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Single-sex education refers to the education of students in an atmosphere that consists of a single gender, either all-male or all-female atmospheres (NASSPE, 2008). Males and females requisite such different educational experiences and subject matter that they were educated separately (Cohen, 2000). In a single-sex classroom may feel more comfortable about students in the classroom (McCoy, 1995). Many studies show that females in single-sex mathematics classes feel more comfortable and thus ask more question in class they would in a co-educational classroom (Gwizdala & Steinback, 1990; Sadker & Sadker, 1994, Streitmatter, Blair, & Marasco; Parker & Rennie, 2002; Streitmatter, 1997, 1998); however, co-educational class has social advantages particularly for males (Jackson and Bisset, 2005). In addition, researches show that both teacher gangers has affect over the student learning and students ganger has effect teacher instruction. Dee (2007) noted that, boys learn more from men and girls learn more from women. Although a lot of research has been conducted on single-sex education, a very limited portion of the research focuses on teacher instruction. This research will emanate teachers' instruction in single-sex math classroom. This research's aim will to collect data that focuses on single-sex education as a strategy for increasing teacher instruction and students success in single-sex classrooms.
Statement of Problem
Single-sex education might provide some benefit to females (Riordan, 2002). Also single-sex education might help to close the gender gap in some academic disciplines (Mael et al., 2005). Additionally, non-academic benefits can be found in the literature (Riordan, 2008). With the reauthorization of NCLB, the establishment of single-sex public schools is now legal (U.S. Department of Education, 2008). The teacher "works to orchestra the content, the representations of content, and the people in the classroom in relation to one other" (Franke, Kezemi, &Battey, 2007, p. 227). This means that the teacher creates the activities that will engage the students in dialogue and discussion. Ball (1993) stresses the importance of community in learning mathematics and how it can be "source of mathematical insight and knowledge" (p.394). The impact of single-sex education on teachers' instruction is not clear. Little is known about the practices that include instruction in single-sex classrooms. This researcher proposal will to evaluate teachers' instruction in single-sex classes in United States. Researchers will compare teacher instruction in single-sex class with co-educational instruction. The researcher will analyze four different classes from single-sex classes which are male teacher with male students, male teacher with female students, female teacher with female students and female teacher with male students. In addition, researchers will analyze teachers' instruction in co-educational classrooms. Therefore, the study will evaluate single-sex class affect on teachers' instruction, and students and teacher communication. The researcher will analyze four different classes from single-sex classes which are male teacher with male students, male teacher with female students, female teacher with female students and female teacher with male students.
Purpose of Study
This research seeks to explore the single-sex mathematics class effect of the teacher instruction style and how does this effect students learning. Research focus on students-teacher relationship and how that relates to teachers' instruction. This research would be important to teachers, who seek to improve their practice, and researchers, who seek solutions to issues of national and intellectual importance.
Review of Literature
This study investigated preliminary findings related to the effectiveness single-sex classes on teacher instruction. More specifically, the study sought to respond to two broad questions:
1. How does the single-sex mathematics class effect of the teacher instruction style and how does this effect students learning?
2. Is there a difference in teachers' instruction performance between male and female teachers in single-sex math classroom?
Three different types classes will participate in this research. One of the classes is the girls' class, the other one is the boys' class and the third one is co-educational schools .The classes should have from similar catchment areas. Researchers will compare subject grades and standardized test scores for students participating in single-sex instruction during the 2011-2012 school years with a control group of students enrolled in co-educational classes. Efforts will be made to select at least two different teachers for each types classroom. This study will be include six teachers. This study will be limited to relatively small number of teachers due to time and money limitations.
The participants will be given an outline of the research, the purpose, and the importance of conducting this research. Erickson (1986) stated, "the purposes and activities of research that will occur" (p. 141). This information will also include an explanation of any extra work that the participants will have to do as a result of participating in the research. The researchers will observe each classroom once a week for two months. Teacher surveys will administer and analyze to investigate the effects of single-sex instruction on teacher efficacy and satisfaction. Researchers will conduct individual interviews with participating teachers. Single-sex classroom and co-educational classroom observations and teacher interviews will perform to determine levels students-teacher interactions. The researchers will prepare a list of interview questions. Those questions will be used to direct the discussion, but they will not limit the dialogue. The researcher will use an audio recorder to accurately record the conversations and provide the interviewer (researcher) with thoughtful reference. In this study, using an audio recorder will document the interviews and will result in accurate transcripts of the interviews for analysis purposes. The researchers will use three camcorders, one of the camcorder will focus teacher, the second one will focus students and the last one will use independent.
Researchers will use six different data sources: field notes, video and audio recording and transcripts of videos, classrooms observation, teacher and students interviews, and teacher and students surveys. The first source of data collection is the videotapes. Pirie (1996) mentioned that videotaping is a way to capture everything that is happening in the classroom. She reported that the purposes of videotapes are to give the researcher the opportunity to revisit the aspects of the classroom that was recorded, to reflect on classroom events, and to pursue the answers he seeks. According to Hall (2000), watching videotapes of students involved in classroom activities provides a wide vision of the detailed structure of learning and teaching. The researchers will analyze the videotapes of lessons from both single-sex classroom and co-educational classroom. After collecting the videotapes, the researcher will watch them in order to develop an understanding of how single-sex classroom affect teacher instruction and diffidence between single-sex classroom and co-educational classroom. Furthermore, the researcher will observe and analyze classroom about the learning environment of classroom and its effect on the teachers' instruction. According to Marshall and Rossman (1999), "Observation entails the systematic noting and recording of events, behaviors, and artifacts (objects) in the social setting chosen for study. Marshall and Rossman add that observation is a fundamental and highly important method in all qualitative inquiry. In this study, the researcher will observe participant implementing lessons in the classroom for two months in the fall of 2011. During two months, the researchers will observe each classroom once a week. After analyzing the implemented lessons, the researcher will interview the saddens and instructors to obtain the participants' and instructors' judgments. Punch (1998) states that "the interview is one of the main data collection tools in qualitative research. It is very good way of accessing people's perceptions, meanings, definitions of situations and constructions of reality" (p. 174.) In this study, the researcher will use semi-structured interviews (focus interviews). The main purpose of the interview is to obtain the participants' and instructors' judgments. The researcher will pay careful attention to listen and explore participants' and instructors' replies. Furthermore, informing the participants that they will have the opportunity to read the transcripts of their interviews and make suggestions to protect their anonymity will contribute to the authenticity of their responses during the interview. The researcher will provide survey both teacher and students. Students survey will designee to identify students' reasons for choice of single-sex classroom, students' believes about teachers instructions, advantages and characteristics of single-sex or co-education schools. Teacher surveys will control and analyze to investigate the effects of single-sex instruction on teacher efficacy and satisfaction. In addition, teacher survey will designee to identify teachers' reasons for choice of single-sex classroom, students' believes, and experience in the math class, and advantages and characteristics of single-sex or co-education schools. The standard test will use both co-educational and single-sex classroom. The students will take both pre-test and final test. Researchers will use to exanimate students success by standard tests.
Significance of the Study
The researcher will share dates with a doctoral student in mathematics education in University of Maryland and his advisor to reach an agreement on findings. At the same time, the researcher will share and discuss the findings with The Mid-Atlantic Center for Mathematics Teaching and Learning members in 2012 conference. Finally, the researcher will use theme analysis to analyze the results.