Burnout And Extraversion Dimension Of Personality Education Essay

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In this section three dimensions of burnout and Eysenck personality dimensions were studied. On the basis of scores obtained for the dimensions of personality, teachers were categorized in high and low levels for the three dimensions of personality as given in manual of Eysenck Personality Questionnaire by Eysenck & Eysenck (1985). In the manual two methods for categorization are used, one is used by converting raw scores into sten scores and in second method categorization is done by using mean ± standard deviation. The teachers scoring more than mean + standard deviation were taken in high level category and those who scored less than mean - standard deviation were taken in low level category. The method of mean ± standard deviation, which is used for categorization in this study, is also used by Russell, Armstrong and Patel (1975), Eysenck (1956) and Graham & Kendall (1960) as quoted in the manual. The t-ratios were computed to test the significance of the difference between mean scores of dimensions of burnout for the teachers high and low on dimensions of personality.

4.2.1 Burnout and Extraversion dimension of Personality

The three dimensions of burnout namely emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation and personal accomplishment were studied with extraversion dimension of personality.

(a) Emotional exhaustion dimension of burnout and extraversion

The significance of difference between mean scores of emotional exhaustion for the teachers high and low on extraversion dimension of personality was calculated by applying t-test.

The results entered in Table 4.16, revealed a significant difference (t=4.13, significant at 0.01) between teachers with high extraversion and low extraversion on emotional exhaustion dimension of burnout. The results revealed that teacher low on extraversion had higher mean scores of emotional exhaustion (M=15.12) as compared to teachers high on extraversion (M=12.18). This indicated that highly extrovert teachers are less emotionally exhausted. Teachers high on extraversion are generally self confident, active and excitement seeking so they remain involved in new activities (Kim et al; 2009). They are more likely to show positive emotions, higher intensity of personal interaction, so they do not get easily exhausted with students. They have good communication skills which help them in maintaining social support with other teachers. Extravert teachers are more likely to take interest in new projects and assignments. They generally work and think like leaders and these qualities always keep them in high spirits and wash away their stress. All these characteristics help them in achieving rewards and recognition in schools. Since extroverts are less egocentric, so they are more likely to share healthy relationship with everybody. They worry less about wrong things and believe in themselves. They often talk in high spirits and are less exhausted by stressful situations. The findings are in line with the results reported by Arnold et al. (2006) and Mc Crac & Costa (1992). They reported that if one's extraversion is high, one would not get burned out easily because of possessing good communication skills.

On the basis of above results and discussions, Hypothesis 1 stating "there will be no significant difference in emotional exhaustion dimension of burnout between secondary school teachers with high and low on extraversion dimension of personality" is not accepted.

(b) Depersonalisation dimension of burnout and extraversion

The significance of difference between mean scores of depersonalisation for the teachers high and low on extraversion dimension of personality was studied by applying t-test.

The results of Table 4.17 revealed a significant difference (t=2.30, significant at 0.05) in the scores of depersonalisation between teachers with high and low extraversion. The results indicated that teachers with low extraversion had higher mean scores of depersonalisation (M=9.15) as compared to teachers high on extraversion (M=7.81). It means highly extrovert teachers are less depersonalized. It may be because of the fact that depersonalisation dimension of burnout is a psychological state of mind of a teacher who feels over worked. It is the process which begins with low enthusiasm and dedication, and then there is drastic reversal in attitude and behaviour. The teachers high on extraversion are optimistic and sociable, so they are more likely to maintain healthy interaction in the classroom and always remain motivated (Mangle; 2005). Since teachers high on extroversion are generally active and participate in all works with full enthusiasm so students find them more resourceful as compared to teachers low on extroversion. They do not blame their students and always work with new approach. They are less likely to show negative attitude towards their students and are less depersonalised. The teachers low on extraversion are less expressive and social so they face difficulties in handling stressful situations of school and classrooms and are more likely to get depersonalized. The findings of the present study are supported by studies of Mehta (2012) and Kokkinos (2007) in which they also reported that extraversion is negatively correlated with depersonalization and reason for this was found to be students' misbehaviour with teachers who were low on extraversion.

On the basis of above results and discussions, Hypothesis 2 stating "there will be no significant difference in depersonalization dimension of burnout between secondary school teachers with high and low on extraversion dimension of personality" is not accepted.

(c) Personal accomplishment dimension of burnout and extraversion

The table given below shows significance of difference between mean scores of personal accomplishment for the teachers high and low on extraversion dimension of personality.

The results of Table 4.18 revealed no significant difference (t=1.59, not significant) in the scores of personal accomplishment between teachers with high and low extraversion. It indicated that teachers high and low on extraversion did not differ significantly on personal accomplishment dimension. As far as personal accomplishment dimension is concerned, teachers did not differ significantly and it may be because of the fact that personal accomplishment means satisfaction with achievement of goals. It may be because of the fact that working atmosphere is almost same for teachers with high and low extraversion dimension. Since personal accomplishment is satisfaction of job, so teachers high and low on extraversion both enjoy their job. Since allocation of duties and classes is same for both, so they do not differ on personal accomplishment. Although, the teachers high and low on extraversion differed significantly on emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation dimensions of burnout but they did not differ on personal accomplishment. The results also indicated that teachers high on extraversion are less emotionally exhausted, depersonalised and hence are more personally accomplished. The findings of the present study are supported by Salami (2011) who concluded in his study that personal accomplishment dimension was not found to be significant factor for emotional exhaustion dimension of burnout. It may be because of the fact that goals and aspirations are inner feelings and teachers remain self motivated for accomplishing them.

On the basis of above results and discussions, Hypothesis 3 stating "there will be no significant difference in personal accomplishment dimension of burnout between secondary school teachers with high and low on extraversion dimension of personality" stands accepted.

4.2.2 Burnout and Neuroticism dimension of Personality

The three dimensions of burnout namely emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation and personal accomplishment were studied with neuroticism dimension of personality.

(a) Emotional exhaustion dimension of burnout and neuroticism

The significance of difference between mean scores of emotional exhaustion dimension of burnout for the teachers high and low on neuroticism dimension of personality was studied by applying t-test.

The results of Table 4.19 revealed a significant difference (t=5.23, significant at 0.01) between teachers with high neuroticism and low neuroticism on emotional exhaustion dimension of burnout. The results indicated that teachers high on neuroticism had higher mean scores of emotional exhaustion (M=18.07) as compared to teachers low on neuroticism (M=13.51). It means highly neurotic teachers are more emotionally exhausted. It may be due to the fact that teachers high on neuroticism are moody, anxious and restless and are more likely to breakdown under stress. Teachers in such conditions easily exhibit tired and fatigued feelings (Chand; 1998). Similarly neurotic teachers are also less likely to handle constantly changing requirements of the schools because they are moody. Since highly neurotic teachers are restless, so they are less likely to exercise their personal control over daily decision making and thus more emotionally exhausted. They are more likely to face frustration and dissatisfaction from their job. The results of the study are in conformity with results of Kokkinos (2007) and Duggal (2005). They also concluded that high levels of neuroticism were predictive of emotional exhaustion. Burke & Greenglass (1996) also reported that neuroticism was one of the strongest personality correlates of burnout, particularly of emotional exhaustion. Reasons for this were found to be interpersonal demands and lack of professional recognition.

On the basis of above results and discussions, Hypothesis 4 stating "there will be no significant difference in emotional exhaustion dimension of burnout between secondary school teachers with high and low on neuroticism dimension of personality" is not accepted.

(b) Depersonalisation dimension of burnout and neuroticism

The significance of difference between mean scores of depersonalisation for the teachers high and low on neuroticism dimension of personality was calculated by applying t-test.

The results entered in Table 4.20 revealed a significant difference (t=3.57, significant at 0.01) between teachers with high neuroticism and low neuroticism on depersonalisation dimension of burnout. The result indicated that teachers high on neuroticism had higher mean scores of depersonalization (M=8.42) as compared to teachers low on neuroticism (M=6.51). It indicated that highly neurotic teachers are more depersonalised. It may be because of the fact that teachers high on neuroticism show emotional instability, over responsiveness and negative attitude towards students. The highly neurotic teachers show less tolerance which affects their interpersonal relationships in school. This leads to withdrawal from social interactions so they often remain aloof and face depersonalisation. They are moody, so they face difficulties in everyday school functioning. Such teachers are more likely to maintain distance from students because they feel less resourceful. Teachers in such conditions are more likely to face interpersonal problems. Findings of the study are in conformity with findings of Davazglou (2005) & Reza (2012) in which they reported that high level of neuroticism and low levels of depersonalization was most important predictor of burnout. It was found that emotional withdrawal and lack of social support were main reason.

On the basis of above results and discussions, Hypothesis 5 stating "there will be no significant difference in depersonalization dimension of burnout between secondary school teachers with high and low on neuroticism dimension of personality" is not accepted.

(c) Personal accomplishment dimension of burnout and neuroticism

The significance of difference between mean scores of personal accomplishment for the teachers high and low on neuroticism dimension of burnout was calculated by applying t-test.

t-value for 272 df is 2.60 at 0.01 (**) level of significance

The Table 4.21 revealed no significant difference (t=1.12 not significant) in the scores of personal accomplishment of teachers high and low on neuroticism. Neuroticism is the personality dimension which describes emotional stability of a person in different situations. Whereas, personal accomplishment is related to achievement of personal goals, aspirations and dreams in life. On personal accomplishment dimension of burnout is teachers did not differ significantly and it may be because of the fact that personal accomplishment means satisfaction and achievement of goals and teachers high and low on neuroticism face same difficulties in accomplishing their goals. Teachers high and low on neuroticism have equal opportunities to fulfill their goals. They are equal from all aspects and face same type of problems in schools, so they do not differ significantly on mean scores of personal accomplishment.

The teachers high and low on neuroticism dimension of personality differed significantly on emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation dimensions of burnout and the results also indicated that teachers high on neuroticism are more emotionally exhausted and depersonalised. These two dimensions are related with work overload, stress at work place and interpersonal problems. These findings of the present study are in agreement with those of (Maslach, Jackson & Leiter, 1996), Mishra (1991) and Kokkinos (2007) in which they concluded that neuroticism were not related with personal accomplishment.

On the basis of above results and discussions, Hypothesis 6 stating "there will be no significant difference in personal accomplishment dimension of burnout between secondary school teachers with high and low on neuroticism dimension of personality" stands accepted.

4.2.3 Burnout and Psychoticism dimension of Personality

The three dimensions of burnout namely emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation and personal accomplishment were studied with psychoticism dimension of personality.

(a) Emotional exhaustion dimension of burnout and psychoticism

The significance of difference between mean scores of emotional exhaustion for the teachers high and low on psychoticism dimension of personality was obtained by applying t-test.

The results of Table 4.22 revealed a significant difference (t=6.44, significant at 0.01) between teachers with high psychoticism and low psychoticism on emotional exhaustion dimension of burnout. The results indicated that teachers high on psychoticism had higher mean scores of emotional exhaustion (M=15.23) as compared to teachers low on psychoticism (M=11.32). It means highly psychotic individuals are more emotionally exhausted. According to Mangal (2005) teachers high on psychoticism generally remain out of touch with reality, impulsive, solitary and egocentric. Such teachers remain in the world of false perception and this creates problem in their teaching profession. Teachers high on psychoticism are more aggressive so they are likely to get tired. In classroom situations it becomes very problematic. Personal withdrawal is very common among teachers high on psychoticism. Teachers high on psychoticism are impulsive so when they are in mood they work impulsively and feel very tired. This leads to emotional exhaustion. The findings of the present study are supported by Kumari (2008) in which she reported that teachers high on psychoticism scored high on emotional exhaustion dimension. It may be because of the fact that psychotic individuals are dogmatic, impulsive, tough-minded and restless so they scored higher on emotional exhaustion dimension of burnout.

On the basis of above results and discussions, Hypothesis 7 stating "there will be no significant difference in emotional exhaustion dimension of burnout between secondary school teachers with high and low on psychoticism dimension of personality" is not accepted.

(b) Depersonalisation dimension of burnout and psychoticism

The significance of difference between mean scores of depersonalisation for the teachers high and low on psychoticism dimension of personality was obtained by applying t-test.

The results of Table 4.23 revealed a significant difference (t=4.27, significant at 0.01) between teachers with high psychoticism and low psychoticism on depersonalisation dimension of burnout. The results indicated that teachers high on psychoticism had higher mean scores of depersonalization (M=7.89) as compared to teachers low on psychoticism (M=5.89). It means highly psychotic individuals are more depersonalized. Psychotic teachers face adjustment problems as they withdraw themselves from all relationships. Teachers with such trait are mostly egocentric and face problems with colleagues and students (Aggarwal; 1998). This type of maladjustment with colleagues and students leads them to depersonalisation. They do not feel motivated to teach. Psychotic teachers are less social and it is the reason for their withdrawal from social activities in schools. They feel emotionally drained and ultimately performance drops and feels depersonalised. It creates a feeling of meaninglessness and alienation in them. Therefore teachers higher on psychoticism are more depersonalised. Kumari (2000) and Fontana & Abouserie (1993) found association between high scores on psychoticism and burnout. It was found that teachers high on psychoticism were maladjusted and hence depersonalised.

On the basis of above results and discussions, Hypothesis 8 stating "there will be no significant difference in depersonalization dimension of burnout between secondary school teachers with high and low on psychoticism dimension of personality" is not accepted.

(c) Personal accomplishment dimension of burnout and psychoticism

The significance of difference between mean scores of personal accomplishment for the teachers high and low on psychoticism dimension of personality was obtained by applying t-test.

The Table 4.24 shows mean differences in the scores of personal accomplishment of teachers high and low on psychoticism. The calculated t-value between teachers high and low on psychoticism dimension in respect of personal accomplishment was not significant. It indicated that teachers high and low on psychoticism did not differ on personal accomplishment dimension. Teachers high and low on psychoticism share equal responsibilities of school. They have equal freedom to carry out their activities in schools. Also they face same type of organizational problems, so they did not differ significantly on personal accomplishment dimension of burnout.

Although, teachers on psychoticism dimension of personality differed significantly with emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation. They did not differ significantly. It may be because of the fact that emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation are more related to environmental stressors and social support while personal accomplishment is related to personality of teacher. The findings of the present study are supported by study of Duggal (2005) in which she reported that no significant differences were found between teachers on personal accomplishment with psychoticism.

On the basis of above results and discussions, Hypothesis 9 stating "there will be no significant difference in personal accomplishment dimension of burnout between secondary school teachers with high and low on psychoticism dimension of personality" is accepted.

SECTION III

4.3 BURNOUT AND ATTITUDE TOWARDS TEACHING

In this section significance of difference between mean scores of three dimensions of burnout (Emotional exhaustion, Depersonalisation, Personal accomplishment) and attitude towards teaching was calculated by t-test.

(a) Emotional exhaustion dimension of burnout and Attitude towards teaching

The significance of the difference between mean scores of emotional exhaustion of teachers with high and low attitude towards teaching was calculated by using t-test.

The results of Table 4.25 revealed a significant difference (t=4.66, significant at 0.01) between the teachers with high and low attitude towards teaching on emotional exhaustion dimension of burnout. The result revealed that teachers with low attitude towards teaching had higher scores on emotional exhaustion (M=18.21) dimension of burnout as compared to teachers with high attitude towards teaching. It may be because of the fact that teachers with low attitude towards teaching face many problems in schools. Since demands of educational system are increasing day by day, so teachers feel loaded with extra work. There is feeling of irritability and hopelessness as there is no awards and recognition for teachers in our educational system. In long run frustration, feeling of guilt, interpersonal conflict and depression become more frequent. These things lead to increase of emotional exhaustion in teachers with low attitude towards teaching. However, in the teachers with high attitude towards teaching emotional exhaustion was found to be less because they always take interest and enjoy all the activities of school. The result is supported by Ispir et al. (2010) they reported that attitudes of teachers were found high and burnout levels were found low.

On the basis of above results and discussions, Hypothesis 10 stating "there will be no significant difference in emotional exhaustion dimension of burnout between secondary school teachers with high and low attitude towards teaching" is not accepted.

(b) Depersonalisation dimension of burnout and Attitude towards teaching

The significance of the difference between mean scores of depersonalisation of teachers with high and low attitude towards teaching was calculated by using t-test.

t-value for 240 df is 2.60 at 0.01 (**) level of significance

The results of Table 4.26 revealed a significant difference in the scores of depersonalisation of teachers with high and low attitude towards teaching. It was also found that teachers high on attitude towards teaching were having lower scores on depersonalisation (M=6.59). Therefore, teachers with high attitude towards teaching are less depersonalised. In the state of depersonalisation energy level, good health and enthusiasm depletes. It may be because of the fact that teachers with high attitude perform well in all the activities of school and remain motivated for innovative ideas. These things bring them reward and recognition. On the other hand, teachers with low attitude towards teaching are more depersonalised. It may be because of the fact that teachers high on depersonalisation teachers detach themselves from the society and sink into the state of meaninglessness. In such conditions, efficiency of a teacher decreases. The state of mind in such conditions unable a teacher to perform well and hence job becomes a burden. Therefore the teachers with low attitude towards teaching are more depersonalised. The findings are supported by Batra (2005) in her study conducted on mental health and burnout among secondary school teachers of govt. and private schools of Chandigarh. In this study depersonalisation was found to be negatively and significantly correlated with attitude towards teaching profession. She also reported that interpersonal conflicts with colleagues and students misbehaviour were main reasons for depersonalisation.

On the basis of above results Hypothesis 11 stating "there will be no significant difference in depersonalization dimension of burnout between secondary school teachers with high and low attitude towards teaching" is not accepted.

(c) Personal accomplishment dimension of burnout and Attitude towards teaching

The significance of the difference between mean scores of personal accomplishment of teachers with high and low attitude towards teaching was calculated by using t-test.

The Table 4.27 shows no mean difference was found in the scores of attitude towards teaching of teachers with high and low personal accomplishment. The t-value between teachers high and low on personal accomplishment dimension in respect of psychoticism was not found to be significant. It may be because of the fact that teachers with high attitude towards teaching have their own set goals to accomplish their job. On contrary to this, teachers with low attitude set their own norms for satisfaction. They perform equal duties and feel satisfied. They are equally free to use new methods and techniques. Therefore, teachers with high and low attitude towards teaching do not differ significantly on personal accomplishment dimension of burnout.

However, teachers high and low on attitude towards teaching differed significantly on emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation but did not differ on personal accomplishment dimension of burnout. It is also indicated that teachers with high attitude towards teaching were less emotionally exhausted and depersonalised and reason for this may be the fact that high attitude helps them in tackling with stressful situations. On personal accomplishment dimension teachers did not differ because teachers with high and low attitude towards teaching accomplish their dreams in their own way and are equally equipped for job.

On the basis of above results, Hypothesis 12 stating "there will be no significant difference in personal accomplishment dimension of burnout between secondary school teachers with high and low attitude towards teaching" stands accepted.

SECTION IV

4.4 ANALYSIS OF DATA THROUGH ANOVA

This section describes computations of ANOVA and t-ratios in respect of hypotheses of the study. To evaluate the main effects and interactional effects of gender and experience on three dimension of burnout, the technique of analysis of variance (ANOVA) was employed.

(a). Normality:- For checking the normality of data, mean, median, mode, Standard deviation, skewness and kurtosis were calculated for three dimensions of burnout, personality and attitude towards teaching and the values of mean, median, mode, S.D, skewness and kurtosis are discussed in the Table 4.15.

(b). Random Sampling: - The second assumption was satisfied by arranging random and mutually exclusive cases in each cell of the factorial design 2X3. In the present study, there are 6 (2x3) subgroups/ treatments/cells. The basic advantage of using factorial design lies in the fact that even with small entries in different cells to the tune of 3 mutually independent in each cell yield dependable results.

(c). Assumption of homogeneity of variance:- ANOVA is generally robust to moderate violations of homogeneity of variance as long as the sample sizes in each group are equal to each other and are not reasonable small (e.g. less than five per group) (Maxwell and Delaney, 2004, pp 112-113). This assumption of homogeneity of variance was tested with the help of Levene test (SPSS-11 package). The summary of the results is presented in Table 4.28.

ANOVA assumes that the variances of the groups are all equal. The result of the Levene test for homogeneity of variances in Table 4.28, displays that the significance value exceeds .05, suggesting there by that the variance for the group is equal and the assumption is justified (SPSS-11 package).

(d). Additive effects:-The fourth assumption of additivity of variance was held satisfied through computational steps in calculating F- ratios.

4.4.1 Burnout and Demographic Variables

The effect of demographic variables i.e. gender and experience separately on the dimension of burnout was analyzed through analysis of variance (ANOVA). The experience was taken at three levels (<10 years, 10 to 20 years and > 20 years). Test of significance of difference between means (t-ratio) was used to specifically locate significant inter group differences. The summary of analysis of variance of dimensions of burnout and demographic variables has been presented in the Table 4.29 to 4.31.

The calculated t-value was 6.77 (significant at .01 level) when comparison was made between male and female teachers on emotional exhaustion dimension. Mean score of emotional exhaustion dimension of burnout of female teachers (M=19.39) was higher than mean score of emotional exhaustion dimension of burnout of male teachers (M=15.39). This indicated that female teachers are more emotionally exhausted as compared to male teachers. Since emotional exhaustion is a tired and fatigued feeling that develops as emotional energies are drained. When these feelings become chronic, performance of teacher declines. Teachers find themselves less motivated, confused, weary, guilty and frustrated. Female teachers face dual responsibility of home and school. They are more likely to face problems of fatigue, restlessness and anxiety. Female teachers generally desire for more achievement. These are reasons for higher scores of female on emotional exhaustion than their male counterpart. Male teachers are more likely to gain social support from their outer circle. On the other hand, working females are mostly busy in daily chores and are less likely to use social support as compared to males. Therefore, the emotional exhaustion is higher in females. The finding is congruent with the findings of Mohammadi et. al (2009) and Byrne (1999). They also reported that female teachers are higher on emotional exhaustion dimension of burnout because they have less social support and do not adopt ways of coping. Raima (1997) also concluded that female teachers experience greater emotional exhaustion as they share dual responsibility of family and professional life.

On the basis of results described and discussed above, the hypothesis H13 stating, "There will be no significant difference in emotional exhaustion dimension of burnout of male and female secondary school teachers" is not accepted.

(b) Effect of Gender on Depersonalization dimension of burnout

From the Table 4.30, it can be seen that the value of F for depersonalization dimension of burnout was 1.46 (not significant at 0.01). This shows that male and female teachers' did not differ significantly on mean scores of depersonalization of the secondary school teachers. Depersonalisation is feeling of detachment, frustration and guilt at workplace. Both male and female teachers perform same type of duties in schools. Work pressure is same for both the teachers and they face same type of organizational and environmental problems, so they do not differ significantly on depersonalisation of burnout. The finding of present study is congruent with the findings of Nayak (2008). He reported that equality in workload is main reason for no difference. On the basis of results described and discussed above, the hypothesis H14 stating, "There will be no significant difference in depersonalization dimension of burnout of male and female secondary school teachers" stands accepted.

(c) Effect of Gender on Personal accomplishment dimension of burnout

From Table 4.31, it can be seen that the value of F for personal accomplishment dimension of burnout was 3.775 which is significant at 0.05. This showed that male and female teachers differed significantly on mean scores of personal accomplishment of the secondary school teachers. In order to explore the relative inter-group differences in means of male and female teachers, t-test was applied. The summary of results of t-test is given in Table 4.33.

The t- value was 2.64 (significant at .01 level) when comparison was made between male and female teachers on personal accomplishment dimension. Mean score of personal accomplishment dimension of burnout of male teachers (M=35.73) was higher than mean score of personal accomplishment dimension of burnout of female teachers (M=34.27). This indicated that male teachers are more personally accomplished as compared to female teachers. Personal accomplishment means satisfaction from job and when teachers suffer from burnout they lack in their personal accomplishment. The lack of personal accomplishment is the stage when teacher no longer feel that they are contributing to student's development, they express profound disappointment. It becomes difficult for teachers to dedicate again towards teaching. Feeling of detachment and ideas of shifting job comes in mind. Teachers try to involve themselves in other administrative works of institution to accomplish them. They are generally part of most of the administrative work in school. Male teachers mostly have ample time so they are more likely to shape their teaching in ways that enhance their enjoyment and carrier prospects. Students generally show less disruptive behaviour with male teachers, so they show more personal accomplishment as compared to female teachers. They feel they are contributing for students' development and are not disappointed. Females mostly remain busy with household chores and cannot afford that much extra time as males can. Male teachers are more likely to shift their job when they face chronic problems. Females on the other hand are bound by responsibilities of family and are less likely to shift their job. Therefore, males are more personally accomplished as compared to females. These findings of the present study are in conformity with the findings of Timms et al. (2006) and Byrne (1999). They concluded that female teachers expressed greater burnout as compared to male teachers. On the basis of results described and discussed above, the Hypothesis H15 stating, "There will be no significant difference in personal accomplishment dimension of burnout of male and female secondary school teachers" is not accepted.

(d) Effect of Experience on Emotional Exhaustion dimension of burnout

From Table 4.29, it can be seen that the value of F for emotional exhaustion dimension of burnout and experience was 70.805 which was significant at 0.01 level. This shows that experience effect emotional exhaustion dimension of burnout of the secondary school teachers. Teachers with different years of experience differed significantly on scores of emotional exhaustion dimension of burnout. In order to explore the relative inter- group differences, t-test was applied. The summary of results of t- test is given in Table 4.34.

The t-value was 1.025 (not significant) and 0.291 (not significant) when comparisons was made between teachers with below 10 years of experience and 10-20 years of experience and teachers with 10-20 years and above 20 years of experience respectively on emotional exhaustion dimension. However, t-value was 9.795 (significant at 0.01) when comparison was made between teachers with above 20 years and upto10 years of experience on emotional exhaustion dimension.

The mean score of emotional exhaustion entered were higher for teachers having experience of 10 years or less (M=21.49) as compared to mean score (M=14.74) of teachers with 10 to 20 years of experience. Teachers with less than 10 years of experience are new to the profession. This indicated that teachers with less than 10 years of experience were more emotionally exhausted than teachers with 10 to 20 years of experience were least emotionally exhausted. It may be because of the fact that in the early years of job, teachers face emotional challenges of adapting to a new workplace and working conditions. They also face pressure of accountability. Community factors such as stereotypical thought about teaching hours and quality teaching also put pressure on them. All these factors make them emotionally exhausted. They feel very tired and emotionally drained. On the other hand, teachers with 10 to 20 years of experience are more equipped by their experience with various teaching strategies, so they are likely to handle all types of teaching problems. With experience, teachers become more aware of the system and adjust easily to the changing needs, circumstances and hence are less emotionally exhausted. These findings of the present study are in line with the findings of Ryba (2000) and Suhail (2011). They reported that teachers with less years of experience recorded high scores on emotional exhaustion dimension than their longer serving peers. This was found to be because of the fact that low experience group is at achieving stage and working towards promotions which results in increased stress.

On the basis of results described and discussed above, the hypothesis H16 stating, "There will be no significant difference in emotional exhaustion dimension of burnout of secondary school teachers with different years of experience" is not accepted.

(e) Effect of Experience on Depersonalization dimension of burnout

From Table 4.30 it can be seen that the value of F for depersonalization dimension of burnout and experience was 4.544 which was significant at 0.05 level. This shows that experience contribute in depersonalization dimension of burnout of the secondary school teachers. Teachers with different years of experience differed significantly on scores of depersonalization dimension of burnout. In order to explore the relative inter- group differences, t- test was applied. The summary of results of t- test is given in Table 4.35.

The t-value was 0.1489 (not significant) when comparison was made between teachers with below 10 years and 10-20 years of experience on depersonalisation dimension. The t-value was 2.793 (significant at 0.01) and 1.739 (significant at 0.01) when comparison was made between teachers with 10-20 years and above 20 years of experience and teachers with above 20 years and below 10 years of experience on depersonalisation dimension.

The means entered in Table 4.35 were higher than others for teachers having experience of above 20 years (M=8.70). Teachers with less than 10 years of experience (M=7.50) scored least on depersonalization dimension of burnout. This indicated that teachers having experience of above 20 years were most depersonalised and those with less than 10 years of experience were least depersonalised. Teachers with less than 10 years of experience are more enthusiastic and are more likely to engage students in interesting and curious activities. They are more energetic and advanced in using new technology in their teaching activities which make their teaching satisfied and they feel less depersonalized. On the other hand teachers with more than 20 years of teaching experience feel less energetic and show monotonous behaviour. They feel nothing new in their job and develop negative attitude. They distant students from them as they feel that they are not capable of giving their best and are more depersonalized.

On the basis of results described and discussed above, the hypothesis H17 stating, "There will be no significant difference in depersonalisation dimension of burnout of secondary school teachers with different years of experience" is not accepted.

(f) Effect of Experience on Personal accomplishment dimension of burnout

From Table 4.31, it can be seen that the value of F for personal accomplishment dimension of burnout and experience was 1.152 which was not significant at 0.05 level. This shows that experience did not contribute in personal accomplishment dimension of burnout of the secondary school teachers. Teachers with different years of experience did not differ significantly on scores of personal accomplishment dimension of burnout. It may be because of the fact that teacher with different years of experience face different types of problems. Teachers with less than 10 years of experience face adjustment problems in personal and professional life. On the other hand teachers with 10 to 20 years of experience face problems in handling with new technologies and accountability. Teachers with more than 20 years of experience face problems of monotonous of work, fatigue and frustration. At all the stages of experience, teachers face different types of problems. Since all the teachers deal with these problems so their level of satisfaction remains same. Although teachers differed significantly on emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation dimension with different years of experience because these two dimensions are related to stress and workload but on personal accomplishment they did not differ because at all stages of experience they have problems and have almost same level of satisfaction from job. Therefore teachers did not differ significantly on personal accomplishment dimension of burnout. Gavrilovici (2009) and Yavuz (2009) in their studies concluded that, no significant differences were found between work experience and levels of personal accomplishment as income levels and social rights are similar. Croom (2003) and Shukla (2008) also revealed that no significant relationship was found between years of teaching experience and personal accomplishment dimension of burnout.

On the basis of results described and discussed above, the hypothesis H18 stating, "There will be no significant difference in personal accomplishment dimension of burnout of secondary school teachers with different years of experience." stands accepted.

Interactional effect of gender and experience on burnout

(a) Interactional effect of gender and experience in teaching on emotional exhaustion dimension of burnout of secondary school teachers

The interactional effect of gender and experience on emotional exhaustion dimension of burnout was found to be significant (F=76.64, Table 4.29) at 0.01 level. This suggests that the variable of gender and teaching experience interact with each other to produce significant variations in emotional exhaustion dimension of burnout. In order to explore the relative inter- group differences in male and female teachers with different years of teaching experience, t- test was applied. The summary of results of t-test is given in Table 4.36.

The t-values were found to be significant when comparisons were made between female teachers with less than 10 years of experience with male teachers of 10-20 years of experience (t=14.03**,0.01), above 20 years (t=12.48**, 0.01), less than 10 years of experience (t=16.07**, 0.01). This indicates that female teachers with less than 10 years of experience differed significantly with male teachers at all levels of experience. Therefore female teachers with less than 10 years of experience were most emotionally exhausted as compared to male teachers. It may be because of the fact that female teachers who are new in job face many emotional challenges as compared to male teachers. In addition to this, male and female teachers with experience of above 20 years (t=2.48**,0.01) differed significantly on emotional exhaustion dimension.

On the other hand, no significant differences were found between male teachers with 10-20 years of experience with females of same experience level and above 20 years experience. It may be because of the fact that male teachers with 10-20 years of experience handle all professional situations in a very mature way. Males and females, in this 10-20 years experience level have good knowledge and experience so they handle all works properly. They also have good support system so they do not differ significantly on emotional exhaustion dimension of burnout. Females with above 20 years of experience are also little bit free from family responsibilities so, they also did not differ significantly. The mean differences among male and female teachers with different years of experience are given in Table 4.37.

From above Table 4.37, it can be inferred that female teachers with less than 10 years of experience differed significantly on emotional exhaustion dimension of burnout as compared to female teachers with experience of 10-20 years (t=18.22**, 0.01) and above 20 years (t=18.87**, 0.01). It may be because of the fact that female teachers with less than 10 years of experience face more emotional challenges as compared to other female teachers. They also face problems in balancing family life and experience more emotional exhaustion. Among females, teachers with above 20 years of experience were least exhausted because at this stage their children are grown up and family life is little bit relaxed. Professionally also they are more knowledgeable and experienced to handle problems. However, male teachers with different levels of experience did not differ significantly on emotional exhaustion dimension of burnout. The reason for it may be the use of social support. This result is in conformity with the research by Barut & Kaikan (2002) which showed that as job seniority increases, the burnout levels of the female teachers decreases. Luk et al. (2010) also concluded that younger female teachers have less life experiences in dealing with other people, including students, parents, and colleagues that make them more susceptible to burnout. It was found that younger with less experience are exposed to number of stress-inducing factors, such as adjusting to new environment, polishing their teaching practice and preparing curriculum. Kokkinos (2007) reported significant interaction between experience and gender on emotional exhaustion dimension of burnout.

On the basis of above results and discussions, Hypothesis 19 stating "there will be no interactional effect of gender and different years of experience on emotional exhaustion dimension of burnout of secondary school teachers'' is not accepted.

(b) Interactional effect of gender and experience in teaching on depersonalisaion dimension of burnout of secondary school teachers

The interactional effect of gender and experience on depersonalisation dimension of burnout was not found to be significant (F=2.923, Table 4.30) at 0.01 level. This suggests that the variable of gender and teaching experience do not interact with each other to produce significant variations in depersonalization dimension of burnout. It is also discussed in above section that gender did not differ significantly on depersonalisation dimension burnout of secondary school teachers. It may be because of the fact that both male and female teachers are allotted same type of work and working environment. Since male and female teachers both face same kind of disciplinary and classroom management problems so they did not differ on depersonalisation dimension of burnout. Kirilmaz et al. (2003) also reported that teaching experience did not have an effect on the burnout level of teachers because professional working life as a teacher is important. Kokkinos (2007) reported that no significant interaction exist between experience and gender on depersonalisation dimension of burnout.

On the basis of above results and discussions, Hypothesis 20 stating "there will be no interactional effect of gender and different years of experience on depersonalization dimension of burnout of secondary school teachers'' stands accepted.

(c) Interactional effect of gender and experience in teaching on personal accomplishment dimension of burnout of secondary school teachers

In the interactional effect of gender and experience in teaching was found to be significant (F=33.25, Table 4.31) at 0.01 level. This suggests that the variable of gender and teaching experience interact with each other to produce significant variations in personal accomplishment dimension of burnout. In order to explore the relative inter- group differences in male and female teachers with different years of teaching experience, t-test was applied. The summary of results of t- test is given in Table 4.38.

Table 4.38 Significance of mean difference of male and female teachers with different years of experience on personal accomplishment dimension of burnout

S. No

Experience*Gender

N

Mean

S.D

Df

t-value

Level of significance

1

Less than 10 years(Male)

121

38.01

6.549

266

0.6874

Not. Significant.

Less than 10 years(Female)

147

31.28

7.124

2

10-20 years(Male)

120

34.73

8.745

199

1.19

Not. Significant.

10-20 years(Female)

81

35.94

5.629

3

Above 20 years(Male)

109

34.28

5.730

229

3.206**

0.01

Above 20 years(Female)

122

36.76

6.019

4

Less than 10 years(Male)

121

38.01

6.549

200

2.40*

0.05

10-20 years(Female)

81

35.94

5.629

5

Less than 10 years(Male)

121

38.01

6.549

241

1.55

Not. Significant.

Above 20 years(Female)

122

36.76

6.019

6

10-20 years(Male)

120

34.73

8.745

265

3.48**

0.01

Less than 10 years(Female)

147

31.28

7.124

7

10-20 years(Male)

120

34.73

8.745

240

2.10*

0.05

Above 20 years(Female)

122

36.76

6.019

8

Above 20 years(Male)

109

34.28

5.730

254

3.73**

0.01

Less than 10 years(Female)

147

31.28

7.124

9

Above 20 years(Male)

109

34.28

5.730

188

1.99*

0.05

10-20 years(Female)

81

35.94

5.629

t-value for 229, 254, 266 and 265df is 2.59 at 0.01 (**) level of significance

t-value for 200, 240df is 1.97 at 0.05 (*) level of significance

The t-value were found to be significant when comparisons of male teachers with above 20 years of experience were made with female teachers of less than 10 years of experience (t=3.73**), 10-20 years (t=1.99*) and above 20 years (t=3.20**) on personal accomplishment dimension of burnout. Therefore, male teachers with more than 20 years of experience differed significantly with female teachers at all levels of experience. It may be because of the fact that male teachers with more than 20 years of experience were found to be high on emotional exhaustion and so are less personally accomplished. The main reason for this is lack of professional growth in teaching as compared to other fields. In comparison to fresh teachers, they are less likely to shift their job and find their work very monotonous. In spite of good experience and knowledge, they face problems in using latest technology and this leads them to reduced personal accomplishment. On the other hand, females generally achieve accomplishment from the family as they mostly remain involved there. Professionally also, females have good social support system within the school. Females also have motherly bonding with students and this leads to inner satisfaction. On contrary to this, no significant differences were found between male teachers with less than 10 years of experience with female teachers of same experience level and above 20 years of experience. The reason for this may be that male teachers with less than 10 years of experience enjoy new challenges and gain recognition and rewards so they remain personally accomplished. Also, male and female teachers with10-20 years of experience did not differ significantly on personal accomplishment dimension. It may be because of the fact that at this level they do not face emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation so they remain very satisfied. Moreover, the mean differences among male and female teachers with different years of experience are given in Table 4.39.

Table 4.39 Significance of mean difference among male and female teachers with different years of experience on personal accomplishment dimension of burnout

S.No

Experience*Gender

N

Mean

S.D

Df

t-value

Level of significance

1

Less than 10 years(Male)

121

38.01

6.54

239

3.29**

0.01

10-20 years(Male)

120

34.73

8.74

2

Less than 10 years(Male)

121

38.01

6.54

228

4.61**

0.01

Above 20 years(Male)

109

34.28

5.73

3

10-20 years(Male)

120

34.73

8.74

227

0.464

Not. Significant.

Above 20 years(Male)

109

34.28

5.73

4

Less than 10 years(Female)

147

31.28

7.12

226

5.43**

0.01

10-20 years(Female)

81

35.94

5.62

5

Less than 10 years(Female)

147

31.28

7.12

267

6.84**

0.01

Above 20 years(Female)

122

36.76

6.01

6

10-20 years(Female)

81

35.94

5.62

201

0.990

Not. Significant.

Above 20 years(Female)

122

36.76

6.01

t-value for 239, 228, 227, 226, 201 &267df is 2.59 at 0.01 (**) level of significance

From the above table it can be inferred that male teachers with less than 10 years of experience differed significantly with other male teachers with experience of 10-20 years (t=3.29**) and above 20 years (t=4.61**). It may be because of the fact that males enjoy job, they provide innovative ideas and gain reward and recognition. In males early years of job are also full of energy and dedication so they are more personally accomplished. However, in the case of females, teachers with less than 10 years of experience differed significantly with female teachers above 20 years (t=6.84**) and 10-20 years (t=5.43**) of experience. Therefore, the female teachers with an experience of less than 10 years were found least personally accomplished as compared to other female teachers with an experience of 10-20 years and above 20 years. Since female teachers with less experience face problems of student behaviour and classroom management, they are more likely to be in state of guilty and frustration. Female teachers with less experience were also found to be more emotionally exhausted and depersonalised so they feel less accomplishment. When they face all responsibilities they are likely to lose interest in teaching and face disappointment. Females generally face problems of balancing family life and professional growth. Therefore, female teachers with less than 10 years of experience are less personally accomplished as compared to other female teachers with more experience. On the other hand, no significant differences were found between male teachers with 10-20 years of experience and above 20 years of experience. Also, female teachers with 10-20 years of experience and above 20 years of experience did not differ significantly. In the case of males, teachers with above 20 years of experience were least personally accomplished. It may be because of monotonousness nature of work and lack of opportunities to shift at such stage.

On the basis of above results and discussions, Hypothesis 21 stating "there will be no interactional effect of gender and different years of experience on personal accomplishment dimension of burnout of secondary school teachers'' is not accepted.

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