Changes In Views Of The Learning Process Education Essay

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Educational systems and teaching methods are changing. Today in the 21st century educational systems around the country are under pressure to use the new tools technologies to provide students the knowledge and skills that they need.

Information and communication technologies are a major factor which is giving a new shape to the global economy and producing rapid changes in society. Within last few years, the new Information and communication technologies tools have fundamentally changed the way people communicate and do business. They have produced significant change in industry, agriculture, business medicine, engineering and lot more fields. They also have the capacity to change the nature of education, where and how learning takes place and the roles of students and teachers in the learning process.

In today's changing world, designing and implementing successful information and communication technologies (ICT)-trained teachers must be the first requirement of any country. For education system to take the full benefits of ICT, it is must that teachers are able to effectively use these new technologies & tools for teaching. Teacher education institutions are faced with the challenge of preparing a new generation of teachers to effectively use the new learning tools in their teaching practices. With the new and latest technologies, the teaching profession is evolving. This report is made to provide a direction to help administrators, teacher educators, and policy-makers to integrate, or embed ICT into teacher education system.

Wearable computers, also known as body-borne computers are miniature electronic devices that are worn by the bearer under, with or on top of clothing. This class of wearable technology has been developed for general or special purpose information technologies and media development. Wearable computers are especially useful for applications that require more complex computational support than just hardware coded logics.

One of the main features of a wearable computer is consistency. There is a constant interaction between the computer and user, i.e. there is no need to turn the device on or off. Another feature is the ability to multi-task. It is not necessary to stop what you are doing to use the device; it is augmented into all other actions. These devices can be incorporated by the user to act like a prosthetic. It can therefore be an extension of the user's mind and/or body.

Many issues are common to the wearables as with mobile computing, ambient intelligence and ubiquitous computing research communities, including power management and heat dissipation, software architectures, wireless and personal area networks.

INTRODUCTION:

Educational systems around the world are under increasing pressure to use the new information and communication technologies (ICTs) to teach students the knowledge and skills they need in the 21st century. IT-Enabled Teaching in a Changing World describes the radical implications the new information and communication technologies have for conventional teaching and learning.

To effectively improve the power of the new information and communication

technologies (ICTs) to improve learning, the following essential conditions must be met:

• Students and teachers must have sufficient access to digital technologies and the Internet in their classrooms, schools, and teacher education institutions.

• High quality, meaningful, and culturally responsive digital content must be available for teachers and learners.

• Teachers must have the knowledge and skills to use the new digital tools and resources to help all students achieve high academic standards.

This document is designed to provide a guide to help teacher educators, administrators and policy-makers infuse, integrate, or embed ICTs into teacher education. The resources were developed by an international group of experts with extensive experience in the integration of ICTs into teacher preparation. The document provides a framework for ICTs in teacher education and describes the essential conditions that must be met for successful technology integration. It offers case studies illustrating the variety of approaches that may be used in integrating ICTs into teacher education and provides guidelines for the development

of a high quality strategic technology plan. Lastly, it discusses the importance of planning and managing the change process and building a broad base of support among all stakeholders to achieve the goals of integrating ICTs into the teacher education programme.

THE TRADITIONAL VIEW OF THE LEARNING PROCESS:

The existing view of the learning process emerged out of the factory model of education at the turn of the 20th century and was highly effective in preparing large numbers of individuals with skills needed for low-skilled positions in industry and agriculture. The innovation of classrooms with 20- 30 students was created along with the concept of standardized instruction for everyone.

The teacher is the expert and the dispenser of knowledge to the students. It is largely a 'broadcast' model of learning where the teacher serves as the repository and transmitter of knowledge to the students.

The weaknesses of poor student's identification are often deficiencies in terms of the traditional organization and content of schooling. Very little thought has been given to the idea of changing schooling to accommodate new kinds of students; all the effort has gone to changing the students so that they will fit into the schools. In addition, the underlying assumptions about poor students' motivation, language, and conceptual development have..."militated against offering them a literacy of thoughtfulness and have favored a low-level,

atomized, concrete, basic-skills curriculum. The language of that curriculum has

been so simplified that it is both boring and artificial.

CHANGES IN VIEWS OF THE LEARNING PROCESS:

In contrast to the traditional teaching-learning paradigm, a new paradigm of the teaching-learning process is emerging, based on three decades of research in human learning that encompasses the following views of the human learning process:

• Learning is a natural process.

The natural state of the brain is to learn, however, not everyone learns in the same way. There are different learning, perceptual and personality styles that must be considered in the design of learning experiences for the individual student. Given interesting and rich learning environments, and supportive and stimulating teachers, students will learn. Teachers have often noted that children who appear disruptive or to have short attention spans when confronted with typical classroom instruction, may spend long periods engaged in meaningful and interesting computer- related activities.

• Learning is a social process.

The communal context of knowledge and learning is beginning to be rediscovered, as evidenced by the rapid growth of quality circles and

Computer-supported collaborative work in business, government, medicine, and higher education. Students learn best in collaboration with peers, teachers, parents, and others when they are actively engaged in meaningful, interesting tasks. ICTs provide opportunities for teachers and students to collaborate with others across the country and across the globe. They also provide new tools to support this collaborative learning in the classroom and online.

• Learning is an active and not a passive process.

In most fields, people are faced with the challenge of producing knowledge rather than simply reproducing knowledge. To allow students to move toward competence, they must be actively engaged in the learning process, in activities such as solving real problems, producing original writing, completing scientific research projects (rather than simply studying about science), dialoguing with others on important issues, providing artistic and musical performances, and constructing physical objects. The traditional curriculum asks students only to recall and describe what others have accomplished or produced. While all production of knowledge must be based on an understanding of prior knowledge, the mere reproduction of knowledge, without its connection to the production of knowledge, is largely a passive activity that neither fully engages nor challenges the student.

• Learning may either be linear or non-linear.

Much of what now happens in schools appears based on the notion that the mind works like a serial processor that is designed to process only one piece of information at a time in sequential order. But the mind is a wonderful parallel processor that may attend to and process many different types of information simultaneously. Cognitive theory and research sees learning as a reorganization of knowledge structures. The knowledge structures are stored in semantic memory as schema or cognitive maps. Students "learn" by augmenting, combining, and rearranging a collection of cognitive maps, many of which overlap or are interconnected through a complex network of associations. There are many ways that students may acquire and process information and assimilate it into their existing knowledge structures. Although some knowledge domains, such as mathematics, may perhaps lend themselves to a linear approach, not all learning can or should occur linearly.

• Learning is based on a strength model of student abilities, interest, and culture.

Based on the work of Howard Gardner and others, schools are beginning to consider the specific strengths and interests that students bring to the learning

environment, and are designing learning activities that build on student strengths rather than focusing only upon remediating weaknesses. In addition, schools increasingly recognize diversity as a resource rather than a problem in the classroom. In contrast to the remedial and standardized concept of instruction, diversity and individual differences are valued and the learning

process is designed to build on the strengths and assets brought by the learner to the classroom.

Teacher Education through ICTs:

This section provides a rationale and framework for the process of training teachers and their associates to adopt ICTs in education. It draws upon the new views of the learning process outlined earlier and describes appropriate approaches to professional development and organizational change.

Basic principles for development of effective ICT teacher education are as follows:

Technology should be infused into the entire teacher education programme.

Throughout their teacher education experience, students should learn about and with technology and how to incorporate it into their own teaching. Restricting technology experiences to a single course or to a single area of teacher education, such as methods courses, will not prepare students to be technology-using teachers. Pre-service teacher education students should learn about a wide range of educational technologies across their professional preparation.

Students should experience innovative technology-supported learning environments in their teacher education programme.

Technology can be used to support traditional forms of learning as well as to transform learning. A PowerPoint presentation, for example, can enhance a traditional lecture, but it does not necessarily transform the learning experience. On the other hand, using multimedia cases to teach topics that have previously been addressed through lectures may well be an example of a learning experience transformed by technology.

Teaching through Wearable Devices:

Wearable computers, also known as body-borne computers are miniature electronic devices that are worn by the bearer under, with or on top of clothing. This class of wearable technology has been developed for general or special purpose information technologies and media development. Wearable computers are especially useful for applications that require more complex computational support than just hardware coded logics.

One of the main features of a wearable computer is consistency. There is a constant interaction between the computer and user, i.e. there is no need to turn the device on or off. Another feature is the ability to multi-task. It is not necessary to stop what you are doing to use the device; it is augmented into all other actions. These devices can be incorporated by the user to act like a prosthetic. It can therefore be an extension of the user's mind and/or body.

Many issues are common to the wearables as with mobile computing, ambient intelligence and ubiquitous computing research communities, including power management and heat dissipation, software architectures, wireless and personal area networks.

Summary:

With the emerging new information and communication technologies, the teaching profession is evolving form an emphasis on teacher-centered, lecture-based instruction to student-centered, Interactive learning environments, Designing and implementing successful ICT-enabled teacher education programmes is the key to fundamental,wide-ranging educational reforms.

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