Case Study: Models On Teaching

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Teaching models for the teacher is like writing with a pen to express his ideas; he may use teaching methods as his way in achieving good lesson. Good lesson should have clear learning goals for the pupils for the sake of effective learning process. As a result, Teachers should choose the teaching models according to the pedagogic approach of their lessons. A teacher should always make decisions about how to apply his different knowledge to get pupils learn effectively. On the other hand, engaging pupils in the learning process is very important in order to achieve successful outcomes. Lessons may be considered as weak or satisfactory when they lack direction and purpose. The focus of the lesson should be on the pupils not on the teacher itself. But the teacher's role here is the facilitator, administrator, manager, leader in order to make the tasks and activities contribute to the learning objectives outlined for the lesson. Teacher should suit his way of teaching according to pupils' abilities. For example, if the teacher has a slow learners' class, he should explain his lesson in a very simple language in order not to lose their concentration and attract their attention during the period. Teachers should seek for the best way to achieve their outcomes; this will involve selecting and preparing the materials to meet pupils' needs. From this point, we should stress on the importance of models of teaching. This essay will show the comparison between inductive and deductive teaching and how they affect students' progress. We should get benefited from our knowledge about the pupils and their rates of progress in order to form the right view of the teaching process for each class that the teacher takes. From this knowledge, curriculum and the decisions that every teacher make will determine how he can teach using the right method and how he organises the classroom according to that method to focus on pupils' learning needs. In proving this, we will look at the areas of analytical study to select which model is the best to be applied in teaching English as a foreign language in Egypt.

According to Bloom's Taxonomy, the teacher can't effectively address higher levels until those below them have been covered. As a result, the teacher should categorize levels of learning in which he is going to start from. We have three types of learning; cognitive which depends on mental skills or knowledge, affective which growth in feeling or emotional area (attitude), and psychomotor which depends on manual or physical skills. We should build our basic in choosing the teaching method according to these three types of learning means that we shouldn't deal with scientific students using only concepts and definitions but we should use their mental thinking by challenging their abilities in creating and eliciting the concept role. Moreover, Bloom's Taxonomy helps the teacher to classify the different learning objectives that students need and as a result of that it helps in choosing the correct model of teaching.

Inductive teaching:

The first model of teaching is Inductive teaching. It is a powerful strategy for engaging all learners in a structured lesson. The inductive teaching method process goes from the specific to the general (from the examples to the main rule). It may be based on specific experiments or experiential learning exercises. The students do the learning, however we teach. We design the environment to make it likely that the students will learn. We organize the kids, assemble learning resources, and provide tasks. We teach the students to work in that organization, use those resources (including ourselves), and respond to those tasks. Always we have objectives in our mind such as the kinds of learning that we hope will happen. The inductive model is designed to accomplish some very broad purposes, but can be focused specifically as well. Some of the broader objectives occur over fairly long periods of time through many experiences with inductive processes: others can be accomplished quite quickly and efficiently. Learning to process information inductively has a vital place in teaching students how to learn better. Also, however, and this is important, we want to help our young to enhance their skills. And, that doesn't happen automatically. The inductive way of thinking is designed to instruct students in concept formation and, simultaneously, to teach concepts. It nurtures attention to logic, to language and the meaning of words, and to the nature of knowledge. Every inductive experience should help students learn to work inductively collecting and organizing information, forming categories and hypotheses, developing skills, and using the knowledge and skills appropriately. Through these experiences, they learn how to construct and use information while consciously improving their skills in doing so. Thus, the model gives students a powerful tool for learning, one they can use from the time they enter school and which will serve them throughout their lives. As we teach, we want them to get better and better at learning by thinking. Essentially, we want to help them increase their intelligence. The inductive model reaches out to students and invites them to construct knowledge and skill through disciplined inquiry. Long-term retention and the ability to use the knowledge and skills developed during the process are our curriculum goals. The learning that results is not to end with the immediate classroom experience or the "end of unit" assessments, but is to be applied in further schoolwork, in out-of-school work, and to life in general. Another goal is the learning of the inductive process itself, so that students have conscious control of a powerful tool for learning.

Deductive teaching:

The second model of teaching is deductive approach. It starts by giving learners rules, then examples, then practice. Deductive teaching methods progress from the general concept to the specific use or application. It is a teacher-centered approach to presenting new content. It concentrates on subject concepts on the pupils' understanding of the concept rule of the lesson. For instance, if a teacher of English wants to teach about phrases, he may create the concept rule as "phrases are not sentences". Hence, critical attributes are defined by their critical attributes which must exist for the rule to be true. For example, a critical attribute of a sentence is that it begins with a capital letter. These critical attributes is certainly helpful for pupils. However, non-critical attributes is required for pupils to understand the concept. For example, a non-critical attribute of a sentence is that it may or may not end with a full stop (punctuation is a critical attribute, but the full stop is non critical according to the meaning of the sentence). This is compared with an inductive approach, which starts with examples and asks learners to find rules, and hence is more learner-centered. For example in Egypt, the form and use of the third conditional is explained to learners, after that they have a gap-fill exercise to complete, and then prepare their own examples. In this example they are giving the rule of the third conditional on board, introduce example to emphasize the rule then measure their understanding by giving them exercises to answer by themselves and this supports my own experience in primary schools in Egypt. The deductive approach may be suitable with lower level learners who need a clear base from which to begin with a new language item, or with learners who are accustomed to a more traditional approach and so who lack the training to find rules themselves. Deductive teaching is called also direct instruction in which the instructor presents a general concept by first defining it and then providing examples or illustrations that demonstrate the idea. On the other hand, examples that don't fit the idea are helpful in confirming the idea and that means that students are giving opportunities to practice, apply and find examples until they achieve concept mastery.

Analytical study of the two approaches:

Neither of these approaches is perfect for all students; each has advantages and disadvantages. There is much data which supports this point. Richard Felder (1993) proved that some students learn best through an inductive approach; some learn best through a deductive approach. From this opinion, one can see that students can draw other meaning from the examples and data provided in the inductive approach than what was intended by the teacher. The inductive approach may also take more time and be less "efficient" than the deductive approach. From my own experience, the deductive approach is more effective because it depends on eliciting information from the students by giving them examples which will stick in their minds forever, rather than giving them the rule without exerting much effort in thinking about it by them (easy comes, easy goes).

Some other researchers have claimed that deductive teaching can be critically important for students with learning disabilities (Brigham and Matins, 1999). This method is easily accommodated students' needs and familiar to them and this contrast with my own experience in teaching English as a foreign language because deductive teaching can be too firm a form that does not allow for dispersal student thinking nor emphasis student reasoning and problem solving.

Mary Bay et al. (1990) demonstrated that students with mild handicaps in their science achievement, including learning disabilities, taught by an inductive approach showed better long-term retaining concepts than those taught with a deductive approach. The idea is that inductive thinking requires deeper processing. According to my own experience in the primary education, inductive thinking here is more valuable because these students are slow learners and can't deduce the rule from the examples alone. When using deductive model with them, they will feel disappointed and upset. Accordingly, they will lose their motivation in learning.

Whereas, Mastropieri et al., (1997) confirmed that inductive-based activities for students with learning disabilities, without open-ended inductive exercises, will result in less effective concept development. The teacher's role here, in these exercises, is to make clear guidelines for behavior provided clearly and fully expressed directions from the beginning if the activity and he should be prepared to offer extra advice or help as necessary. My experience in teaching English as a second language reinforce this idea, activities in all subjects and for all learners is the best way to confirm the information for a long time in students mind in order for them not to be just receivers inside the class. Receiving information is less benefited than thinking about examples and deducing these knowledge and theories by reasoning. Using inductive-based activities will make the data everlasting in their mind because they will exert effort in gaining information.

These arguments for and against our topic emphasize the importance of these two approaches. Both are important teaching models. On the other side, learning how to learn is the central focus of education to help students build their capacity to learn. As a result, teachers should place learning to learn at the centre of education in order to enhance the learning of content, skills, and processes in the core curriculum areas. The best curricula are devoted to learning how to learn and the best schools make learning to learn central. Learning to learn should always gain our attention in order to achieve the best benefit of learning methods - ways of teaching- that expand the ways we can increase learning capacity and do so across the curriculum and throughout the school social climate. Teachers apply a variety of pedagogic approaches- models of teaching- depending upon the subject content and upon the pupils being taught. The combination of knowledge, decisions and action should provide a motive for effective teaching in classroom. Effective teachers promote effective learning in a high expectations culture. Pupils achieve more when lessons are well structured, when teachers make clear objectives and where pupils know what they are supposed to be learning. Effective teachers should take into account reviewing pupils' progress regularly.

Conclusion:

At the end, the teacher should focus on the importance of suiting teaching models to afford pupils needs. That's why Lessons should have to be well prepared in order to help pupils understand the lesson content and connect it with their previous experience. Using the model of teaching for each class enables the teacher to deliver his message successfully. Both inductive and deductive should be included in teaching English as a foreign language in Egypt. Each of them offers advantages to students with different learning strengths and motivations. Variety of teaching models can achieve high expectation in teaching the content; get rid of boredom inside the class, reach a broader number of students with different learning needs, create a healthy atmosphere between students, make a harmony between the teacher and his students, development and implementation of the curriculum by ensuring that all the data understood clearly and smoothly.

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