The present study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of self monitoring technique for children with low self-esteem. The present chapter enumerates an overall plan of the research process and deals with the description of the research approach, design, setting, population, criteria for sample selection, sample and sampling technique, development and description of tool, procedure of data collection and plan for data analysis.
3.1. Research approach
The present study was aimed at determining the effectiveness of self monitoring technique on self-esteem among children. Hence, a quantitative experimental research approach was considered to be appropriate for the study.
3.2. research design
Quasi experimental one group pre test and post test design was adopted to evaluate the effectiveness of self monitoring technique on self-esteem among children.
FIG 3.1. SCHEMATIC REPRESENTATION OF RESEARCH DESIGN
Children at selected schools and destitute home
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Children at V. S. Sengottaiah Memorial High School and the destitute home Families for children, Coimbatore
Class of education
Medium of school education
Place of domicile
Level of self-esteem
(Rosenberg self-esteem scale)
Self Monitoring technique
Data Analysis & Interpretation
Descriptive & Inferential statistics
Level of self-esteem
(Rosenberg self-esteem scale)
The study was conducted in V. S. Sengottaiah Memorial High School and Families for Children at Coimbatore. V. S. Sengottaiah Memorial High School is a government aided co-education school situated at Sundarapuram. The medium of instruction consists of both English and Tamil and the school is equipped with all the basic facilities. A population of 1618 children are studying in this school. Families for Children is an authorized destitute home situated in Podanur. It is equipped with adequate facilities which comprised both male and female children with a population of 350 children in total.
The target population for this study were children of selected school and destitute home. The accessible population included were children at V. S. Sengottaiah Memorial High School and Families for Children at Coimbatore.
3.5. CRITERIA FOR SAMPLE SELECTION
The samples were selected based on the following inclusion criteria.
3.5.1 Inclusion Criteria:
Children with low self esteem.
Children of age 10-16 years.
Children of both gender.
Children willing to participate in the study.
3.5.2 Exclusion Criteria:
Children who are physically challenged.
Children with sensory impairment.
Children with any mental illness.
Children who are already undergoing psychological therapy directed to increase self-esteem.
Total number of population in school and destitute home at the age group of 10 to 16 years were 1618 and 56 respectively. The population comprises of both male and female children. Among 1618 children, 200 were proportionately selected for the pre test. Among the 56 children in destitute home, 12 children were physically challenged, and with other conditions such as sensory impairments (visual and hearing impairment). These children were excluded under exclusion criteria. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale was administered to 200 children in school and 44 samples in destitute home to identify the level of self-esteem. Purposive sample of 46 children from school and 25 from destitute home were selected for the intervention.
3.7. VAriables of the study
The independent variable of the study was Self Monitoring Technique and the dependent variable was Self-Esteem.
The tool consists of three sections.
Section 1: Demographic Profile
Section 2: Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1965)
Section 3: Self Monitoring Technique
3.8.1. Demographic Profile: This includes age, sex, class of education, medium of school education, academic performance, place of domicile and health experiences.
3.8.2. Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1965) : The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale was formulated by Rosenberg in 1965. It is a 10-item self-report measure of global self-esteem. The items are answered on a four-point likert scale ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree. It takes 2 minutes to administer the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale.
Scoring: The questionnaire consists of both negative scoring and positive scoring items. For the statements 1,3,4,7, and 10, scores are calculated as Strongly agreeÂ = 3, AgreeÂ = 2, DisagreeÂ = 1 and Strongly disagreeÂ = 0. The statements 2,5,6,8, and 9 are reversely scored. Total score is calculated by adding score of each answer. The score ranges from 0-30.
Always on Time
Marked to Standard
Score of 0-15
Score of 16-25
Normal self- esteem
Score of 26-30
Validity and Reliability: Test-retest reliability over a period of 2 weeks revealed correlations of 0.85 and 0.88, indicating excellent stability. The tool demonstrates concurrent, predictive and construct validity using known groups.
3.8.3. Self Monitoring Technique for children: Self monitoring is a technique of behaviour therapy which is developed based on the principles of classical conditioningÂ developed by Ivan Pavlov andÂ operant conditioningÂ developed byÂ B. F. Skinner. Self monitoring is a technique of behaviour therapy where daily records of specific behaviour are maintained. Research confirms that recording aspects of behavior and progress toward goals is a process which enhances success in making a variety of life changes. Various researchers have proved that self monitoring is effective in improving the self-esteem of an individual. The self monitoring procedure is scheduled in one time per day with the duration of 45 minutes per day for 4 weeks.
Self monitoring is found to be effective for promoting the self-esteem of an individual. To improve self esteem, the daily records are maintained by the children after each of the following activity:-
Expression of self image using mirror: The child is made to stand in front of a mirror and the child expresses his/her self image by visualising the image in the mirror. The child is encouraged to talk about what he/she likes about oneself. The timing given for this activity is three minutes.
Self-advertisement about their victories: The child is made to talk and express the victories or achievements that has been maintained in the diary. Each participant is given three minutes for this activity.
Self-esteem games: The games like gift from the heart, preparation of self-esteem posters, self-esteem pamphlets and I am special stickers, positive word finds, challenge game, mind reader, smile contest and the magic box will be conducted as a group activity for 45 minutes.
Gift from the Heart: Each member of the group chooses an imaginary gift to give to each person in the group. Each gift is drawn or described on a piece of paper to be given to the recipient. Once everyone has completed their gifts, let one person at a time give out his/her gifts to the others. When giving the gifts, the giver should explain what the gift is and why she or he chose to give that particular gift to the individual.
I Am Special Stickers: This exercise may be divided into two exercises in one day or can be used for several days.
Part I: Give each child a red sticker and have them write their own name on the line over the two words "is special." Example: Ravi writes "Ravi is special." Each child makes a list of positive traits which make him/her special. Each child stands up and gives one trait which makes him/her unique.
Part II: Write each child's name on a separate piece of paper and put each piece face down on a table. Have each child draw a name. If they draw their own name, put it back and draw again. Give each child a blue sticker and have them write the name they drew on the line above the words "is special." Example: Ravi draws Ramu's name. He writes "Ramu" on the line on the blue sticker. Ravi's sticker now says "Ramu is special." Each child makes a list of why the person whose name they drew is special. Each child stands up and gives one trait which makes the peer special.
Positive word finds: An individual copy of the "word finds" puzzle is given to each of the participants. The participants are given time to find out the positive words in the puzzle and they are invited to add these words to their vocabulary and use them in their conversation.
Preparation of self-esteem posters: The participants are given a chart and ask the child to decorate the chart as they like. Ask the participants to write a positive affirmation on the chart and stick it in a place often visualised by them.
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Self-esteem pamphlets: A brightly coloured paper is folded in threes like a pamphlet. Have the participants decorate the front flap with their name in any manner they want. When everyone is done, participants fold up the brochure and everyone passes their brochure to the person on their right. When the participants receive a brochure from the neighbour, they should write a comment about them on the back.
The challenge game: Break the group into two teams. Separate and give each team 10 minutes to think of one challenge per person. When ready, the teams get back together and begin challenging each other. The challenge rules are
the challenger must clearly communicate how they want the challenge duplicated
the challenger must first demonstrate the challenge to be duplicated by the opposing team (unless it is a challenge in which everyone does together like running a race).
each member of the opposing team can attempt to duplicate the challenge (in fact, each team member should be encouraged to take a risk and try)
mathematical challenges is permitted as long as the numbers (and answers) haven't been pre-selected.
asking opponents to solve trick questions is not permitted.
The mind reader: Two people are secretly in cahoots with each other. One leaves the room. The other invites the group to select one object that the person who left the room will attempt to guess. When the individual returns to the room, his partner asks him a series of questions.
Is it the picture on the wall?
Is it the bag?
Is it her pencil?
Is it the (black) notebook?
Is it his shoes?
The "mind reader" knows it is the notebook because it was the object immediately following an object that is black in colour. Invite the group to determine how the "mind reader" is doing the trick. Suggest to the participants that it is obvious that there is some sort of communication between the partners. Encourage them to determine how the partners are communicating with each other.
Smile Contest: Begin the contest by eliciting smile categories from the participants. Write the smile categories on the board as the participants suggest them. A few possibilities include longest smile, friendliest smile, most teeth missing smile, widest smile, cutest smile and most often seen smile. When the participants have agreed on the categories for the contest, write each category on a separate piece of paper and display the papers throughout the room. Invite everyone to make nominations for each category by writing names on the papers. The winners deserve special recognition.
The Magic Box: Construct a "magic box" which can be any kind of a box with a mirror placed to reflect the face of anyone who looks inside. Begin the activity by asking the group, "Who do you think is the most special person in the whole world?" After allowing the child to respond individually, continue: "I have a magic box with me today, and each of you will have a chance to look inside and discover the most important person in the world."
Give each child a chance to look into the box after you ask them who they think they will see. Some child may have to be coaxed, because they may not believe what they see. Be ready with some of the following comments:
Are you surprised?
You smiled so big -- are you happy to see that you're the special person?
How does it feel to see that you are the special person?
Before rejoining the group, ask each child to keep the special news a secret. After each of the child have had their turns, ask the group who the most special person was. After each child has had an opportunity to say "me," explain that the box is valuable because it shows that each of them is special. The researcher might ask how it is possible for everyone to be the special one. A discussion about each individual's uniqueness may ensue.
Daily diary: At each day's end, ask the child to list out one quality about themselves that they love. Continue this practice for at least four weeks. At the end of the month ask the child to go through the diary to bring their attention to all those qualities in them that they were unaware of. This is one of the best activity to improve the self-esteem.
STEPS OF SELF MONITORING TECHNIQUE
The following are the steps of procedure that are followed by the researcher to administer self monitoring technique to the participants.
The children are made to sit together as a group in the form of semi-circle so that each of the participants can see their group members.
One activity is presented each day to the group and the researcher explains the activity for that day to the participants.
The participants are encouraged to perform the task presented to them individually.
After the activity has been completed, feelings of the participants are explored. Each of the participant is asked to make a note of the activities performed and their pertinent feelings in their diary.
The same consecutive steps are administered daily for a period of 4 weeks.
H1: There is a significant difference in the level of self-esteem among children before and after self monitoring technique.
H2: There is a significant difference in the level of self-esteem between children at school and destitute home after self monitoring technique.
3.10. Pilot Study
The pilot study was conducted to check the feasibility, practicability, validity and reliability of the tool. The study was conducted in V. S. Sengottaiah Memorial High School and Families for Children, Coimbatore from Febrauary 6 to Febrauary 15. The duration of data collection was for a period of 10 days. 20 samples were selected using purposive sampling technique The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale was administered to assess the level of self-esteem before and after the self monitoring technique. The intervention was given 45 minutes daily as a group for 8 days. On the tenth day, level of self-esteem was reassessed with the same scale. The data collected was carefully analyzed and there was a significant increase in the level of self-esteem of children. Moreover, there was a significant difference in the level of self-esteem between school children and destitute home children.
3.11. Main Study
The study was conducted in V. S. Sengottaiah Memorial High School and Families for Children, Coimbatore from June 11 to July 10. The data was collected for a period of 30 days. On the first day of data collection period, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale was administered to 244 children. 71 children with low self-esteem were identified using purposive sampling technique. 46 children in school were divided into four groups and 25 children in destitute home were divided into two groups with 11-13 children in each group. The intervention was administered in separate groups from 10.30am to 4.30pm in school and 4.30 to 6.30pm in destitute home. Self monitoring technique was implemented daily for a duration of 45 minutes for 4 weeks. After the intervention the level of self-esteem was reassessed with the same scale on the last day.
3.12. DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
Appropriate statistical tool such as descriptive and inferential statistics were applied to analyse the data. A frequency table was formulated for all significant information. 't' test for independent samples was used to find out the significant difference between school children and destitute home children. Paired 't' test was used to find the significance of intervention.