Best Practices For Ells In The Mainstream Education Essay

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The problem statement of this article is the following: ELLs (English language learners) should use sheltered instructions to achieve the same success in the learning as the native English speakers.

The hypothesis stated by the author is the following: "Sheltered instruction is designed to provide second language learners with the same high-quality, academically challenging content that native English speakers receive.(Hansen-Thomas, 2008)"

There is no literature review in the article, thought the author cites for a few times the research of Echevarria, J., M. Vogt, and D. J. Short "Making content comprehensible for English learners: The SIOP model" and the book of Chamot, A. U., and J. M. O'Malley "The CALLA handbook: Implementing the cognitive academic language learning approach." Generally literature review doesn't provide the balanced picture of the research problem, giving just general description of research base.

The author doesn't provide the section of methods due to the descriptive nature of the article. Instead she describes the areas of the sheltered instructions implementation.

The study did not involve the participants but the author provides some theoretical examples.

The study is theoretical not experimental.

There weren't instruments distributed and collected.

The timeline of the study wasn't defined.

The only method of information analysis used and described in the article was the method of replacement. "To illustrate how sheltered instruction benefits second language learners, preservice and in-service teachers should put themselves in the shoes of the ELLs in their classrooms and identify the instructional techniques that would facilitate their comprehension of content presented in not only another language, but also from a different cultural perspective. .(Hansen-Thomas, 2008)" The result proved that many participants was lacking of necessary cultural and informational context to understand the usual instructions.

The major finding of the study is the necessity of the sheltered instructions for EELs, which corresponds to the hypothesis that the instructions can influence on the students' academic success.

The closing thought of the author concludes the research in sufficient manner. There are no obvious limitations.

The future research of the effectiveness of sheltered instructions as the "specific instructional practices tailored to the second language learner.(Hansen-Thomas, 2008)" can be needed.

This article is tied with the first of my problem statement, "new methods to reduce classroom anxiety for mainstreamed ESL students." The findings and results can be useful for this problem solving.

The second article is "Motivating struggling readers: Three keys to success" by Nancy Padak and Cheryl Potenza-Radis.

The purpose of the study was to analyze the ways of students' motivation to reading.

The hypothesis was the following: purposeful and authentic reading programs can help struggling students to increase their motivation to reading and to become successful readers.

The peer-led literature discussion is reviewed in the article; this review presents the balanced picture of the problem. Example: "As we have said elsewhere, "Readers should never struggle to the point of failure or frustration in any reading task or activity" (Rasinski et al., 2010, p. 10). - via Padak and Potenza-Radis, 2010.

There is no methods section in the article.

The authors of the article didn't provide the practical researches because their objective was to describe and summarize the results of other researches. That is why there is no data about the number of participants and their characteristics.

The summary of experimental researches, provided in the article, proves that purposeful and authentic reading programs, good organization, high levels of engagement, focus on motivation for reading, necessary support, knowledge of students and their parents can increase the motivation for reading.

It wasn't a survey or causal comparative/ex post facto study.

The timeline of the study wasn't defined.

The two methods of analysis in this article are comparative method and descriptive method. The results were reported in the correspondent text forms and quotes from basic researches. "In 93 percent of reading comprehension test comparisons, children who read in class or who read more in class performed as well or better than counterparts who didn't read (or didn't read as much) (Krashen, 2004).- via Padak and Potenza-Radis, 2010."

The major findings of this study were the possibility to improve the performance of struggling students increasing their motivation to reading and it is possible even for dysfunctional groups.

The author's conclusion describes the main idea of the article but it is lacking of detailed information about the researches.

As in first case, the implementation of new methodic and its practical value should be studied at the nearest future.

This is a useful research for the second problem statement, "that many elementary students struggle with their reading due to lack of cognitive competencies and motivation. " The article provides the direct answers and practical recommendations for this problem solving.

The third article is "Peer Coaching to Improve Classroom Differentiation: Perspectives from Project CLUE Peer Coaching Program" by Amanda O. Latz et al.

The problem statement as the following: "Despite the importance of differentiation, teachers are still not implementing it on a regular basis. (Latz et al, 2009)"

The research question is the following: "to understand how a peer coach for teachers may influence teachers' understandings and abilities to facilitate differentiated lessons for high-ability students. (Latz et al, 2009)"

The literary review is the derailed, comprehensive and made according the scholar standards. It presents the balanced picture of the research problem, which was divided on two parts: "Differentiated Instruction and Teacher Issues" and "Peer Coaching and Mentoring". The review of the latest works in both parts was provided. "In order for a peer coaching initiative to be successful, teachers need ongoing support and follow-up meetings (Matthews & Foster, 2005a; Showers & Joyce, 1996; Swafford, 1998).(via Latz et al, 2009)"

The methods section was also developed according the traditional academic standards. It included the description of project CLUE, the methods used in this project and the results.

"A total of 46 IPS teachers were mentored for 1 to 3 years by nine mentors. (Latz et al, 2009)" Mostly they were Caucasian women with at least one year of teaching experience. The selection of mentors was stricter: "Mentors were recruited and selected based on affiliation with IPS schools, GT consulting experience, BSU affiliations, and geographic proximity. All mentors had at least 15 years of teaching experience, ranging from 15 to 33 years. (Latz et al, 2009)"

"During the spring terms of 2004, 2005, and 2006, mentors conducted three in-class observations per term with each of their assigned teachers. (Latz et al, 2009)" Then the teachers were surveyed and the results of the survey were evaluated.

It wasn't a survey or causal comparative/ex post facto study.

The basic timeline of the study involves the spring terms of 2004, 2005 and 2006 years.

The analysis was provided by the combination of different methods: qualitative, quantitative, statistical method and the descriptive method. The results were provided in the form of text description, statistical data, and the table of the results.

The major finding of the study was that working in pair improves the knowledge and the practical experience of the teachers.

As was stated, "The current study has limitations in terms of participant survey response rate and participant mortality. Additionally, the study used a relatively small group of mentors and only third-, fourth-, and fifth-grade teachers in the IPS system. (Latz et al, 2009)"

The authors suggest "Further research is necessary and should be conducted in other urban areas and at other grade levels. (Latz et al, 2009)"

The article is indirectly related to the third problem statement "It is hard to implement differentiated instruction due to class size, lack of resources, and professional staff." It provides the recommendations on professional staff improvement that are necessary for differentiated instruction implementation.