freedom. Teachers should therefore motivate their students by using attractive media, an interesting lead to lessons, a new teaching method, or using teaching aids and appropriate textbooks.

2.3 Theory of Attitude

There are some points about theory of attitude analyzed for this study. The researcher collected the main points and gave details in each case.

The definitions of attitude

The components of attitude

Attitude measurement

Creating attitude tests

The definitions of attitude

Many psychologists and academic specialists have defined attitude as follows:

The word "Attitude" derives from the Latin word: 'Aptus'. It means 'fitness' or 'adaptedness' (Kanjana Makpoon, 2548:40)

Droba (1933) says that attitude is a mental disposition of the human individual to act for or against a definite object.

In the dictionary of psychology, Warren (1934) said that attitude is the specific mental disposition toward an incoming or arising experience, whereby that experience is modified; or, a condition of readiness for a certain type of activity.

Allport (1935: 19-20) says that attitude is a mental and neural state of readiness, organized through experience, exerting a directive or dynamic influence upon the individual's response to all objects and situations with which it is related.

Newcomb (1954: 128 cited in Wanpen, 2528:29) says that attitude is lending of mind with individual experience. They are divided into two characters. They are positive attitude and negative attitude.

Guilford (1959:223) says that attitude is a complicated emotion of people that is expressed in the way of the accepted or unaccepted, love or hate.

Vroom (1964:99 cited in Malinee, 2542:67) says that attitude and satisfaction can be used interchangeably, because those words mean the results from someone to join some situations and express positive attitude or negative attitude with it.

Thurstone (1967: 20) states that attitude is the affect for or against a psychological object.

Bem (1970: 14) says that attitude is like and dislike.

Good (1973:48) says that attitude is the readiness to express in whether way, maybe support or against in some situation with the person or anything.

Anastasi (1990:584 cited in Kanjana Makpoon, 2548:40) says that attitude means the reaction with reinforcement in like or unlike such as nation, custom, or institutes. It cannot see in directly, but it can be inferred from language and behavior

Raweewan Aungkanurakpan (2533:12) says that attitude is personal inner potential which intend to behave in the positive/ negative ways.

Aunchala Satsupap (2549:5) says that attitude is a belief in something which makes a positive reaction or negative reaction.

In conclusion, attitude means satisfaction or dissactisfaction of a person with something or someone such as places, people, things, or situations. It can be used to predict behavior in the future, because people tend to use their attitude when deciding to express their behavior. The researcher applies Thurstone's and Bem's attitude definition to this study because it is concordant with the concept of attitude components which is stated in the next issue (http://www.blurtit.com/q720160.html, retrieved on 28 March 2008; Raweewan Aungkanurakpan, 2533:12-13; Wattana Srisatwaja, 2534:26).

The components of attitude

Many psychologists, such as Rosenberk, Hovland (1960 cited in Theeraporn Uwanno,2535:2) Kretch, Prutchfield, and Pallachey (1962, cited in Raweewan Aungkanurakpan, 2533:12) and Triandis (1971 cited in Raweewan Aungkanurakpan, 2533:12), support the concept that components of attitude are three as follows:

1. Cognitive component: It is a belief and perception of a person towards something in a positive way and negative way.

2. Affective component: It is a feeling, emotion and private values that are different in each person. These make positive attitude or negative attitude.

3. Behavioral component: It is a person's readiness to respond behaviorally to the object.

According to this concept, it is believed that based on Plato's concept, namely human mind consists of three components: thought, feelings, and conation (Allport, 1985 cited in Theerapon Uwanno,2535:4).

On the other hand, recently, the concept of component of attitude which is famous supporting by Thurstone (1959, Insko 1967, Bem 1970, Fishbein & Ajzen 1975 cited in Raweewan Aungkanurakpan, 2533:13) state that attitude has only one component like or dislike feelings towards psychological objects. The researcher applies this concept to this study because many social psychologists believe that it is the most important part of attitude which can lead to understand and predict human's behaviors and they define the attitude definition as the affective component (Theerawut Akakul, 2549:8).

Attitude Measurement

Subin Yurarat (http://www.student.chula.ac.th/~43846691/attitudetheory

.doc: para 50, retrieved on 25 Feb. 2007) observes that there are many ways to measure attitude. Each way is developed by many psychologists. Some ways of measuring attitude are as follows:

At the beginning, observation is one way to measure an attitude. It uses ears and eyes to notice another person's behavior towards something, and to collect that primary data for analysis. It is divided into two types: direct observation and indirect observation (Raweewan Aungkanurakpan, 2533: 17-18). The results can indicate a person's attitude.

Moreover, interview is also an attitude measurement, where the interviewer should prepare the questions before starting the interview to get the clearest information. In some cases, however, we may not get the real information. Therefore, interview should partly used as attitude measurement, along with other methods.

Furthermore, there are some other ways to measuring attitude. Self-reporting is always designed in scales such as Thurstone scales, Lickert scales, Osgood scales, Bogardus scales, Guttman scales, and the smiling faces scales. As a projective technique, it is attitude measurement that participant have to give opinion about pictures they see. Likewise, doing psychological tasks can also measure attitude. Social psychologists believe that human behavior originates from attitudes or feelings in each person.

The last one is the physical reactions of humans, such as reactions to electric shock, checking heart beat per minute, and iris enlargement. The social psychologists say study results indicate the relationship between intensity or extremity of attitude and physical reaction. They do not talk about good or bad attitude.

Those methods are not recommended as the best way to measure attitude, as it depends on the objective of what is being measured and what results you seek. For the method that the researcher uses in this study is the observation, interviewings and self-reporting.

Creating attitude test

Jittraporn's study (2543:38 and Theerawut Akakul, 2549:56) refers to creating a Likert scale attitude test as follows:

- Considering whose attitude the researcher wants to measure, towards what, and clearly gives the definition of attitude and the objectives what the researcher wants to measure.

- Composing the obvious syntax covered in each item. The questions must ask about respondents' feelings or beliefs. Likert (1967: 90) suggests the construction a questionnaire should be as follows:

In the paragraph, it is not a fact, but it is written in the terms of feelings or intention to do something.

In the paragraph, to put both positive and negative statements equally.

In each item, it should be clear, short and easy to understand.

So the creation of an instrumental attitude test, all of the details above should be considered. This instrument will be efficient and can be used in a real situation.

For this study, the researcher adopts those methods to create a questionnaire for measuring attitude and motivation.

2.4 Some problems about learning and teaching Thai as L1

Jantarat Anansantiporn (2548) and Amara Prasitrattasin (2548) state that Thai is a language which we use to communicate in daily life, but people are not very interested in it. There are some problems about learning and teaching Thai divided into three main points. The first is Thai teachers' problems, the second one is students' problems, and the last is involved in teaching aids.

Referring to Thai teachers' attitude problem, Thai teachers do not have enough support from administrators, such as a chance to study abroad. It makes Thai teachers less enthusiastic, due to the fact that they do not see future in their career. Sometimes the personality/appearance of Thai teachers also looks uncomfortable or uneasy.

Actually, teachers think that good teaching is to help students to pass the exam. They do not teach the students to apply their knowledge to use in the real situations. Especially, the memorizing method is often used. From my experience, the students are bored and the teachers are also bored to teach, in as much as many Thai teachers at each school have a heavy workload. Therefore, they are not motivated to develop their teaching skills or new teaching methods and this reduced their teaching quality.

Thai teachers believes being a Thai teacher is not interesting for students, so it makes them less motivated in devoting their effort in teaching. Some teachers also lack Thai teaching skills. Students, therefore, may have less respect for teachers. Some of teachers ddo not practice accuracy in Thai enough, but they have to teach Thai. They think anyone can teach Thai. Other teachers do not cooperate with Thai teachers when their students use Thai incorrectly. They always think it is Thai teacher's duty to teach students how to use Thai accurately. Not only Thai teachers, but in fact all teachers should remind and correct when their students use Thai incorrectly.

Additionally, some Thai teachers have been teaching for a long time and do not want to develop their skills. Rangsan Klinkaew (2550: http://www.perfs pot.com/blog.asp?id=23CAA779-0ADF-4B2B-9D7D-BB3036156D6&BlogId=28732, retrieved on 29 March 2008) states that teachers who use the same method, makes students bored.

Furthermore, teachers do not support students in exploring their opinions, are unfriendly, and are too much reliant upon the rules since they themselves lack experience and knowledge in teaching Thai. Also, individual differences of students are not taken into account. For example, smart students can be bored and weaker students may not keep up with others.

Besides, teaching Thai is not uniform, for example, teacher A teaches Thai language skills and teacher B teaches Thai literature. In addition, in teaching Thai usage, Thai teachers do not encourage students to practice all four skills.

In terms of the testing frequency: Teachers often test at the end of school year or semester. This does not reveal the real proficiency of students.

The second issue about students' problem, in the article of Panthanee Vihokto (2538) about teaching and learning Thai problems, indicates that students have a bad attitude towards the Thai subject. They do not have responsibility. They do not have interest in learning Thai, nor do they realize its importance as they think it is their mother tongue. They do not think it is necessary to learn because they can automatically use/speak Thai. Consequently, they focus on other subjects such as Mathematics, Science, or Foreign languages.

In fact the Daily News (2550,12 November:20) points out that students' lack Thai language skills, especially writing. Maybe this is because they don't often use and practice it or they use it just only when they study at school. Nobody encourages them to correct their mistakes. When they say something wrong, teachers often blame or criticize, but do not butencourage them. Moreover, students who come from a rural area and use dialect find that studying language requires efforts. Therefore, they feel that the Thai subject is too difficult. Although they work hard on learning Thai, their results are still worse than those of other subjects. These results in students being bored, lack inspiration, and ignore the Thai subject.

One of the solutions for the problem is using teaching aids. It is a tool that helps teachers to teach in a more effective way. However, there are also some problems with teaching aids which are summarized as follows:

Jantarat Anansantiporn (2548) studies about students' satisfaction of learning Thai. She states that Thai teachers don't use teaching aids properly. Though they are necessary, it is enough if they have a blackboard and chalk. When they cannot use, or do not know how to utilize, teaching aids, they simply solve this problem by not using them. They think that Thai teaching aids are not interesting compared with teaching aids of other subjects; for instance, a laboratory is more interesting than word cards because students can apply their listening and writing skills at the same time.

In fact, in wider society, the information is an importance part of thinking process. Many resources, for instance, internet, e-books, visual materials; are prompts for teachers, but indeed teachers gain the information only from textbooks (Department of Curriculum and Development: 104).

Apart from the problems already given, there are some general problems, for instance, the lack of teaching aids (Thaipost 2007, 27 July: http://www.drkalaya. com/education.php?newsid=579, retrieved on 30 March 2008; Pantanee Vihokto 2538), the lack of student rooms, noise, lack of support by administrators, and administrators do not support outside teaching, because they will have to respond to more tasks. These problems hamper efficient teaching.

2.5 Related Research

To study students' motivation and attitude towards the Thai subject, the researcher reviewed related research which supports and proves the theory of motivation and attitude. They are as follows:

About learning attitude and motivation, Rugsiri Sithdichoke (2531) studied the Relationship Between Attitude Towards Thai Subject and Achievement in Learning Thai Subject of Students in The Colleges of Physical Education. The purpose of this research is to study attitude towards the Thai subject of students in the colleges of physical education and to study the relationship between attitude towards the Thai subject and achievement in learning the Thai subject of students in the colleges of physical education. The sample group consisted of 530 students, used cluster random sampling from the colleges of physical education. The questionnaires about Attitude towards Thai Subject Test, Thai Grammar Test, and Thai Literature Test are the instruments. The results show that the students in the colleges of physical education had positive attitudes towards Thai Subject.

Moreover, Rattana Thinklao (2533) studies of Thai teachers' teaching behaviors, attitudes towards supervision, and the academic achievement of the students instructed by the teacher who were supervised in peer clinical and peer concentional supervision in Cholburi secondary school. The sample group is 18 Thai teachers and 564 students from Matthayom Suksa 3, divided into 2 groups: an experimental group (9 Thai teachers and 290 students) and a control group (9 Thai teachers and 274 students).The instrumental research is by questionnaire and observation. The results show that Thai teachers' behavior in the experiment group has higher than the control group. Students' achievements in experiment group and control group had no difference.

In addition, Khachornsri Jatikananda (2533) studies of the relationship between learning achievement and attitudes towards the methods of teaching Thai language of Matthayom Suksa 2 students through mini-course and the teacher's manual of the educational techniques department. The sample group is 80 students at the secondary demonstration school of Srinakaharinwirot University in Bangkok, is divided into two groups of 40 students each. The experimental group is taught by mini-course and the control group is taught by using teacher's manual. The result shows that the experimental group has higher learning achievement than the control group but the attitude of students between the experimental group and the control group are not different.

Besides, Jittraporn Duangjumpol (2543) studies the effects of using reading workshop instruction process on Thai language reading comprehension ability and attitudes towards reading Thai language of Mathayom Suksa two students in Bangkok Metropolis. The sample group is students in Matthayom 2, Prakanoung Pithayalai school and they are divided into two groups. One group used the normal method, and another group used the reading workshop instruction process. The results show that students who are taught by using the reading workshop instruction process have a good attitude and achieve higher score than students who are taught by using the normal method.

Likewise, Patamathida Najaikong (2544) studies about the effects of the mind-mapping and self-regulation on attitudes and Thai language learning achievement of Mathayom Suksa 1 students. The sample group is 60 students in Matthayom Suksa 1, Borployratchadapisek school, was randomly divided into four groups. Each group consists of 15 students. Group 1 is assigned to practice using mind mapping technique. Group 2 is assigned to practice using self-regulation. Group 3 is assigned to practice both of mind mapping technique and self-regulation. Group 4 studies in normal method. The results show that students who practice using the mind mapping technique and self-regulation have a good attitude towards Thai subject. Moreover, their scores are also higher than students who are taught the normal method. As for learning motivation, Chonthon Ruamtham (2533) studies Matthayom Suksa 2 student's Thai language achievement and motivation the instruction based on answer hunting activities and teacher's manual activities. The sample group consists of 100 Buddhajak Wittaya school students who are equally divided into two groups. The same content is taught to both groups for 16 periods of 50 minutes. The research design of the experiment is the pretest-posttest design. The result shows that the academic achievement of the experimental group is higher than the controlled group, but the learning motivations in Thai language of the two groups are not different.

Then, Kanchana Makpoon (2548) studies the effects of instruction using the storyline method on Thai language learning achievement and attitude towards instruction of Mathayom Suksa 2 students. The sample group consists of students in Mathayom Suksa 2, Cholburee Sukkhaboj school, is divided into two groups. Experimental group one consists of 47 students using storyline and experimental group two consists of 47 students, using the normal method. The results show that experimental group one, using the storyline method have a good attitude and achieve higher learning achievement than group two.

Similarly, foreign research about learning attitude is studied by Colin Baker (1992). He studied the attitude of the Welsh towards their language. He compared his research over the previous two years. The sample group is 11-14 years old students who studied in secondary school level 1, 2 and 3. In another research, sample group is 13-16 years old students who studied in secondary school, level 4, 5 and 6. The result shows that male's positive attitude was slightly lower than that of their female counterparts.

Some research about learning motivation are studied by Noppadol Buasai (2545) and Anchala Satsuphap (2549). They also study a comparison of Matthayom Suksa 1 and 3 students' reading performance and motivation in learning Thai by using cartoon lesson programme and the teacher's manual. In the study by Noppadol, he uses 80 students from Pasanusorn Bangkhae school as the sample group. Likewise, Anchala Satsuphap, uses 96 students from Matthayom Suksa 3 Srivikorn school. Each research also divided into two groups: an experimental group, and a controlled group. Cartoon lessons are used to teach the experimental group, whereas teachers' manual is used to teach the other one. The result of Noppadol and Anchala shows that the ability of reading performance and motivation in learning Thai between the experimental group and the control group are different, that is, students' ability of reading and motivation in learning Thai in the experimental group is higher than the control group.

Unless learning attitudes and motivation, the studies about Thai teaching and learning problems are studied by Watcharee Srikham (2535). She studies problems and teaching needs of Thai III teachers. The sample group consisting of 60 Thai teachers from Vocational and Technical College in four regions of Thailand is classified by teaching experiences. The result shows that Thai teachers need the teaching techniques and supervision at the high level. The same as Srichan Wichatong (2542) studies on the analysis of Rajabhat Phranakhon students' errors. The sample group consists of 1152 students who register in the Thai Usage course 1540201. They are assigned to write the essay within 60 minutes. The result shows that students' errors, according to the frequency of occurrence, are spelling, words usage, word order, pauses, punctuation, the use of etc., abbreviations and figures.

These are the related research on motivation and attitude of students towards language learning. However, nobody has researched the motivation and attitudes of students towards the Thai subject. Thus, the researcher thinks that my study will be the first step to help teachers and administrators develop and improve the Thai subject curriculum in the future.

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