Cognitive development took place in stages

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Together, Piaget and Vygotsky approved that children's cognitive development took place in stages. Nevertheless, they were eminent by diverse styles of philosophy. Piaget was the earliest researcher to disclose that children reason and think in a dissimilar way at dissimilar phases in their lives (LePan 1989) . He supposed that all children develop by means of four dissimilar and especially different stages of cognitive development. This study is recognized as Piaget's Stage Theory since it contracts with four stages of development that are; sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational and formal operational.

In the initial stage sensorimotor, which happens from birth till the infant is two is the period in an child's life when the child in essence deals with what is offered to him or her. The children learn about physical objects plus they are concerned with motor skills and the consequences of some of their actions. Throughout this stage children will learn the notion of 'object permanence' (Beilin 1992) . This is where an object will carry on to subsist even if it is secretly.

The preoperational phase that last from 2 to 7 years. In this stage it becomes likely to take on a discussion with a child plus they also find out to count and use the theory of numbers. This stage is separated into the preoperational phase and the intuitive phase (Flannagan 1999). Children in the preoperational phase are preoccupied with spoken ability's and try to create sense of the world except they have a greatly complicated mode of thinking than adults. In the intuitive phase the child goes away from drawing conclusions based upon real experiences with objects (Beilin 1992). One difficulty, which recognize children in this stage, is the incapability to cognitively keep relevant spatial data. This is when, when a material is manipulated and no longer matches the cognitive image that a child has made, that child believes the quantity of objects has been changed instead of just its shape.

During the Concrete Operational stage which occurs from 7 to 10, children are in education and they start to deal with nonfigurative perceptions such as numbers, relationships and how to reason. They can now cluster certain things into groups, and put things into number, size, and any other types of organized ordering. There is a form of logical way of thinking and philosophy. Using logic, the child is able of reversibility and conservation, which is the understanding of that cerebral and physical operations, can be inverted. They now start to appreciate other people's views and perceptions and are competent of concentrating on more than one thing at one time. In this phase a human being can do mental operations but only with real tangible objects, events or state of affairs and circumstances.

Last of all, in the formal operational stage, age 12 to 15, the child has develop into more adult-like in their thinking formation and processes. They begin to reason rationally, methodically and theoretically. They recognize meanings without the need for tangible objects or images. So, they can visualize things that do not subsist or that they have never experienced. This stage is usually like the previous stage but at a more complex level. The formal operational person is able of meta-cognition, that is, thinking about thinking.

Much of the dissatisfaction of Piaget's work is in regard to his research methods. A major source of inspiration for the theory was Piaget's observations of his own three children. In addition to this, the other children in Piaget's small research sample were all from well-educated professionals of high socio-economic status.

Research has disputed Piaget's disagreement that all children will routinely move to the next stage of development as they mature. Some data suggests that environmental factors may play a role in the development of formal operations.

Vygotsky, a Russian psychologist and philosopher in the 1930's, is generally frequently linked with the social constructivist theory and came into three general claims; Culture - which is that advanced psychological implementation in the individual emerged out of social processes. Secondly Language - which human social and psychological processes are basically shaped by cultural tools (Veresov 1999) . Lastly the developmental method Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) which is the concept that the potential of the child is limited to a specific time span.

Vygotsky said that it was adults and the Childs peers, which had the accountability in sharing their better combined knowledge with the younger generations. This type of learning supports a discovery model of learning and places the teacher in an dynamic role while the students' mental abilities develop naturally through various paths of discovery (LePan1989). Vygotsky argued that through social activities children learnt cultural 'tools' and social inventions. These included language, rules, counting systems, writing, art, and music.

Language for Vygotsky was a scheme of representative representation, which had been perfected over many prior generations and allowed the child to "abstract" the world. It provides the symbols for the child's equations relating to the world;

Language came into three separate categories, which were Social, Egocentric, and Inner. For Vygotsky language was what made thinking even a possibility. Language is the disparity between thinking on an elementary level and on a higher level (lee 2000).

In regards to Vygotsky's theory 'ZPD' had to do with a child's present and probable abilities to do something. He believed that analytical tasks could be placed into three groups, which were as follow: ''(a) those performed independently by the student "independent performance" (b) those that could not be performed even with help; and (c) those that fall between the two, the tasks that can be performed with help from others "assisted performance" (Veresov 1999 pg 64). Vygotsky said the concept of 'ZPD' suggested a enhanced move towards to education and allowed a healthier kind of the learning method.

Vygotsky, like Piaget, understood the relationship between the human being and the social as being a essential relational. On the other hand, Vygotsky believed that it was adults and the Childs peers, which had the duty in sharing their greater collective knowledge with the younger generations. He did not believe it was probable for a child to learn and to grow independently and the culture and the surroundings around the child played a big part in their Cognitive Development (Veresov 1999). He also believed a child was incapable to expand the way he or she had without learning from others in the environment in which they were raised. In contrast, Piaget maintained that children were unsurprisingly inquisitive about their own abilities and about their environment.

There has been frequent criticism of the distinction drawn by Vygotsky between two channels of mental development which he actually regards as intertwined, that is to say, natural spontaneous and biological development and artificial social and cultural development (Lee 2000).

In my opinion the true starting-point for any critical appraisal of Vygotsky's theory should be the absence of criticism of social and cultural institutions. Vygotsky attentive by the constructive contributions made by society and culture, never really managed to work out a critical analysis, in the modern sense, of those institutions.

A number of critics say Vygotsky overemphasized the role of language in thinking. Also, his emphasis on collaboration and guidance has potential drawbacks if facilitators are too helpful in some cases. An illustration of that would be an overbearing and controlling parent. Other critics argue that some children may become lazy and expect help when they can do something on their own.

Summing up, Vygotsky was critical of Piaget's assumption that developmental growth was independent of experience and based on a universal characteristic of stages. Vygotsky believed that characteristics did not cease at a certain point as Piaget did. When one thing was learned, it was used from then on. It did not stop just because a child entered another stage of development. Everything was progressive. Vygotsky also differed with Piaget's assumption that development could not be impeded or accelerated through instruction. Vygotsky believed that intellectual development was continually evolving without an end point and not completed in stages as Piaget theorised. Piaget's stages only approach up to, and end with, approximately age fifteen. This theory does not seem to have any major factors after approximately age fifteen.

When evaluating Piagets and Vygotsky's study on cognitive development I think there still more which we can continue to study and build on with both Piagets and Vygotsky's ideas and theories, particularly when applied in education.