Benefits and Problems in training and learning theories

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‘If a business objective cannot be cited as a basis for designing training and development, then no training and development should be offered.’ Kearns and Miller (1997)

Case of any business for learning and development should reveal how learning, training and development programmes will get together business needs.

Areas of the business strategy that based on talented people should be analysed. The organization’s strategic policy and their bang on knowledge and skill. So training and development is a necessity of any successful business as good and professional people a business have as good their profit will be. This thing made Islamic banking industry so much keen about training and development in the new field of business.

The cause for this is that in conditions of learning, training and development, what's right for people is right for the organizations in which they work. What is good for people's progress is good for organizational performance, superiority, customer pleasure, efficient management and control, and therefore revenue too. This is fundamental to a reasonably balanced Psychological Contract in employment organizations. Revenue is a result of training and developing people well. Development of staff enables profit. Enable staff and you enable profit. Organizations which move towards training and development from this point of view certainly foster people who do well and progress and significantly stay around for long enough to become vast at what they do, and to assist others turn into so.

The training mean should be about whole person development rather than not just putting skills, the conventional interpretation of training at work. Whatever your position and duty, you might not straight away be able to put huge new emphasis on 'whole person development’. Being practical, community attitudes and prospect about what 'training' is and does cannot be changed at once, and the majority organisations still see 'training' as being restricted to, classrooms, work skills and power point presentations. Nevertheless, when you start to visualize and think and speak about progressive attitudes to developing people - further than traditional skills training - for example:

'enabling learning'

'facilitating meaningful personal development'

'helping people to identify and achieve their own personal potential'

then you will definitely begin to assist the organisation to see and believe these newer ideas about what types of 'learning and development' really work best and produces class-leading organizations.

Frame work of Training

1. Assess and agree training needs

2. Create training or development specification

3. Consider learning styles and personality

4. Plan training and evaluation

5. Design materials, methods and deliver training

Perform some sort of training needs analysis

Another method example of assessing and prioritising training is DIF Analysis.

Identify what you want to train and build up in people, you must break down the learning or training requirement into manageable elements. 

People's styles greatly affect what type of training they will find easiest and most effective. Look also at personality types. Remember you are dealing with people, not objects. People have feelings as well as skills and knowledge. .

Consider evaluation training effectiveness, which includes before-and-after measurements.

Consider modern innovative methods for lots of providers and ideas.

Presentation is an important aspect to delivery.


There are various theories of how people learn and get trained. What follows is a variety of them, and it is helpful to judge their purpose to how your staffs learn and also how you train in professional programs. It is exciting to think about your own particular way of learning and to be familiar with that everyone doesn’t learn the way you do.

‘Conceives of learning as a relatively permanent change in behaviour with behaviour including both observable activity and internal processes such as thinking, attitudes and emotions.’

Burns (1995, p 99)

It is apparent that Burns take account of motivation in this definition of learning. Burns notice that learning might not visible itself in noticeable behaviour until sometime after the educational program has taken place.

Sensory stimulation theory (Laird, 1985)

Efficient learning occurs when the senses are inspired. The Theory states that when multi senses are stimulated greater learning takes place. The theory has had an outstanding appreciation between teachers, especially those dealing with young boys.

So we can apply this theory for the while developing the training programme for the new coming staff member to educate them properly and effectively. Like research found that most of the knowledge held by adults i.e. 75 % is learned by seeing, hearing and next most effective about 13% by other senses like touch smell and taste account for 12% of what we know. So on basis of this theory we can develop the things which are most attractive and understandable by keeping in mind the gathering senses.

Reinforcement theory (B.F. Skinner, 1938, 1953)

This is the faith that behaviour is a role of its consequences. Learner will repeat the desired behaviour if positively reinforced. Positive reinforcement, rewards, certificates etc; as well as negative reinforcement can also strengthen behaviour when a negative condition is stopped or avoided. Parents and teachers alike have adopted the theory which still has many well-wishers. Cognitive-gestalt approaches (R. Burns)

The emphasis is on the importance of experience, meaning, problem-solving and the development of insights. Many teachers believe that exposure to various situations can help students develop problem-solving abilities if placed in appropriate situations and exposed to varied experiences.

Facilitation theory (Carl Rogers, 1961)

This humanist approach is based on the premises that learning will occur, when the educator acts as a facilitator, learners feel comfortable, atmosphere allows sharing of new ideas, and learners do not feel threatened. The theory is being used by many teachers and counsellors, emphasising the client-centred approach.

Action learning (Reg Revans)

This approach links the world of learning with the world of action through a reflective process

within small cooperative learning groups known as ‘active learning sets’- there can be no learning without a action and no action without learning. Reg Revans (1940) applied the concept of action learning in education. Nowadays, Action learning is receiving a lot of support with the development of electronic media offering learners with loads of information

Experiential learning (D.A. Kolb, 1984)

Experiential learning proposes a four-stage learning process: concrete experience, reflective observation, abstract conceptualisation, and active experimentation. The process can begin at any stage and is continuous. The theory asserts that without reflection we would simply continue to repeat our mistakes. Kolb found that people learn in four ways with the likelihood of developing one mode of learning more than another. That people learn through concrete experience, observation and reflection, abstract conceptualisation or active experimentation. Based on the above, Honey and Mumford identified four learning styles: Activist, Reflector, Theorist, and Pragmatist.

Holistic learning theory (Laird, 1985)

This theory rests on the premises that the individual personality consists of many elements… specifically... the intellect, emotions, the impulse or desire, intuition and imagination that all require activation if learning is to be more effective.

Adult learning (andragogy) (Malcolm Knowles, 1990)

Andragogy argues that adulthood has arrived when people behave in adult ways and believe

themselves to be adults. Is based on the following assumptions â€" the need to know; self-concept; learners’ experience; readiness to learn; orientation to learning, motivation to learn.

Performance and potential assessments

The plan of performance and prospective assessment is to recognize training and development

requirement, provide guidance on possible directions in which an one’s career might go, and point out who has latent for promotion. This information can be get from performance management processes, as described. Assessment of potential can be carried out formally by managers following a performance review. They may be asked to identify people who have very high potential, some potential, or no potential at all. They may also be asked to indicate when individuals will be ready for promotion and how far they are likely to get. The

problem with this sort of assessment is that managers find it difficult to forecast the future for the people they are reviewing â€" good performance in the current job does not guarantee that individuals will be able to cope with wider responsibilities, especially if this involves moving into management. And managers may not necessarily be aware of the qualities required for longer-term promotion. But the organization does need information on those with potential and assessors should be encouraged in their comments section at least to indicate that this is someone who is not only performing well in the present job but may well perform well in higher-level jobs.

402 ! People resourcing This information can identify those who may be nominated to attend development centres (see Chapter 40), which can be used to establish potential and discuss career plans.


First thing that we should keep in mind for train someone or develop new product, we have to have the best and extra ordinary development team that go through form all the aspect of the product and then give training to other member about the product its actual concept and it’s working. So in Islamic banking they have Islamic scholar who develop the product according to the guideline of Islamic Holy book “Quran” and the Islamic law “Shariah”. After development they understand its way of working and what kind of problem it can have in implementation and how can they remove it by doing some necessary amendment in the product.

So the development team should have the proper concept, knowledge, working problems and then they should develop the training session for the people who are new and required to train for that specific thing.

Give them that concept with comparison of existing products in the market and how this product will be adopted. In training they should tell what kind of problem they can have while working with that kind of specific product. For example “Murabaha” is the product which is normally known as the Advance or over draft limit in conventional banking.

Basic of the product mean that bank finance to customer for the some kind of specific business on the basis of profit sharing and bank need all the required bill and documents that are used to make the business transaction and if the customer fail to provide the documents the transaction will be void.

Same on the other hand in conventional banking they don’t ask why and where customer wants to use the money, they just give the money and charge the interest and the transaction completed.

That’s the difference in the products and their way of working, a training mean that staff should know about both products, understand the difference and can convey the message to the customer with full confidence.

Same like this this kind of training session on the regular basis should be held to motivate the staff to get interested, more involved being professional. As more the organizations will take part in training and development more beneficial results will produced because staff will be more professional by this more sale and more revenue will be generate.


Brooks, J. (1995). Training and Development Competence:a practical guide, London: Kogan Page.

Burns, R. (1995). The adult learner at work, Sydney:Business and Professional Publishing.

Burns, S. (1995). ‘Rapid changes require enhancement of adult learning’ HRMonthly June, pp 16-17.

Knowles, M.S. (1978). The Adult Learner: a Neglected Species 2nd edition, Houston: Gulf Publishing

Company, Book Division.

Knowles, M.S. (1990). The Adult Learner: a Neglected Species 4th edition, Houston: Gulf Publishing

Company, Book Division

Laird, D. (1985). Approaches to training and development, Reading, Mass: Addison-Wesley.

McGill, I. & Beaty, L. (1995) Action Learning, second edition: a guide for professional, management and

educational development London: Kogan Page.

Pogson, P. & Tennant, M. (1995) ‘Understanding Adults’ in Foley, G. ed. Understanding adult education

and training, St Leonards: Allen & Unwin, pp.20-30