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The purpose of this assignment is to develop coding and data analysis procedures relevant to managing data from our qualitative interviews. This interview was designed to explore opinions and feelings about experiences as a supplemental education services tutor for students with disabilities. The interview instrument was developed to collect reliable data from informants on the opinions and experience as a supplemental education services tutor. The interview questions were designed specifically to answer the research question. The interview questions and answers have been grouped into three specific themes. The coding system was design with explicit themes in mind.
Rubin & Rubin (2005) discuss the procedure of breaking down comments from an interview into segments of information to be examined together, these segments of information they call data units.
Rubin & Rubin (2005) describe a code as a label you use for each concept, theme or event. They state that you would not want to code for every item but you would code for the most important items to understand your research.
Rubin & Rubin (2005) describe themes as summary statements and explanations of what is going on. Rubin, & Rubin (2005) stated that after you determine your themes you begin to code them by coming up with a brief label to designate each theme and then mark in the interview text where the themes events occur.
Rubin & Rubin (2005) stated it is important to look for individual concepts, themes, events that speak to your research question and to place an appropriate chosen labels next to each data unit to allow you to retrieve the coded item.
What are the perceived challenges for tutoring students with disabilities in SES programs?
SES Tutor Interview
1.) Please begin by telling me a little about your education and experiences as a tutor?
Probing/ Follow up Questions:
How did your past work experience and education prepare you for tutoring students with disabilities?
2.) Please describe the training your were given by the supplemental education services provider on how to accommodate supplemental education services lessons and service plans to students with disabilities?
Probing/ Follow up Questions:
How many hours or weeks of training were you given?
3.) How was the school involved in the development of the Individual Learning Plan for students with disabilities in the SES program?"
Probing/ Follow up Questions:
Who was directly involved with the process? (Ex. classroom teacher, SES Coordinator)
How were you able to guarantee students IEP were in close alignment with the student individual learning plans?
4.) What concerns you the most about being a supplemental education services tutor and working with students with disabilities?
5.) Do you have any other comments you would like to make pertaining to tutoring and supplemental education services?
Interview guide: This interview instrument was developed to collect reliable data from informants on the opinions and experience of supplemental education services tutors. Data from the interviews were used to identify educators' opinions regarding supplemental education program tutoring and students with disabilities. This material from this interview will be used to assist in the development of (SES) supplemental education services tutor staff support and training activities.
Interview assessment guide: This interview is designed to explore opinions and feelings about experiences as a supplemental education services tutor for students with disabilities. For example, the instrument allowed the researcher to gauge the extent to which the tutors were knowledgeable about working with students with disabilities and about supplemental education services programs. This in-depth interview was designed to better understand the challenges tutors face when working with students with disabilities in supplemental education services programs.
The SES providers were selected from a list of 84 providers on the Virginia Department of Education Web Site who service K-5th grade Reading and Math students with disabilities.
Phone conversations with other SES providers in an effort to schedule an interview:
SES Provider Tutoring Service Manager 1:
SES manager- "We do not keep track of the students with disabilities in our program. I do not know who the teachers are they worked with the students with disabilities in our program." tut.qual
SES Provider Tutoring Service Manager 2:
SES Manager -"We do mostly groups of 5 to 1 tutor/ teacher or 8 to one tutor/ teacher so we do not usually work with students with disabilities because many times they need one to one service. I looked and we did not service any students with disabilities last year. Maybe try some web based service they do one on one." serv.ratio
SES Provider Tutoring Service Manager 3:
SES Manager- "I would not like for you to speak to my tutors but I will speak to you."
I- I would rather speak to a tutor.
"We have had difficulties with serving students with disabilities many times we do not get the IEP until after the assessment has been completed and we have already started working with the students." teach.iep, serv.pre.post.accom
"On one occasion we had a student that was deaf and the school system refused to provide a sign language interpreter for her but I found someone who knows sign language." teah.coop
"We have had a lot of difficulty with the school system, and I did not understand why we are all supposed to be working together in this." "The teachers are so territorial"
SES Manager- You can call me later this week here is my cell phone number
I- Thank you but I need to ask the questions in person
SES Manager: I am sorry I have court this week.
Amy S. (Tutor /Director) 8/26/Time 2:00pm
Interview Virginia SES provider (Tutor /Director Interview)
SES Tutor/Director Interview
Theme One: Qualifications of Tutors in Virginia Supplemental Education Services Programs
tut.qual: Tutor qualifications vary for students with disabilities.
tut.train: Training essential to provide quality instruction for students with
tut.trained.sped: Trained Special Education staff or tutors are needed to guarantee
students' (ILP) individual learning plans are in close alignment with
the student (IEP) Individualized Education Plan and provide quality
instruction for your students with disabilities.
I- Please begin by telling me a little about your education and experiences as a tutor?
T- I was a school teacher in the public school system for eight (8) years and then switched over to the private sector with a tutoring company and worked for them for eight (8) additional years. I started doing (SES) supplemental education services tutoring two years ago and began implementing that working with that for two years.
I- Do you, your education and experience you said, do you have a license.
T- Yes, I have a certified teaching license. That's correct.
I - How did your past work experience and education prepare you for tutoring students with disabilities?
T- Actually, it was really great because having been a classroom teacher I recognize the challenges that classroom teachers face and recognize that the (SES) supplemental education services programs are design to target, number one students that have needs that are not being met because of financial hindrances in terms of receiving additional tutoring maybe and also students that always don't do well in a large group classroom setting to give them a tutoring opportunity so that they can get more direct instruction and one on one attention.
I- As far as your education and experiences have you worked with students with disabilities are you a special education teacher?
T- No, I am not a special education teacher. I am a regular education teacher but I have worked with inclusion but I have had students that have worked within the classroom with a special education teacher working alongside. tut.trained.sped
I- Please describe the training your were given by the supplemental education services provider on how to accommodate supplemental education services lessons and service plans to students with disabilities?
T-None. Our lesson plans are the same regardless of students abilities so we don't have any distinction between students and often times our tutors don't know if the student has an active IEP ( Individual Education Plan) or not. They only know that they qualify for the tutoring services because of the financial need and free and reduced lunch. tut.train
Theme Two: Guarantee students' (ILP) individual learning plans are in close alignment with the student (IEP) Individualized Education Plan or students Individual Services 504 Plan.
stu.accom: The ability to accommodated students with disabilities on pre and post test
and in lessons consistent with their IEP or Individualized plan or
Individualized Services Section 504 Rehabilitation Act.
stu.needs: The SES provider/tutors ability to develop instructional plans that are geared to
the needs of the students with disabilities and IEP.
teah.coop: School teachers cooperate and were involved with supplemental lessons of
students with disabilities.
teach.iep: School teachers share IEP data in the development of SES learning plans.
sch.coop.iep: The SES provider works with principals, teachers, and parents as needed to
develop instructional plans that are geared to the needs of the students with
disabilities and IEP.
sch.state: The SES provider works with principals, teachers, and parents as needed to
develop instructional plans aligned with state standards
sch.ach.data: School academic and achievement data (state test, grades, other
assessment scores) used in the development of the supplemental
education learning plans for students with disabilities
I- How was the school involved in the development of the Individual Learning Plan for students with disabilities in the SES program?"
T- Do you mean by school the school that the student is attending?
T- O.K. Typically, what and it is different for every district. We have worked with five different districts' I have worked with tutoring for five different districts. Most of the districts had a site coordinator or a SES coordinator for the district wide and they develop the learning plan, the Individual learning Plan for the students for SES tutoring. That form typically goes it depends on the district. Typically that form comes to us first we fill out student assessment results and goals that we have for the program. Then that form goes back to the teacher, the classroom teacher and a copy also goes to the parent. Then the teacher completes their observation as to goals then that goes back to the SES representative. Other districts have had it go to the teacher first and then come to us and it is in a form of a checklist.
So the teacher checks off the (SOL's) Standards of learning that are needed for that student that they are recommending then we check off the (SOL's) Standards of Learning based on their assessment that have been found to be weak in terms of that. So it does depend on the district. sch.state, serv.aligned
But, typically the school involvement is that the classroom teacher does a minor part with recommendations for goals for that student. teah.coop
I- or the SES coordinator
I- or the SES coordinator, they take a much more active role in that, that is exactly right.
I - How were you able to guarantee students (IEP) individual education plans were in close alignment with the student individual learning plans?
T- We are not able to do that. The only way we are able to do that is because. serv.guar Typically our assessment will show weaknesses in the same areas that they having (uh) what we typically find when we assess special needs students or special education provided students is that we find that they will typically rather than scoring at grade level or below be significantly below. Nine times out of ten those are far below their peers in terms of grade level achievement so that is how we do it. It is designated on some of the (SLA) Students Learning Plans for some districts it does designate whether they are a (IEP) Individual Learning Plan student but only after it comes back so it is for the district file not for the tutors so that information is not often communicated to the SES tutors at all.
I- So you are saying the (IEP) is never used usually used at all
T- Yes, that is true not implemented or used at all.
Theme Three: Ability to deliver the services it promised with regard to instructional strategies used for students with disabilities.
serv.ratio: Student to tutor ratio during tutoring sessions.
serv.intruc: Instructional techniques are needed for Reading, Language Arts and
Math content for students with disabilities in supplemental education
services programs for students to be able to understand the academic
serv.quality: Plan and provide quality instruction for your students with disabilities.
serv adopt: Adapts tutoring services to students with disabilities curriculum.
serv.aligned: Aligned their services to state and local standards.
serv.meets.needs: The SES provider meets the needs of students with disabilities.
serv.promised: Is the SES provider able to deliver the services it promised with regard to
instructional strategies used for students with disabilities.
serv.pre.post.accom: Accommodated students with disabilities on pre and post test and
in lessons consistent with their IEP or Individualized plan or
Individualized Services Section 504 Rehabilitation Act.
serv.guar: Guarantee students' individual education plan (IEP) is in close
alignment with the student supplemental education service
I -What concerns you the most about being a supplemental education services tutor and working with students with disabilities?
T- I think the hardest thing is that most SES services and service providers services are meant to be administered in a small group setting which is not always possible based on the individual students needs a student with a IEP may have specific needs or accommodations that are not always able to be implemented in a small group setting in a one hour after school tutoring environment. serv.ratio As appose to doing more (uhu) one on one situations or a more individualized program where there are really able to do skill for skill based on what that student needs. . So that is a huge concern.
Also, just like you mention before the communication with teaching staff or parents even that the student has an active IEP we don't always find out from the staff. Sometimes we will have a whole conversation with the parents before the student becomes one of our students for SES and the parent never even mentions that their places special education because they do not want that stigma attach or for whatever reasons but that also hinders our ability to service them in the best possible way. sch.coop.iep
Another thing that we find to is as I mention before the delay ability so what you will find is when we assess those students they will be assess with a group of fourth grade students.
One of those students may a special education student and may assess at a second grade level they may have needs in the second grade level then we are faced with a dilemma of placing the child in a fourth grade curriculum and then not perform well and then struggle just like they are struggling in the classroom setting or put a fourth grader in with a group of second graders. Which also is not always the best option for them because then they are working on second grade curriculum with students who are two or three years younger than them and not always having that effectiveness as they would have with a group of their peer. serv adopt, serv.intruc
So those are the main concerns as far as making sure that those students get the services they need and require to be affective for them.
I- Do you have any other comments you would like to make pertaining to tutoring and supplemental education services?
T- I do, I do have lots
I- That's good,
T-Yes and I did write them down because there were so many I was thinking of.
One thing, I really think the (SES) program is phenomenal I mean, with all the difficulties. Especially for special education because it has its own set perimeters of students. I feel that the SES as a whole is a fabulous phenomenal program. Having worked with it for just two years I have seen incredible, monumental group in our students be them Special ed. or Regular Ed. students just within the small time frame they have the program enforced. I think it is a wonderful opportunity there is allot of controversy with using outside sources for SES. As you know and making sure that you has a reputable service and a certified teacher.
Half the times they don't even have to be certified teachers or have any experience working with children. tut.qual Now, that does concern me. Our staff does have that we do require that. But, with certain guidelines it could be improved. To see the incredible opportunity that arises from those students. Also, to see that having an outside source. I don't know how to explain this but not there teacher or someone who works in the school system. Having that separate person come into the school even if it is done site based. They just perform differently than they have all the school day, because it is a different person interacting with them. So giving them that opportunity is a great idea to give a separate entity for the school that still performs the same services. Now, I do agree there should be standards and minimal requirements for staff. Especially in the special education round if you do not have the staff that are certified to teach them even a regular education teacher won't or may not know always how to handle a situation or differentiate the curriculum to give the students what they need. tut.qual, tut.trained.sped, serv.intruc
But, overall I think the program is phenomenal I hope to see through time, I know there are a lot of studies being done, but that it does increase the student's knowledge, their SOL scores their ability over all. And I think more than anything with the students what we have learned in the past is that students that are those tier two students. I don't know how familiar you are with Response to Intervention students. But those tier two student. The student that are struggling and failing year, after year, after year. (Laugh) I guess I mean after two years. I guess they can have that targeted instruction through the SES program and might not need special education and with whatever is going on that they missed that they can catch up. In the long run your goal is to have fewer students that are actually identified as having special education needs. And that is reserved for only the students that truly have a disability and that need that extra intervention or that one on one pull out program. The program can be used for students who have had to move to five different schools in one year or absences because they were sick and missed twenty one days of school in one year or students whose parents are not educated and cannot help them with their homework. I do also think helping the students that need the financial help is also important. But, you have so many of those other issues that end up developing into a special education students when it is not always the case that they may not need that without a different kind of intervention, So that is one thing I hope to see that the SES program goes more towards targeting those types of students. But, I most definitely think if we also can focus on students that are on the cusps that are not making it with their peers yet not to the point they have to be placed in a special education classroom that would be good as well.
I -Well, I just want to think you for speaking with me today. I just want to Thank you a lot. I really do appreciate it.
I -probably gave you a lot more then you needed.