Cognitive And Affective Reactions Education Essay

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Locke, 1976 define the job satisfaction as the situation in which one's needs and outcomes are match. Based on the Cranny, Smith, and Stone, 1992, job satisfaction is define as a combination of cognitive and affective reactions towards the discrepancy perceptions of the employees' needs and the actual outcome he or she receives. Furthermore, Ivancevich J, Olelans M, Matterson M, 1997 refer job satisfaction as the feeling and perception of a worker in terms of his or her work and how he or she feels about himself well in an organization. Brief, 1998 argued that job satisfaction is defined as the pleasurable emotional condition resulting from the assessment of one's job. According to Davis and Newstrom, 1999 job satisfaction is referring to an experience which involve of various aspects. The most important aspects usually are those which have the relationship with working conditions and the nature of work. Smith, 2000 refer to job satisfaction as the level of satisfaction or gratification experienced by workers with their profession. Whereas according to the Hamdia and Phadett, 2011, job satisfaction is defined as the one's feelings or state-of-mind related to the nature of their job.

Review of Job Satisfaciton

According to Smither (1994), job satisfaction is reflected by the requirements of sense of fulfillment and prospect for the job to be attractive, challenging and personally satisfying. In addition, perceived satisfaction on the job is also consider as an attainment indicator in job development tasks (Sidek, 2000) and is related with the psychological ( Limbert, 2004) and personality well-being (Nassab, 2008).

Low job satisfaction is deem as a significant indicator of counterproductive employee behavior and can lead to the behavior such as absenteeism (Spector, 1985; Martin and Miller, 1986) and turnover intentions (Spector, 1985; Dupre and Day, 2007). Consequently, with the intention to establish quality worker, workplace, and work itself, job satisfaction should be maintaining and enhancing. (Nor Liyana and Mansor, 2009).

Facet in job satisfaction

Naturally, job satisfaction is separated into intrinsic and extrinsic facets. Intrinsic factors or content factors usually associated with the nature of the job itself while extrinsic factors or context factors associated with the other aspects of the job (Gruneberg, 1979). The Facet approach is considered as a theoretical approach to learning job satisfaction which normally focuses on specific factors that are associated with the job which will contribute to the overall of job satisfaction at the end. (Smither, 1994).

Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory

There are two factors incorporated in the Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory such as hygiene factors and motivational factors. For the hygiene factors, it include salary, interpersonal relations with superior, subordinates and peers, organization policies and administration, supervision, status, job security, working conditions, and personal life. On the contrary, motivation factors include achievement, recognition for achievement, advancement, responsibility, works itself and possibility of growth (Herzberg, 1968). Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory proposes that in the presence of motivation factors, the great motivation and greater job satisfaction will be created whereas dissatisfaction often does not occur when the motivators are absence. As well as in the absence of hygiene factors, great dissatisfaction will be created while presence of hygiene factors does not lead to high levels of job satisfaction.

The Hawthone Studies

According to Wu, 2004, The Hawthone Studies is considered as a critical research and the human relations approach, which identified that promoting worker's job satisfaction results in higher productivity.

Hierarchy Needs Theory

Hierarchy needs theory is the most popular theory of motivation which introduced by Abraham Maslow. There are five categories of human needs proposed by Maslow in this theory which consist of physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization that arrange sequencing from low level of needs to high level of needs. When the lower level of needs like physiological, safety, and social cannot be gratified, an individual will be occupied and not practice high level of needs like esteem and self-actualization (Wu, 2004).

The Expectancy Theory

According to Wu, 2004, the expectancy theory is introduced by the Victor Vroom, 1964. The expectancy theory proposed that, the workers will decide to act when the worker make the expectation towards outcome based on their strength and the attraction of the outcome after the workers acting. Consequently, if the workers consider that desired outcome will be attained after working hard and when the desired outcome is attained they will be gratify a reward from their company; the workers will put effort and working hard to attain the organization's goal. Besides, if the workers consider their job as his goal and though that he has the ability to attain the goal and gain the reward after the achievement of the goal, the workers will contribute to the job and thus the job satisfaction will be increase. As well as there are four concepts which construct by the Vroom that consists of valence, expectancy, force, and instrumentality.

The Equity Theory

Based on the Wu, 2004, the equity theory is introduced by the Stacy Adam, 1965. This theory illustrate that the worker's perception of the level of equity in his or her job situation will affect the job satisfaction. The workers will be compare the ratio of outcome which they gain from their job situation that include of pay, promotion, sense of achievement, and job input of what they contribute to the jobs that consist of skills, labor, time, to that of others. The condition of equality will emerge when the ratios are equal and thus the job satisfaction will be produce. Whereas the job dissatisfaction will be produce when the equality does not emerge and the unfair situation was resulting.

The Discrepancy Theory

The discrepancy theory (Locke, 1969), stated that job satisfaction is resulted in term of the distinction between the actual incomes which gain by the workers and the desired incomes that the workers consider they should gain. If the amount of the actual incomes is higher than or equal to the desired incomes, workers will feel satisfy with their job. Whereas workers will feel dissatisfy with their job when the actual incomes lower than the desired outcomes.

2) Pay and Benefit

According to Hamdia and Phadett, 2011, pay practice is define as one of the human resources management practice which usually including pay, wage, salary and benefit and so forth.

Based on the research of Y. Kathawala, M. Kevin, and E. Dean, 1990, it stated that salary was the primary factor that will influence the job satisfaction among employees of the automobile industry. The finding of this research indicates that the compensation was in the place of number one job element for job satisfaction.

As the studied by Ting, 1997, this study affirms the important of pay is greatly determined of job satisfaction. Furthermore, this study has been determined two kinds of pay practice which will influence on the job satisfaction; satisfaction with the pay itself and satisfaction with financial prospect in the future. As well as the study of Hamdia and Phadett, 2011 indicate that pay practice has the relationship with the job satisfaction.

Steijin, 2002 assessed the relationship between the job satisfaction and pay of Dutch public workers. The finding of this study determines that there is positive correlation between human resource management practice such as pay practice and job satisfaction.

In addition, Bradley, Petrescu, and Simmons, 2004 examine the influence of human resource management practices and pay inequality on the worker's job satisfaction. The finding in this research indicates that there is positive relationship between pay practice with the job satisfaction.

Based on the research conducted by Garrido JM, Perez P, Anton C, 2005, it is focus on the factors which lead to the job satisfaction of sales managers. The result of this research indicate that human resource management practices based on the compensation type, and compensation level are the critical determinants of sales managers' job satisfaction.

According to the research which conducted by Tulin Ural, 2008 on the influence of salary and compensation over job satisfaction, the finding show that the higher the salary grants to the salespeople, the higher the job satisfaction of salespeople.

The research conducted by H.K. Ch'ng, W.K. Chong and Nakesvari, 2010 discovered a result where the salary has a significant positive relationship against the level of job satisfaction among the private college lecturers.

3) Stress

Rogers, Li and Shani, 1987 refer to stress as body response to physical and mental demands or the interaction between environmental forces and events which called stress precipitators, it emerge threatening to the person's response to the threat. Whereas Rohany, 2003 define the occupational stress as anything which has the relationship with the working environment or nature of work itself that may lead to the stress in an individual. On the other hand, Leka, Griffiths and Cox, 2004 define the occupational stress as the reaction of individual when presented with work demands and pressures that are mismatch with their knowledge and abilities and which challenge their ability to cope.

According to the Nor Liyana and Mansor, 2009, the source of occupational stress or stressor is the component which will lead to a stress reaction. Based on the research in behavioral psychology, it demonstrates that stress can either be good or be threat on individual by depending on the level of stress perceived. Occupational stress usually owns to organizational aspects, long work hours, lack of organizational support and organizational change (Davey, Obst and Sheehan, 2001), lack of support from supervisors and colleagues, and conflict with demands and pressures (Leka, et al., 2004). Moreover, occupational stress also rises from work design, job qualifications, job performance and organizational structure (Rogers, et al., 1987). As well as work overload which also contributes to the stress (Rogers, et al., 1987; Pflanz and Ogle, 2006).

Sanchez, Bray, Vincus and Bann, 2004 discover that job stress was negatively associated with job satisfaction and refer it as the significant predictor of job satisfaction.

From the previous studies such as the study conducted by Onu MO, Madukwe MC, Agwu AE, 2005 assess the factors that impact on the job satisfaction of field extension workers in Enugu State Agricultural Development Programme in Nigeria. The result from this study show that the field extension workers specified low level of job satisfaction with the job content, conditions of service and working environment, and these would be the factors that can increase the job satisfaction.

Occupational stress contributes to few negative effects such as reduce productivity, raise conflict with others and lead to physical and emotional problems (Pflanz and Ogle, 2006) and cause poor life satisfaction at the end (Pawar and Rathod, 2007). Whereas based on Nor Liyana and Mansor, 2009, high levels of work stress are related to low levels of job satisfaction.

4) Relationship

Leader

Leadership refers to the interpersonal patterns which a leader can discover the potential needs of follower and fulfilling their needs, thus affecting the followers can lead to the achievement of the goal of organization (Owens, 1991). Due to the research conducted by Smith, 2000 concerning on perceived principal behavior by teachers of elementary schools, leadership is defined as the process or activity which affecting person or group in the purpose of attaining a goal. Whereas based on the opinion of Hackman and Johnson, 2000, leadership is defined as the human communication which can alter the attitudes and behaviors of others to lead to the achievement of shared group goals and needs.

According to the research conducted by the Law, 1985, this research reviews the relationship between the perceived principal's leadership style by teachers and teacher job satisfaction. The result from this research indicates that there are significant positive relationship between principal's leadership style and teacher job satisfaction.

Chiang, 1996 studied the relationship between president leadership style and teacher job satisfaction in junior colleges in Taiwan. The result from this research indicate that the teacher job satisfaction was related to the number of leadership frames, which include structural, human source, political, and symbolic, and the president leadership style perceived by both teachers and presidents was congruent.

As the research conducted by the Cumbey and Alexander, 1998, the purpose of this research is to determine the relationship between the registered nurse job satisfaction and effective supervisory. The finding of this research indicates that there are positive relationship between effective supervisory on employee and job satisfaction.

In the studied of Bare-Oldhem, 1999, the purpose of this study is to identify perceived principal's leadership style and teacher job satisfaction. The finding of this study specify that the relationship between public school principals' consideration and initiating structure leadership style as perceived by teachers and teacher job satisfaction.

Based on the research conducted by the Zigrang, 2000, this research is designed to determine the relationship between perceived principal's leadership style by teachers and the impact of the principal's leadership style over the teacher job satisfaction. The finding from this research indicates that principal's leadership style was related to the teacher job satisfaction.

The studied conducted by the Smith, 2000 designed to assessed the perceived principal's leadership style by teachers. The finding from the research determines that the teachers who are perceived the principals as high task and high relationship are most satisfy with their jobs.

According to the research conducted by Bradley, Petrescu, and Simmons, 2004, the purpose of this research is to identify the influence of the human resource management towards job satisfaction. The result from this research indicates that there are positive relationship between supervision and job satisfaction in which the workers are favor with the closed supervision on work.

In the research conducted by Thobega, 2007, it assesses the degree of the supervision experienced by the agricultural education teachers in Iowa towards the job satisfaction. The finding of this research indicates that there is positive relationship between supervision with the job satisfaction.

According to the Wu, 2004, leadership style can be classified into several types such as trait approach, behavioral approach, situational approach, and transformational approach. Nevertheless, Seokhwa Yun, Jonathan Cox, Henry P. Sims, Jr, and Sabrina Salam, 2007 focus on the aversive leadership, directive leadership, transactional leadership, transactional leadership, transformational leadership and empowering leadership.

(Ñ-)Trait Approach

In the trait approach, leader is considers to be born naturally since they usually shared particular characteristic (Wu, 2004). According to the research of Stogdill, 1947 and 1970, the result show that personal characteristics are not the only factor affecting the leadership whereas it also influencing by the situational factors (Bass, 1990). Furthermore, he also suggest six dimensions in classify leadership which comprise of physical characteristics, social background, intelligence and ability, personality, task-related characteristics, and social characteristic (Bass, 1990). However, Stogdill also illustrate that leader's behaviors in achieving the organization's goal are more interrelated to be a successful leader than merge the traits of leader. Hence, a number of researchers focus on the leaders' behaviors.

(ii) Behavioral Approach

Behavioral theories show that successful leaders utilize a particular leadership to guide their followers and organizations (Morgan, 1984). According to Hackman and Johnson, 2000), researchers of University of Michigan introduced two leadership style which comprise of product-oriented and employee-oriented that had conflicting dimensions. Based on the Wu, 2004, researchers of Ohio State University introduced the Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire (LBDQ) to be administered in research and LBDQ consist of two dimensions of leader behavior such as initiating structure and consideration which employed to demonstrate the basic and facets of leadership skill. Besides, the two dimensions are comparative independent behavior dimensions but they can be combined when conduct the practice (Wu, 2004). As a result of the combination of the two dimensions in different intensities, four types of leadership styles are introduced which consist of high consideration and high initiating structure, high consideration and low initiating structure, low consideration and high initiating structure, and low consideration and low initiating structure (Wu, 2004). LBDQ presents an objective and reliable measurement to illustrate leader behaviors by employs the two dimensions, initiating structure and consideration (Wu, 2004).

(iii) Situational Approach

According to Wu, 2004, situational approach paid attention on the situation and environment, and the leadership behavior differs in different situations.

Based on the Fiedler's contingency theory, 1974 show that a leader need to understand the situation at the beginning that he leads and practice the most appropriate leadership with the purpose to become an effective leader. The least-preferred coworker (LPC) scale is employed by the Fiedler to determine whether the leader is task-motivated (low LPC) or relationship-motivated (high LPC). The research conducted by the Fiedler determine that people's perceptions and descriptions of their least preferred coworker specify their basic goals and priorities toward either accomplishing a task or maintaining relationships (Nahavandi, 2000).

There are three situational variables comprise in the Fiedler's contingency theory which include of position power, task structure, and leader-followers relations. These three situational variables employ to describe the leadership situations and manage the degree of the impact of leader towards followers (Wu, 2004). Fiedler confesses that leader-followers relations play the most important role among the three situational variables to resulting support and cohesion in a group (Nahavandi, 2000). Whereas, task structure regard as completion of task efficiently and assessment of task performance (Wu, 2004). Position power is the power which granted to the leader due to the position of him in the organization, it regard as the impact of the power of leader to reward or punish the followers (Wu, 2004).

According to the Wu, 2004, path goal theory claims that leaders play the important role in communicate clearly to followers of the path to the goal, and granted the rewards to the followers after accomplish the task. In the path-goal theory, there are four leader behaviors which consist of supportive leadership, directive leadership, participative leadership, and achievement-oriented leadership; the nature of the followers and task will be the most important situational variables in choosing the leadership style in the path-goal theory (Hackman and Johnson, 2000).

Situational leadership comprise of four leadership styles based on two dimensions such as degree of task and relationship behaviors, these include high task and high relationship, high task and low relationship, low task and high relationship, and low task and low relationship. (Wu, 2004) However, these four leadership styles can be the same based on the four measure items which are telling, selling, participating, and delegating (Wu, 2004). Four measure items are introduced to identify basic leadership styles by combining both job and psychological maturity. First is low job maturity and low psychological maturity, and subordinates require specific guidance (telling). Second is low job maturity and high psychological maturity, and subordinates require direct guidance (selling). Third is high job maturity and low psychological maturity, and subordinates require more to be participative (participating). While the fourth is high job maturity and high psychological maturity, and subordinates require being able to accept responsibility (delegating).

(iv) Transformational Approach

As said by Nahavandi, 2000, transformational leadership claims that a number of leaders exceed a simple exchange resources and productivity by dependent on their personal traits and their relationships with followers. Wu, 2004 show that transformational leadership paid attention on altering followers and organization, fulfilling the followers' higher level needs based on the Maslow's hierarchy needs theory, and mutual stimulus and elevation between the leader and followers.

There are four factors consist in the transformational leadership which including idealized influence, inspirational motivation, individualized consideration, and intellectual stimulation (Bass, 1985). Followers are usually recognizing the leaders as role models and deeply trust and respect their leaders (Wu, 2004). Whereas Yun et al., 2007 determine that the transformational leaders employ the behaviors such as charisma and intellectual stimulation to encourage the subordinate to perform beyond the expectations; the transformational leaders also construct a vision and induce their followers to put effort and challenge the status quo to achieve the vision. There are a lot of studies shows that the transformational leadership has a positive correlation with the job satisfaction (Bass, 1985; Hater and Bass, 1988; Howell and Frost, 1989; Koh Steers and Terborg, 1995; Ross and Offermann, 1997; Sosik, 1997). Yun et al., 2007 conducted the research which stated that there is a positive relationship between transformational leadership with the job satisfaction.

(v) Transactional Approach

Transactional leadership is usually focused on the rational exchange relationship between leader and subordinate (Bass, 1985; Howell and Costley, 2001). According to Wu, 2004, transactional leadership is introduced to satisfy followers' lower level needs based on the Maslow's hierarchy needs theory, and to request followers, by exchange of things of values with the followers' productivity and task accomplishment. There are two forms in the transactional leadership which include contingent reward and management by exception. Contingent reward refers to the exchanging things of values with followers being specified rewards. Whereas management by exception refers to the leader granted the right to the followers to perform and the leader only will interfere until there are mistakes occur. Yun et al., 2007 indicate that the transactional leadership paid attention on the constructing and clarifying of the reward contingencies for subordinate. Transactional leaders usually exchange relationship with their subordinate by negotiating and strategically providing rewards towards the attainment of the goals (Yun et al., 2007).

Based on the Adnan Riaz and Mubarak Hussain Halder, 2010, transactional leadership is defined as the centered on leader-follower exchanges. The followers execute based on the will and direction of the leaders while the leaders provide positively rewards for the followers. The rewards can be positive or negative where the negative rewards including punitive action which is grants to the followers when fail to abide by the direction of leader and positive rewards like praise and recognition is grants to followers when they abide by the intent and direction set up by the leader and attain the objectives.

(vi) Aversive Leadership

According to Yun et al., 2007, aversive method which consists of punishment, reprimand, and intimidation is used for the first type of leader influence. Aversive leadership paid attention to the followers' poor work and wrong or unacceptable behaviors. The research conducted by Yun et al., 2007 shows the finding where the aversive leadership has a negative correlation with the job satisfaction.

(vii) Directive Leadership

Howell and Costley, 2001 indicate that directive leaders illuminate followers' role and tasks and give directions. According to Yun et al., 2007, directive leaders is empowered to make decision, give directions and commands, and expect followers to perform the decisions depends on the position of the directive leaders in the organization.

(viii) Empowering Leadership

Empowering leadership is a important paradigm shift and stresses follower self-influence rather than external, top-down influence (Manz and Sims, 1990, 1991). Leaders who perform the empowering leadership consider that followers are influential sources of knowledge and direction (Yun et al., 2007). Yun et al., 2007 conducted the research which shows that the empowering leadership has a positive relationship with the job satisfaction.

5) Training

Wexley and Latham, 1981 refers to the training as a planned program that attempt to brings the changes in employee knowledge, skills, attitude, and behavior. According to Noe, Hollenbeck, Gerhart, Wright, 2006, training is defined as a planned effort which assists the learning of job-related knowledge, skill, and behavior by employee.

Based on the study performed by Blum, R., and Kaplan, J.M, 2000, it provides the evidence that positive relationship emerge between the opportunity to learn new skills and employee job satisfaction.

There are many researches that are conducted to assess the relationship between job satisfaction and training which include the research conducted by Bradley, Petrescu, and Simmons, 2004. The finding of this study indicates that conducting the on-going learning such as training in workplace has a great impact on job satisfaction and the on-going learning or training has a positive relationship with job satisfaction.

From the study of Shields and Wheatley, 2002, the study of nurses in United Kingdom shows that the shortage of job training has a significant influence on the job satisfaction.

There are several studies prove the correlation between job training and employee job satisfaction. The research conducted by Melymuka, 2004 provides the finding where job dissatisfaction is exist among information technology professionals in terms of the absence of job training which expected by the employees towards their job.

Georgellis, Y., and Lange, T., 2007 identify job training as the availability of written materials for learning, courses, participation in seminars, and conferences for the workers in the organization. Besides, they also indicate that job training is a significant predictor for employee job satisfaction.

According to the research conducted by the Tulin Ural, 2008, the purpose of the research is to find out the relationship between the job training and job satisfaction of salespeople. The result from the research indicates that the job training has a positive relationship with the salespeople's job satisfaction.

As the study conducted by Jamshed A. Halepota and Zahir Irani, 2010, the result of the study shows that the positive relationship exists between the job training and employee job satisfaction.

Subordinate

According to the study of F. Friedlander and N. Margulies, 1969, it shows the result that friendly staff relationship will influence the level of job satisfaction. From the study conducted by R.D Sharma and J. Jyoti, 2009, the finding show that the positive relationship is exist between the colleague's attitude and job satisfaction of university teachers.

Student

Based on the study of R.D Sharma and J. Jyoti, 2009, the result of the study indicates that the student's positive response has a positive relationship against the job satisfaction level of university teachers.

6) Demographic

A research is conducted by DeVaney and Chen, 2003 which indicated that demographic variables such as age, gender, race, and education have an impact on job satisfaction. For example, it shows that older workers are more probable to be satisfied than younger workers and as well as the non-white employees are more probable to be less satisfied than white employees. According to D. Mehmet, karsl, and I. Hale, 2009, a positive relationship between age, rank and length of service and job satisfaction is exists in the university teachers.

However, a study that conducted by Oshagbemi, 2003 in terms of the impact of rank, age, gender, and length of service on job satisfaction for the universities in United Kingdom. The finding of the study indicates that individual's rank among the organization is a most important predictor on job satisfaction and there is positive relationship and strong correlation between rank and job satisfaction.

As the result showed by Berns, 1989, the age of the teachers have a relationship with job satisfaction. The level of job satisfaction is rising when the age of the teacher increased. The finding from the research conducted by Bowen, C. F., Radhakrishna, R. B., & Keyser, R., 1994 indicates that there is a relationship between age and job satisfaction. The results determine that 4-H agents who are older have a higher level of job satisfaction. In addition, Nestor and Leary, 2000 also found that the relationship between age and job satisfaction is exist. The result stated that the age groups of 23 to 33 and 46 to 50 have a higher level of job satisfaction.

According to the Herzberg, Mausner, Peterson, and Capwell, 1957, the result of the research shows that male workers are more likely to be satisfied with their job than women workers, while other studies show the opposite result. Cambell A, Converse P, Rogers W, 1976 stated that the expectations between men and women are difference in terms of their job. Thus, he determined that the distinction in expectation is the reason of distinction in the level of job satisfaction between women and men. Based on the result of the study conducted by Bowen, C. F., Radhakrishna, R. B., & Keyser, R., 1994, the relationship between gender and job satisfaction is exist. They found out the female 4-H agents are more satisfied with their job than male 4-H agents. Previously, there is a lot of studies are conducted to identify the role of gender on job satisfaction. There are several studies show that women workers are more likely to satisfy with their job than men workers, while other studies prove the opposite finding (Weaver, 1974; Shaprio and Stern, 1975; Forgionne and Peters, 1982; Clark, 1997; Ward and Sloane, 1998). Moreover, few studies show that female teachers are more likely to have the higher job satisfaction than the male teachers (Ma and MacMillan, 1999; Michaelowa, 2002; Spear, Gould and Lee, 2000). On the contrary, Bishay, 1996 and Mwamwenda, 1997 indicate that female teachers have more likely less job satisfaction than male teachers.

The research conducted by Grady, 1985 shows the result that the increase of number of years of teaching will increase the level of job satisfaction as well. As the research conducted by Poppleton and Risborough, 1991, it provide the evidence where those who are service less than five years are more likely to satisfied with their job than those teaching for a period between 15 and 20 years who are least satisfied with their job. According to the research conducted by Bishay, 1996, the finding of the research stated that there is a positive correlation between length of service and job satisfaction of teachers. In contrast, Gosnell, 2000 showed that there is a negative relationship between length of service and job satisfaction of teachers. Nestor and Leary, 2000 found out the increase in years of experience of Extension faculty member will lead to the increase in overall job satisfaction as well. A study that conducted by Oshagbemi, 2003 as shows the finding where the length of service is important on job satisfaction and there is negative correlation between length of service and job satisfaction. Meagan Scott, Kirk A. Swortzel, and Walter N. Taylor, 2005 indicate that workers possess a high morale at the beginning of their service while will decrease at the first year and remains in a low level for a period. Therefore, the increase of length of service will lead to the rising in the level of job satisfaction.

Based on several studies, the findings of these studies suggest that better qualified teachers are more likely to be less satisfied with their job than low qualified teachers (Schlechty and Vance, 1983; Darling-Hammond, 1984). Furthermore, Gosmell, 2000; Michaelowa, 2002 and Sargent and Hannum, 2003 indicated that a negative correlation exist between teachers' academic attainments and teachers' job satisfaction.

Besides, the research conducted by Herzberg et al., 1957 concluded the result where the education level will influence the level of job satisfaction. The higher the education level, the higher the level of job satisfaction, whereas other studies have the opposite result. Similarly, Berns, 1989 found out that there is a relationship between education level and job satisfaction among teachers. From the study, it shows that teacher who holds a master' degree was more likely to be satisfied with his or her position in teaching than a teacher who holds a bachelor's degree. According to the result of the study conducted by Andrews, 1990, it indicates that the relationship between education level and job satisfaction is emerge.

The marital status has the relationship with job satisfaction for 4-H agents based on the research conducted by Bowen et al., 1994, who discovered the married 4-H agents are more likely to have a higher level of job satisfaction as compared with those who are single. Similarly, Fetsch and Kennington, 1997 discovered a relationship between marital status and job satisfaction is exists. The married agents are more likely to have a higher job satisfaction than those agents who are never married, remarried, or widowed.

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