Case study: the macltyres theory

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The present approaches to L2 education in classes emphasize the introduction to L2 input and the provision of openings for learners to employ meaningful communication in class and out. This paper critically analyzes the significance of WTC as stated in Maclntyre (2007). The study looks at the development of the model starting with the early model of McCrosky (1985) WTC L1, to the modified versions of WTC McCroskey (94, 96, and 98) in L2 highlighting the situational and endurance factors involved. Putting in mind that the study's interests are in applied linguistics in education. The study at the end wants to prove that the Maclntyre's model 1998 (the pyramid model) is still valid till now for educators and specify weather the significance is in education or communication.

The Problem Statement and Rational

The problem statement of the study is to find an answer to problem of which the second leaner is and belongs in which field. The rational is that in willing to communicate model by Maclntyre's gives the chance to combine psychological, educational, linguistic, and communicative procedures to L2 study which have never been normally dependant on one another and it looks like both different elements' individual factor promoting L2 attainment particularly in a educational system that stresses communication and as a nonlinguistic results of the language learning course, as stated by Maclntyre.

The Objectives of the Study

Following the dilemma of the field that the second language learner is, objective of the study is to prove the validity of Maclntyre's model 1998 (the pyramid model) to educators the second language leaner in either the education field or communication in the current times. Another objective is to look at the connections between the L2 learning and the L2 communication variables by the use of the social context model, WTC models, socio-educational model by Gardner and another model in the article Motivation, anxiety and emotion in second language acquisition by Peter D. Maclntyre. Social context model is to describe the interrelations among interethnic contact, L2 confidence, L2 competence and the L2 identifying. The research was motivated by the following research questions:

What are the main goals of language learning from the teachers and students point of view?

Are students interested in communication as a goal of language learning?

Can WTC be a goal of second language education? If so, how would we measure it?

In what settings might WTC be a goal and where will communication not be a valid goal?

The Willing to Communicate (WTC) Model

The Historical Development of WTC Model

The first researchers in WTC were McCroskey. He developed this make basing on three sovereign variables namely; unwillingness to communicate, inclining towards verbal behavior and shyness. (McCroskey & Richmond, 1982). The first research addressed WTC in the local language and recognized it as personality-based feature like predisposition. That is quite stable across context and recipients. From this point of view WTC was believed the tendency of a person to begin communication when given the chance to chose to do so

(McCroskey & Richmond, (1989) stressed the significance of WTC for the person's well being. Suggesting that those who communicate more are normally better assessed in different context like in churches and that having little WTC refers to communicational failure that can reduce one's social and emotional existence. (McCroskey & Richmond, (1990 suggests WTC begin from the variables like absence of anxiety and professed capability. Meaning that people are willing to converse when not anxious and recognize themselves as competent speakers. This idea is the one that clarified by McCroskey & Richmond, (1997).and was primarily hold empirically by Maclntyre (1994)he came up with a path model postulating that that WTC is supported on a mixture of greater professed talkative competence and a lower degree of communication hesitation . The model hypothesized that nervousness influence the perception of competence. With the coming up of a construct for WTC in the L1 apparatus for its dimension was adopted in McCroskey and Bear 1985 and validated many times.

The WTC model was initially applied to the L2 by Maclntyre and Charos (1996).which tested the hybrid of Gardner's (1985) socio-educational and Maclntyre WTC (1994) model that predicts of the rate of L2 utilization among the Anglophone candidate studying French. The outcomes proved that learners with higher motivation for language learning made statement frequently and these willing to communicate were likely to do so. Hypothesized variables essential to WTC were tested too and discovered that anxiety and professed competence affected the WTC. The foreseen effect of anxiety on professed talkative competence also holds in Maclntyre WTC (1996). The personality traits and the social contexts affect the L2 learning indirectly in the name of attitude motivation, L2 anxiety and supposed competence. Personality qualities affect motivation and the WTC which then affect the L2 learning. To support the Maclntyre (1998) it is evidenced that context and personality are the variables `affecting the WTC. Studies showed that interaction opportunities affects the L2 learning and indirectly the professed competence. As a timely to constantly shun communication based on factors like bashfulness, absence of communication competence, isolation, and communication anxiety and Anomie, the significant linkage of these factors to WTC Macltyres (1994).

The WTC model according to Maclntyre and Charos (1996s) isn't isomorphic with the professed competence or anxiety regarding communications, although the three variables have to correlate significantly. In addition the model propose a variety of layers of putting pressure on the WTC on the ground of several variables like motivation, intergroup maters and social conditions. Extending the WTC to L2 learning conditions proves that it is not important to limit WTC to variable characters because the L2 usage introduces the potential for important differences rooted on broad disparities in competence and inter-group connections. Macintyre et al. (1998) WTC conceptualized to an L2 theoretical model where social and personal context, cognitive context, motivational tendency, conditional antecedents and targets are connected in affecting the WTC in L2 learning. According to MCcroskey and Richmond (1991), the variable of personality, describes why an individual speaks while the other will not given the same conditions. On the other hand the use of L2 gives an introduction of potential important conditional differences basing on the variations in competence intergroup connections.

The current research concentrates on significant conditional variables namely; L2 skill needed to communicate students use L2 to communicate in classes or outside classes. If listening, speaking, writing and reading are considered main skill areas it is justifiable that WTC in a single area will not correlate with another areas' WTC. The WTC correlation across these sections is empirical unanswered quiz.

A further conditional difference refers to inside classes vs. the real situation debate where WTC comes into play. Most variables projected to underlie in the Maclntyre et al, (1998) model are exclusively important to L2 communication circumstance. Learners may use classroom L2 knowledge and practice it outside classrooms. Giving important tributes to their academic skills with penalties for their linguistic self-confidence as explained in Maclntyre et al, (1994).

Pyramid model

In the WTC adaptation to the L2 conditions Macintyre et al. (1998), a pyramid model has been designed to take into consideration the personal differences in the decision to start L2 communication. The other part of the model supports the intent to start communication with the influence tied to a particular condition and many durable pressures as well. The form refers to the conditions in which there is a particular individual with whom to talk to/with with the need and confidence to talk to. According to MacIntyre et al (1998) the Charos and Maclntyre model of L2 learning is widened to a composite theoretical model demonstrated as six layered pyramid. Intention behavior, behavioral communication and conditional antecedes form the three pyramid layers comprises situational factors that are perceived to influence the L2 learning. These factors usually changes in different conditions. The pick of the pyramid is the intent to communicate with the particular people at a particular time and this is taken as the last step before the commencement of speaking the L2.

Gardener's Socio-Educational Model

The model captures the interrelated concepts .Gardner (2000) found online ( GardnerPublicLecture1.pdf) with fig 1 indicating the basic model. The ingressiveness explains the composite series of attitudes that show r real need to be met, converse with and recognize the mentally with another set. The attitudes to the learning conditions indicate the attitude the language learners have to their teacher and the course. Motivation is the fuel that runs the system. Gardner be

In précis, the socio-educational model has been extremely significant in the psychology of language field. It remains existing and expanding. The recent critics to develop the motivational outline are ensuring a better material. The proof is building up that the WTC provides new study guidelines since the sequential focus is different from the socio-educational model.

The Social context Model

In this model the learning of L2 is based on socio-psychology hence the variables are social factors and effective factors, known as acculturation. Any person can be positioned in a field that ranges from social and psychological detachment to social and psychological nearness with the speakers of L2. The variables involved are these that correlate two social groups whose contact conditions but speaks different languages. Some social factors might encourage or hinder the contact between the groups hence affect the level at which the L2 is leant. Some of the factors are social dominance. If the L1 is dominant than L2 then it hinders the learning. 2nd factors comprises of adaptation, assimilation and preservation. Others are enclosure, cohesiveness and size, congruency, attitude and the leaner's intended period of residence.

Motivation Theory

In chapter three, the model explains the personal differences in language learners as result of motivations the significant variable. The theory is examined in three perspectives. The fast is the socio-education model of Gardner (1985), and the second is its critics which is followed by the emotional concept which in the psychology it has been linked to motivation. Because motivation rise and falls, it is explained in energy gives behavior.

The Critics of the WTC Model

The critics of Gardner fight that other variables have to be thought about in adding up to these concerning integrative motivation.

Other critics claim that the models attractiveness will render to its damaging dominance among language researchers and educators hindering the exploration of other motivational.

On the element of confidence the expected speaking skills have shocking results that give weak performance. A percentage of learners in don't fulfill the competency and confidence in speaking public.

The Gap with Other Studies

While other studies have taken the perspective character there has been few studies that have highlighted the option to speak. Maclntyre et al (1999) looked at people while talking in local languages. The WTC professed the verdict to start communication on hard topics. According to the study by Maclntyre (2004) saw as projected, extraverts, demonstrated upper WTC as compared to introverts when studying the L2 terminologies in medium strange conditions. On the other hand the expected outline was overturned when the study conditions were highly known. Under these situations introverts demonstrated higher WTC as compared to extraverts. Such results give the value in researching the volitional options of the instant.

Historical and Implicated level of these Models

These models seem to have the implications concerning weather teachers can motivate students or not. If the motivation and attitudes continually decline over a period of time then the capability of teacher's motivation is questioned. There is a possibility that some students may be motivated while others may not hence make it reasonable lead to expect what can be shown in the final grades. So the model implies that individuals who obtain better grades have higher levels of motivation than and favorable attitudes compared to these that got low grades.

Directing the attention to correlate L2 achievements and identified variables there is an implication that depends on an achievement assessment as gardener model.