Citizenship Education And Elements Of Functional Skills Education Essay

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Its a matter of fact service learning emphasis to connect students with real issues in the community and develop their knowledge and skill for active participation. Hence active participation means social participation in respect of rights and responsibilities respect and acceptance of diversity. (Hebert, 1997)

2.40 Citizenship Education and Elements of Functional skills

Citizenship education is not only content related education. It deals with knowledge and understanding to effective mater skill. Therefore citizenship education involves large range of several elements of learning such as:

knowledge and understanding

skills and aptitudes

values and dispositions

2.40.1 Knowledge and understanding

In citizenship education content based on knowledge and understanding on such areas like rules and law democratic process money and economy. In such area knowledge and real understanding is required for be a part of sustainable development of society and this world.

2.40.2. Skills and Aptitudes

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It is accepted that real knowledge and understanding can develop the critical thinking and ability to analyze, than express opinions. In citizenship learning skills and aptitudes can build with active participation in discussion taking part negations and participate in conflicting matter and community action.

2.40.3. Values and Dispositions

In citizenship education moral and values are very important element of learning. Such as respect of law obedience of law and rules tolerance for others accept to others work with others.

There are most effective forms of citizenship education:

Step: 1: Cognitive (Knowledge and understanding)

Step: 2: Active (Learning by doing)

Step: 3: Instructive (Taking part in discussion and debate)

Step: 4: Relevant (Relate and focus on real life issues)

Step: 5: Critical (Analysis and constructive thoughts)

Step: 6: Collaborative (Employ, social, group and collaborative learning)

Step: 7: Participative (Functional, loyal and informed citizen)

(Huddleston & David, 2006)

2.41 Elements Global Citizenship Education Model

Citizenship education vision is not limited in one country now a days this concept become a global idea to train the citizen for world community. In over all world citizenship education model is following:

Knowledge about citizenship or "doing" not just being or "knowing"

Acceptance and commitment of moral and social responsibilities.

Knowing and caring "citizen" roles for better function of future of the planet.

Acceptance of multiple and diverse community and endless loyalty for family community, country and the world.

Acceptance of Nationalism and globalization.

Development of global thinking (Orr, 2008)

2.42 School Functional Climate and Citizenship Education

Culture and climate are considered to be alive and dynamic, and as a microcosm of the broader macrocosm, the school system is predicated on this concept of a living, growth-oriented culture and climate, where positive changes are implemented. Dialogue is encouraged, as well as respect and tolerance for each other and the healthy exchange of ideas. This takes into account a respect for multiple cultures. It is important that citizenship education climate must be assess in school because effective citizenship education is school is become a challenge now a day. As a matter of fact, school context and an environment really influence on the development of young generation, knowledge attitude, competencies and there roles as a citizen of any state. (Houtte, 2005)

In citizenship education context school climate means impression beliefs and thoughts of school about leaning environment and associated behavior. (Barber & purta , 2005) School climate also related with school culture and rules which is formulated for school organization and management. In citizenship education the importance of curriculum cannot denier, but climate of school regarding leaning and understanding citizenship education is also difficult to ignore therefore inside of school and outside school daily experiences of students and environment are strong facture that influence on individual and society. According to stople, (1994) school culture and climate means patterns of beliefs. The main purpose is to develop the commitment and motivation toward leaning and understanding about roles and school activities. (Reezigt & Creemers, 2005)

2.43 Eight Essential components of Good Citizenship Education

The nature of community

Role and relationship in a purist society.

The duties rights and responsibilities a being a citizen.

Gender and family equality.

Concept and process of social justice democracy of state in action.

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Political education "The citizen and the law"

Civic sense (public service) (Fogelman, 2000)

2.44 School Assessment in school Curriculum and Citizenship Education

School is a social organization and it is important that members of school must contribute in development of society. Therefore citizenship education taught in different subjects there must be a proper assessment of effective citizenship. It is accepted that school climate and its assessment is essential for effective practice and development of students and teachers regarding responsible member of society.

As a matter of fact, People talk about a school curriculum, they think about math, science, social sciences, and language courses. But they not bother to talk about social studies curriculum about moral values as being a integral part of the curriculum. Therefore the neglected attitude of teaching moral values in schools is hurting our students and causing problems in society. If a person has never learned any moral values, how is she or he able to distinguish the difference between right and wrong? That is basically the essence of citizenship education.

So in this present study research analyze the textbook of social studies at elementary level in Pakistan and assess the teachers about knowledge and understanding for citizenship education in this study assess the student sensibility in different aspects of citizenship education. Hence, researcher works on three areas:

Analysis of social studies textbook. (With special reference to citizenship education)

School climate and Teacher's assessment regarding pedagogies and (teachers) own understanding about social studies textbook and citizenship education.

Assessment of Student's awareness and sensibility regarding citizenship education.

Figure 1.8

Recent Areas of Citizenship Education

National Global identity and citizen civic sensibility

The affiliation with own country with its name and identity

Protect the nation and national character

Show and consider peaceful nation in the world make your global identity

The freedom and inviolability of the person

A citizen is patriotic and loyal and devoted with own country

Freedom of rights and duties

Protection from unlawful acts by the state

Sensibility about health , environment and society

Skills:

Functional Learning

Problem Solving

Critical Thinking

Decision making Skills

Figure 1.9

Functional Political Literacy,

Awareness and Sensitization

Freedom of expression in democracy

The right to vote and to stand for office at various levels of government

Freedom of speech

Acceptance of law and aware and understand the political and social issues

Understanding about national assembly and its role

Freedom of expression about state issues and society

Opportunity to take stand in problem solving

Skills:-

Knowledge of state political rights and duties

Functional understanding about political system of the state

Democratic attitude

Participatory skills

Analytical skills

Problem solving

Figure 1.10

Social Cultural and Moral Development

Complete understanding about cultural heritage of society and community

The right to different customs and life styles (with in a general framework of law, which is not culturally biased educational equality

Full access to the majority language and culture

The right to international communication

The right to maintenance of minority language and culture

Rights of minorities based on state law and human rights

Respect and freedom of everyone

Tolerance patience and peace of the world

Skills:-

Knowledge of social relations

Social skills

Knowledge of cultural heritage

History and basic life skills

Figure 1.11

Socio-Economic and Global Sensitization

with

Community belonging and involvement

The right to work

Equality of opportunity (in Education the labor market)

Equality in law gender race and work opportunity

Protection of work and labor force

Social justice and equality for all citizen

An entitlement to health services, welfare benefits and social services in the event of unemployment or inability to work

Make this world nicer and better place to live

Work to save this world from poverty terrorism and war

Skills:-

Knowledge of socio-economic condition

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CHAPTER 3

METHODOLOGY AND PROCEDURE

3.1 Introduction and overview

This present study aims to investigate the current status of citizenship education in curriculum of social studies at elementary level in Pakistan. This chapter deals with a detailed explanation of research methodology and research approaches which has been used in this study. Apart from that present chapter begins with definitions and brief explanation of survey research method and content analysis. The chapter also provides the reasons for selection of methodology and also justifies the instruments which are used to generate the data from respondents. The chapter provides brief explanation about procedure of the study under the following headings.

3.2 The Nature of Research Method

Research is a systematic process of investigation to find out the answer to problem (Burn, 2000). It comprises of a set of activities from start to an end. (Bouma, 1997). It is a universal, systematic and objective search for scientific knowledge. The general objective of educational research is to find general principles or explanation of behavior that can explain insight and clarify interpretation of behavior in the educational situations (Ary et. Al, 2006) .The present research study is descriptive type research and it is conducted by using survey method and content analysis of social studies curriculum.

According to Everhard (2006) research in philosophical term, methodology, is the "philosophical underpinnings and assumptions embedded on how researchers constructed knowledge" (Castter & Heisler, citied in Creswell, 1994, p.377) Therefore, for the understanding of the present research study, the researcher has set the context for this study, with the help of different research methods and approaches.

Furthermore Conrad and Serling, (2006), have described "Research Methods" to refer to the logic and fact that the researcher uses in conducting a study. These include "how research questions are stated, sampling strategy, data collection procedures and ways of structuring, analyzing and interpreting data" (Conrad and Serling, 2006, p.377).

Descriptive research methods and quantitative research include different techniques of data collection such as interviewing, group discussion, direct observation, the analyses of artifacts, and collection of data with the help of questionnaire. In qualitative research approach documents analysis and cultural records, the use of visual materials and personal experience are included. (Denzin and Lincoln, 2008)

3.3 Research Approaches used for this Study

The present research study has been based on two research approaches:

Qualitative Research Approach

Quantitative Research Approach

In this research study, qualitative research approach is considered vital because in qualitative research the main focus is to examine a phenomenon in depth detail, secondly the design of qualitative research is holistic, and it is concerned with the process and context (Conrad and Serlin, 2006). This study has exposed the citizenship education in Pakistan therefore textbook of social studies at elementary level in Pakistan is analyzed.

It is already mentioned above that this research study is based on two approaches. Hence other approach of research is quantitative. Quantitative research is required for this study to collect rich information and data form teacher and student regarding awareness and school climate of citizenship education. (Patton, 2002).

3.4 Type of Study

It is a descriptive type study and survey method is also used for this study. Research method refers to the logic that researcher uses in conducting a study. These include qualitative (content analysis) and quantitative research, in which these activities are included such as stated hypothesis, sampling strategy, data collection procedure and ways of structuring and analyzing and interpreting data (Denzin and Lincolon, 2008).

3.4.1 Descriptive Research Method

It is a descriptive study and content analysis and survey methods are used for present study. These include qualitative content analysis and quantitative research approach.

3.4.2 Content Analysis

Content analysis can be defined as research technique for objective and systematic description of content. This method enables the researcher to identify the large amount of textual information and to systematically describe the textual properties.

There are two major categories of content analysis:

Conceptual analysis

Rational analysis

For this study conceptual content analysis was used. Content analysis refers to the examination of written text. It is often used to find out the differences .For this study the main content for analysis was textbook of social studies, which is prescribed by Punjab text book board Lahore Pakistan. Conceptual analysis is aimed at establishing the existence and occurrence level of concept in a text (Weber, R., 1990) .

This content analysis has focused on all the chapters and exercises of text book. The process involved main standard which were identified through national standards of social studies curriculum in Pakistan scripts.

These standards were derived during the preliminary analysis stage.

In the post analysis stage the out line of test book was inducted for obtaining the content objective methods of teaching learning activities highlighted as a heading for the categories. The content / chapters of textbook and their exercise were analyzed under the specified categories (mentioned in chapter 2).

The purpose of using the content analysis method in this research is to gain an insight and understanding of aims objectives, content ,related activities and role of teacher specially citizenship education in Pakistan.

3.5 Population of the Study

For present research study, the population consisted of all the federal government school of Islamabad in urban area. In the population boys and girls are included, those who are in grade 8th. The Researcher has obtained the recent and brief data about boys and girls enrollment at elementary level in federal schools from Federal Directorate of Education Islamabad Pakistan.

Table: 1.4

Total Enrollment in class VIII

Population

Total Boys

Enrollment

Total Girls enrollment

Class VIII

14230

14127

There are following reasons for selecting the students and teachers from Islamabad.

It was aimed to include people of different socio economic culture from the capital city.

For this type of study it is needed to inform about the purpose of the study. Therefore the researcher had to administer the instruments personally. It was also convenient for researcher to collect the data in capital city.

Age group of the population was 13-14 year. It was selected because in country like Pakistan no study has been found in this area.

People in young age group are in process of learning civic, social and practical life. So the present study will be helpful for educationalists as well as text book writers to develop social studies textbook regarding citizenship education.

3.6 Sampling Technique of the Study

The Estimated population of boys / 14230 and girls 14127 provide by in Federal directorate, Government of Pakistan Islamabad at elementary level. It was decided to collect the data from each sector of Islamabad federal schools of boys and girls population of boy in urban area.

3.6.1 Proportional Stratified Sampling

For this study proportional stratified sampling is used. The main reason for selecting this technique is the population which is divided in two groups more Boys and Girls therefore in this study two strata was develop from each strata students proportions were selected. A method of sampling that involves the division or sub group of a population into smaller groups which is called as strata is known as stratified proportional sampling. The strata are developed based on members' shared attributes and sub group characteristics. For this study the sub technique of stratified sampling is used which is known as proportionate stratified sampling. Proportional sampling (Van Dalen, 1979) provides the researcher a way to achieve even larger representativeness in the sample of the target population. This is accomplished by selecting individuals at random from the subgroup in proportion to the actual size of the group in the total population. Proportional sampling is used in combination with stratified and cluster sampling.

Therefore researcher has selected the proportionate stratified sampling for this purpose estimated total population of boys and estimated population of girls has been targeted.

3.6.2 Sampling size

In the Record of Federal Directorate of Education Islamabad Pakistan, (2011) the estimated population was boys / 14230 and girls 14127 at elementary level in VIII class. For this study proportionate Stratified Proportional sampling was done. 100 boys and 100 girls total (200) students was desire sample and in sample schools of each sector. Total 40 teachers (20 male and 20 female) were selected, those are taught social studies at 8th grade in federal school in each sectors of Islamabad. In response of permission letter, researcher selects randomly two schools in each sector. So total 8 schools were selected randomly, these school were selected in each sector of Islamabad mentioned below (sector, E, F, G H, I,). In sector (I) two school (boys /girls) were selected for pilot study, in other four sectors (E, F, G, H) 8 schools were selected for main study 4 for girls and other 4 for boys. Therefore it was decided to collect the data from students both boys and girls. For this presents study, randomly four to five teachers was selected in each boys and girls schools of the sample.

Table 1.5

Distribution of Sample sectors and schools

No of sectors and schools

No. Of schools originally sampled

Total

Responded

5 sectors (10 schools)

4 Sectors

(8 schools)

Students : 210

Teachers : 46

In each sector on boy and one girl school was selected

(one sector (one boy and one girl )school was selected for pilot study)

sector

Boys

Girls

105

105

Male

23

Female

23

Table 1.6

Original Sample Size and Total Responses Percentages

Original sample

Original and full responded sample

Full responses

Percentage

Boys / Girls

(200)

100/100

100%

Male/ Female

(40)

20/20

100%

3.7 Phases of the study

The present study was conducted in two phases:

(Analysis stage) curriculum formation analysis & Text book analysis

(Assessment stage) Survey from Students and Teachers regarding awareness, role of teachers and assessment of school climate.

3.7.1 Stage 1 (Analysis stage)

Curriculum formation and Text book of social studies from 8th Grade Prescribed by Punjab Textbook board Lahore Pakistan was analyzed. All chapters and exercises (see annexes II) of the text book was reviewed in the light of curriculum standards .An outline of textbook develop by ministry of education. For review and analysis of text book a framework was designed (see annexes II).

3.7.2 Stage II survey stage (Assessment stage)

After analysis of textbook review discussed above, the following instruments were used: structured questionnaire for teachers regarding their role and school climate, structured questionnaire for students regarding Assessment of students awareness Citizenship education In order to determine the citizenship education assessment of the student 61 item five factor scales for students was adapted from Crick Report by Crick, B (2002) was used for collection of data.

3.8 Instruments used in the study

For this present study, researcher has used two instruments one for students, and other for teachers

In order to determine the citizenship education at 8th grade student of Pakistan. 61 items five factor scales for student was adapted from Crick Report by Crick, B., (2002). It was used for the collection of data from students. This instrument was published in Crick Report (2002).this instrument was amended and finally developed by researcher. The instrument based on five categories and 61 items. The five factors citizenship education on assessment scale for young adults is attached at (annexure-I). It was found most relevant for present study to make citizenship education assessment of the students. Validity certificates are attached in (annexure -I)

The second instrument of the study was based on textbook analysis and climate assessment of school regarding citizenship education attached as (Annexure-I) It was basically used for teachers. School Citizenship Education Climate Assessment Inventory, 75 items five factor scales for teachers was developed by Homana, G., Barber,H., Purta,J., (2005)

3.8.1 Phases of instruments

After selection of the scale it was passed thought the following phases and then it was a used for data collection from students at elementary level.

Transformation

Translation

Validation

Validation of content and items construction

Pilot testing

Reliability

Transformation

Form present study the scale for students was adapted therefore many items were changed according to Pakistani system. The original scale was seven points like. Type scale was changed into five point scale on the recommendation of experts. The logic of present transformation is that it is easy for students especially those are not much qualified, therefore five point was scale convenient for them.

Translation:

The original scale was in English language therefore original instruments were translated into under by experts of language. Authenticated and translated copy of instrument is attached. (See Annexure II)

Validation of content and item construction

The two instruments were selected. (1) Assessment scale for Students awareness was adapted and (2) second instrument regarding teachers awareness role of teacher and school climate was adopted, therefore to check the content validity and item construction a committee of expert was developed. A committee of three experts was selected for content validation of the instrument. The list of expert and letter written to them are attached (see Annexure-II). The committee of selected experts reviewed the instrument separately. They also verify the terms and glossary which is used in item construction. After this joint meeting experts were agree that the content and items of this instrument is valid for present study. They gave the certificate for authentic content and validation- certificate of term and glossary. Letter of Authenticity is attached in (Annexure--II).

Validation of Translation

The original English versed instrument was translated into Urdu by expert of language. Therefore a committee of expert was developed. A committee of three experts was selected for validation of the instrument. The list of expert and letter written to them are attached (see Annexure-II). The committee of selected experts reviewed the instrument separately. after this a joint meeting of the experts was arranged by the researcher, after this joint meeting experts were agree that this instrument is valid for present research. They gave the certificate for authentic translation and validation- certificate of test validation. Authenticate and translated copy of instrument is attached (Annexure--II).

Pilot Testing

For the estimation of test validity and reliability pilot study was conducted. Therefore for the purpose of pilot testing, Questionnaires were administered to 50 students and 20 teachers. Hence two schools were randomly selected one school was for boys another school was for girls.

BOYS ( F.G. SECONDERY School, I, 10. / 1, Islamabad)

GIRLS ( F.G. SECONDERY School, I, 10. / 2, Islamabad).

25 boys / girls and 10 teachers were selected in each school. These respondents were selected from the same population, but not included in the main study similar and comparable with the other sample. The data was analyzed through SPSS.XIII

Instrument 1: Assessment of citizenship education at 8th grade student of Pakistan reliability was. 0.906. alpha

Instrument 2: Textbook analysis and climate assessment of school regarding citizenship education reliability was. 0.733 .alpha

Fraenkel and Wallen (1993) suggest that for research purpose reliability coefficient an achievement of test should be at least .70 and it is preferably higher. Therefore both scales were accepted to use in the present study.

It was felt that during the pilot test few sentences and words were not related with our country and culture and some words were not only ambiguous and not related with our context so these were explain in simple words and they were convert according system and cultural context (Attached in Annexure -II).

Reliability

Item analysis of citizenship education assessment Scale and climate assessment scales was done and coefficient alpha was computed on statistical package for social sciences (SPSS. XIII). Cronbach alpha model is used to measure the internal consistency based on average inter- item. So citizenship education assessment scales consistency of the interment was determined.

3.9 Names of Instruments used in the study

Modified version of citizenship education assessment scale for students (Adapted from, Crick Report by Crick, B., (2002).

Modified version of school Citizenship Education Climate Assessment Scale (Adopted from National Center For Learning And Citizenship by Homana, G., Barber,H., Purta,J., (2005)

Demographic information forms were developed by the researcher.

3.9.1Citizenship Education Assessment Scale (for students)

This questionnaire was designed by the research team at NFER (National Foundation for Educational Research) in collaboration with the study's consultants for Crick Report by Crick, B., (2002). Instrument of the study was divided into five categories.

National and Global identity and Citizen concept

Civic sensibility

Political awareness and literacy :Political Sensibility

Social and Global Sensitization

Cultural and Moral development

The questionnaire drew on previous NFER surveys including the IEA Citizenship Education Study (Torney- Purta et al., 2001; Kerr et al., 2002). The questionnaire also drew on questions used in established surveys in the field of political science, notably the British Election Survey (University of Essex, 2001). This questionnaire is suitable for students in Year 8, Year 10 or Year 12, or 14.

3.9.2 School Citizenship Education Climate Assessment Scale (For teachers)

Social studies Textbook analysis and School citizenship education Climate assessment instrument was developed by (Homana, G, 2005). Instrument of the study was divided into two sections:

The first section deals with "overview and assessment about textbook of social studies and citizenship education. This section of the scale was developed with help of Pingal (1999) framework (criteria for Curriculum analysis). In this section 22 items were included.

The second section of instrument offers comprehensive understanding of school climate the scales and items included in the School Citizenship Climate Assessment are organized into seven sections, each corresponding to one of the characteristics of a positive school climate outlined below. The following is a summary of the scales and items collected. (Attached in Annexure -III)

Section 1: Recognition of the Civic Purpose of Education

Section 2: Meaningful Learning of Civic-Related Knowledge

Section 3: Cooperation and Collaboration

Section 4: Trust, Respect, and Positive Interactions

Section 5: Students' Input and Participation Skills

Section 6: Thoughtful and Respectful Dialogue about Issues

Section 7: Engagement In and Learning about the Community

3.9.3. Demographic Form

Demographic forms were developed by the researcher to elicit the responses of elementary school students and teachers about different factors which can be affected on citizenship education of 8th grade students. Both instruments comprises on almost eight statements inviting responses on demographic forms. (Attached in Annexure -II)

3.10 Permission for use of the instrument

For this present study, the researcher used two scales. One is adapted and other is adopted. Therefore permission for using of the instruments was obtained from the conserved individuals and institutions (see Annexure-II). The permission to use the instrument was obtained from the author. In context of Pakistani culture and circumstance, instruments Construct and face validity was determined through expert opinion. Reliability of the both instruments was calculated. (Annexure-II)

Data Collection Research Aspects

This research design had three parts and data was collected on three aspects. There are following:

Social studies text book analysis regarding citizenship education at 8th grade in Pakistan.

Students citizenship education assessment.

Climate assessment with teachers regarding citizenship education.

For data collection, Questionnaire for teachers was sent in the last week of May 2012 and requesting the heads of schools and teachers to complete them within two weeks period. Mostly institutions complied with this request, some of them asked to have this period extended. Than after one week, ultimately completed questionnaires were received by the researcher up to first week of June and before summer vacations.

Procedure for data collection

The purpose of this study was to analyze the current states of social studies curriculum at 8th grade in Pakistan, and determine the level of citizenship education in school and students of Pakistan so this study process followed these steps.

For data collection first of all the researcher got the letter from university for the permission of data collection for federal directorate Islamabad.

After selecting the sample from the target population a request letter from university along with the copy of research purposed was sent to federal directorate and after 7 federal directorates Islamabad issued the permission letter (see Appendix) federal directorate also directed permission letter to university and all heads of sample schools. The letter was issued only for one time visit.

In each school there were more than two sections the researcher randomly selected the students in each section. In each school the researcher administer the tow questionnaires one questionnaire for teacher and other one was for students.

The researcher administered both questionnaires by herself in each sample school. Before administering the questionnaires the researcher gave complete instructions to the students to record proper responses. During the data collection the researcher encouraged the participant to complete the questionnaires properly and honestly.

3.12.1. Curriculum formation and Text book (Content analysis) Procedure

Curriculum outline (Document Review)

In the first stage of the Research, all the chapters of social studies Text book at grade 8th and exercises in each chapter were reviewed. In this present study the (textbook) content and exercises (see annexure II) were examined with special reference to citizenship Education. Besides the National Curriculum and Standards; the curricula and standards and objectives, for text book have also been reviewed and compared with textbook content and exercises.

Framework Of Citizenship Education For (Textbook formation Analysis)

Pingal ( CURRICULUM ) formation Analysis

Textbook Content Analysis of Citizenship Education

Civic sensibility

Political awareness and literacy : Political Sensibility

Social and Global Sensitization

Cultural and Moral development

3.12.2. Coding Procedure (Citizenship Education Assessment Scale for Students)

The subjects responded to each item in (CEAS) Scale using five points type scale To assess how individuals rated their own awareness about different components of citizenship, compute scores separately for each scale within the seven sections (As mentioned above). The first response category (e.g., "almost never" or "strongly disagree") is scored as 1, the next as 2, the third as 3, and fourth as 4 and the final as 5. This can be accomplished by assigning a number to each response, adding the scores across all items in the scale and dividing by the number of items, leaving out any missing responses adding the scores across all items in the scale and dividing by the number of items, leaving out any missing responses. To compute the average scale scores for a school, add the scale scores of each individual respondent in the school and divide by the total number of respondents. Some may also want to compute average school scores for certain groups within the school: for example, for teachers only. All items have been adapted so that they can have four response categories. Consequently, the highest possible score for an item or for a scale is 5. The lowest score possible is 3.

3.12.3 Coding Procedure (Citizenship Education Climate Assessment Scale for Teachers)

The subjects responded to each item in (CECA) Scale using five points type scale To assess how individuals rated their school's climate, compute scores separately for each scale within the seven sections (As mentioned above). The first response category (e.g., "almost never" or "strongly disagree") is scored as 1, the next as 2, the third as 3, and 4 and final as 5. This can be accomplished by assigning a number to each response, adding the scores across all items in the scale and dividing by the number of items, leaving out any missing responses. To compute the average scale scores for a school, add the scale scores of each individual respondent in the school and divide by the total number of respondents. Some may also want to compute average school scores for certain groups within the school: for example, for teachers only. All items have been adapted so that they have five response categories. Consequently, the highest possible score for an item or for a scale is 5. The lowest score possible is 3.

3.13.4. Procedure of Data Analysis

Data was analyzed through SPSS (statistically packages of social sciences) version 14. Data analysis was done t-test was applied on hypothesis number Ho1 to Ho14 and for hypothesis number Ho15 to Ho 25 chi-square and one way Univariante Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) Test was applied.

Chapter IV

Presentation of Data Analysis Interpretation and Data Findings

Qualitative Analysis (Part one)

4.1 Introduction

This chapter presents the analysis interpretation and data findings. Analysis of data and its interpretation is presented in two sections.

Section 1- Section 1 deals with qualitative analysis. Therefore content analysis technique was used to analyze the text book of social studies at 8th grade in Pakistan.

Section 2 Section 2 deals with qualitative analysis. Survey method was used to collect the data from the sample of the study in order to determine the current status of citizenship education in curriculum of social studies at elementary level. Investigate the school climate and role of teacher and awareness of students regarding citizenship education in Pakistan.

4.2 Citizenship Education and Social-studies Textbook (Grade 8th)

Social-studies text book for 8th class was analyzed in context of citizenship education. The main premise of the research is, to investigate weather text book of social studies have all the characteristics discussed in chapter two. The content of the text book has been analyzed in four theme framework (see chapter 2). Beside with textbook, analyze curriculum standards develop by curriculum wing Islamabad under the supervision of ministry of education in Pakistan. The booklet of textbook out line issued by curriculum wing Islamabad has been used to know the objective and format of whole curriculum of social studies. As a matter of fact the textbook writer wrote the book in the light of guideline in form of booklet (see Appendix- ?) provided by curriculum wing ministry of education Pakistan.

Table # 1.7 Chapters of social studies Textbook VIII

Page

1

THE UNIVERSE

1

2

DISTRIBUTION OF LAND AND WATER ON THE SURFACE OF EARTH.

10

3

NATURAL REGIONS OF THE WORLD.

20

4

MAJOR OCCUPATIONS OF DIFFERENT AREAS OF THE WORLD.

29

5

WORLD POPULATION.

44

6

THE ERA OF DISCOVERIES.

59

7

BRITISH ARRIVAL IN THE SUB-CONTINENT.

66

8

THE PAKISTAN MOVEMENT (1906-1947)

74

9

CIVIC LIFE IN PAKISTAN.

89

10

THE UNITED NATIONS.

99

11

THE WORLD THE 21ST CENTURY.

105

12

FREEDOM MOVEMETN - BRIEF RESUME (1857-1947)

114Chapters of social studies Textbook VIII

4.3 Presentation of data findings and its interpretation (Analysis)

4.3.1 Textbook analysis and findings have been presented in two parts:

Part 1 Part one deals with qualitative analysis. It shows the analysis of curriculum standards and set objective of textbook. These are analyzed in relation with citizenship education at elementary level in Pakistan.

Part2: Second part deals with qualitative analysis. it shows that content and related content exercise given in the book are developed in light of standards and objective of curriculum out line and also analyze the content under the form themes of framework (see chapter # 2). In order to find out the place and existence of citizenship education and weather the content and exercise in the social studies text book for 8th grade is helpful in development of effective citizenship education and role of teacher and school can develop the attitude and skills in 8th grade standards for sensible functional citizen of Pakistan.

4.4 Analysis and interpretation of Social -studies curriculum outline and textbook content.

In this study, the section of this chapter deals with the analysis and interpretation of data. The researcher has selected the curriculum of social studies for 8th grade. In Pakistan, ministry of education issued the outline for curriculum of social studies subject in 2002. In this study selected text book is prescribed by Punjab text book board titled "social studies "at elementary level in Pakistan.

Researcher selects the subject of social studies for 8th grade in National curriculum. The purpose is to find out the place and content regarding citizenship education categories and critically examine the weakness and strengths of the document related with this theme.

These are the areas, which examines:

Foundations and policy,

Aims and objectives

Content arrangement as according to aims and objectives

Learning activities and practical work.

4.5. Text book Analysis criteria

4.5.1Text Book Analysis Framework of Citizenship Education

Citizen and civic Sensibility.

Political awareness and functional political literacy.

Cultural moral and social development.

Socio-economic development.

4.5. 2 Social studies curriculum is analyzed, by examining three key aspects:

Curriculum standards , out line

aims, concepts and text book structure

Analysis of textbook

contents and exercises with the help of frame work

Teaching and learning activities

Text book suggested activities and practical work

(Part One)

Qualitative Analysis

Of

Social-Studies Textbook

&

Curriculum outline

For

8th grade

4.6. Social studies Curriculum outline aims concepts and Text book structure

4.6. 1. Introduction of (Text book) analysis

The first part of this study based on analysis of social studies text book for grade 8th in Pakistan. It is a descriptive type study it deals with present situation it has focused on curriculum of social studies for 8th grade in Pakistan.

According to Bramble and Mason (1997) they believe that curriculum should be tested with the passage of time. Researcher agrees with the view of Bramble (1997). The main premise of present study is also based on above view that curriculum designer and developer must analyze the instructional content (text book). As a matter of fact, they can improve the content in form of accuracy and completeness in the curricula.

4.7. Main Focus of social studies curriculum and textbook Analysis

Analysis of standards given by curriculum wing Islamabad, Pakistan. (See Annexure-III)

Analysis of Aims and vision of social studies curriculum in Pakistan.

Highlight the standards and Benchmarks for social studies. (I-V)

Analyze the content of textbook with special reference to "Pingal' frame work and citizenship education.

Analysis of objective suggested in the outline for each chapter.

Analysis of content items with special reference to citizenship education.

Analysis of content related exercise with special reference to citizenship education skills in social studies curriculum of Pakistan.

4.8 Medium of Social Studies Text Book

Textbook of Social studies for 8th grade prescribed by Punjab text book board Lahore, Pakistan. The content of book and medium of instruction is Urdu.

4.9. An overview of Social Studies curriculum at Primary level in Pakistan

The subject of social studies is in the scheme of studies at grade 1to 8th in education system of Pakistan. This subject is offered as compulsory course. Social studies is a subject which is based on integrated approach or we can say this subject encompasses with different field of knowledge at grade (I-VI) the content of subject focus on following points like:

Self surrounding

Basic Education as citizen

Knowledge about (village , town, city, province)

At upper primary level means elementary level grade (VI-VIII) the content of subject focus on following points like:

Ideology of Pakistan.

South Asia.

Muslim world and other world.

Civic sense

Islamic Heritage.

Sense of national identity and national character.

In the outline of social studies (VI-VIII) curriculum development wing trying to claim that students will not memorize the content, it may encourage them to build their capabilities and capacities to solve then real daily life problems and become self reliance and functional citizen of Pakistan ( National Curriculum Social-studies , Pakistan 2002).

4.9 National Curriculum Standards in Pakistan

Social studies is inter- disciplinary subject it is drawn primarily from different discipline like history, geography, economic, political science, sociology and anthropology. The main aim of teaching social studies is to prepare young students as functional citizens those must have an ability to participate as active and responsible member of democratic state. This subject is designed for students to acquire knowledge about public affairs how to know and protect their rights fulfill their responsibilities how to improve their communities. The knowledge and skills and values taught in the social studies must enable students to complete the citizenship tasks effectively. (National curriculum standards of social studies Pakistan, 2007)

4.10 National Curriculum standards and Benchmarks for social studies (I-V)

In Pakistan curriculum wing has establish the benchmarks about what students are expected to know curriculum and b able to do. For social studies curriculum wing has developed standards social studies standards determine the expectations of student's performance and their learning out comes in social studies. The purpose of above task of the ministry of education is to improve the quality of education through revision of curriculum and text book development.

The main fact is find out that benchmarks and standards were develop for social studies subject only for grade (I-V) see (Annexure-III) the list of new schemes of studies For elementary level there are no standards and benchmarks for social studies but fruitful attempt is made by national curriculum wing to make the standards for social studies curriculum (2007). These are following:

Table # 1.8 social studies curriculum standards from ( 1 to 10 )

Social Studies (Subject)

Standards

Components

History

Standard-1

Learn sequential skills and ability to use them.

Ability to sequence the historical events.

Identify the relationship and explain cause and effect.

Standard-2

Standards will understand interpret the past events.

Will able to describe the past events and sequence.

Can identify the people involved in the events.

Geography

Standard-3

Standards will learn map and globe skills.

Ability to use them for geographical understanding.

Standard-4

Students will describe the location and characteristics of places.

Students will explain the culture and social economic activities at local national and international levels.

Political Science

Standard-5

Students will identify the purpose of local and provincial government.

Describe the political and legal process of country.

Standard-6

Students will identify the key ideas and values in the constitution of Pakistan.

Understand the rights and responsibilities of citizen at local national and international level.

Economics

Standard-7

Students will describe the production and distribution of goods and services.

Standard-8

Describe how Pakistan economics system works.

How to increase the productions .

What is the meaning of distribution and exchange of goods and services?

Describe the benefits of trade for government.

Inquiry

Investigation - Research

Standard-9

Student will conduct research to investigate the answers about societal problems.

Gather the data from different sources (like books, newspapers, media, and internet).

Standard-10

Students will identify the issues in their schools and community.

Take lawful and responsible action and properly address them.

Table #1.9

Summary of all standards and Social Studies Subject Components

Social Studies Subject

Components (5)

Standards (10)

History

Geography

Political Science

Economic

Inquiry (Research)

Based on ___

Standards (1-2)

Standards (3-4)

Standards (5-6)

Standards (7-8)

Standards (9-10)

Conceptual Framework: Text Book Analysis of Citizenship Education

CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION

Areas / categories

Citizenship Education

4.11. Curriculum Formation Analysis by Pingal Framework

4.11.1 Pingal Framework Components

Govt. Formal criteria of textbook

Sectors / components in text book formation

Text / content analysis

Text book made of presentation

Perspective of presentation

4.12 Education system and Curriculum development of Pakistan

Pakistan governed under the Islamic, democratic, federal Constitution of 1973 is comprised of four autonomous provinces: Punjab, Sindh, North-West Frontier and Baluchistan. Education in Pakistan is essentially a provincial affair. However, education is considered to be a vital source of nation-building. Therefore, in order to ensure national cohesion, integration and preservation of the ideological foundation of the State, certain educational functions are the responsibilities of the Federation via the Federal Ministry of Education.

4.12.1Government Formal Criteria of TEXTBOOK and Presentation

In Pakistan Federal Ministry of Education have these responsibilities include:

Education Policy

Planning,

Educational standards

Curriculum design and development

Textbook and syllabus