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Since independence in 1961, the educational system has been passed over different transitions based on the political and economic changes happening over time. These changes can be categorized into three main phases; the first was from 1961 to 1967, which the emphasis of the government was to reform the education system so as to relieve inequalities among the people stipulated by colonial education system which was based upon racial segregation (Nguni, 2005). The second phase started from 1967 to 1990, where education policies were emphasis on the 'Education for Self-Reliance' as one of the government efforts to build a socialist state. Within this period of time the priority was put on attainment of universal primary education (UPE) by engaging in massive enrolment, rapid expansion of schools and abolition of racial based education system (TEN/MET, 2007). In this period the government took several actions to improve education system including nationalized all private schools with exception of few schools owned by religious organization. To achieve UPE the government took the following measures as summarized from the handbook Transforming Policy and Practices: A Guide to Education Advocacy in Tanzania by TEN/MET:
Universal primary education becomes compulsory and all school fees were abolished.
Massive enrolment of children into the newly established and poorly resourced schools.
Para-professional teachers were recruited to tackle the massive increase of pupils. (2007:9).
In this period Tanzania recorded remarkable achievements in education after becoming one of the countries with high literacy rate of about 80 percent leading other countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The third phase covered the period from 1990s to present; it was within this period where the government made major changes on its economic policies from socialist-oriented to free-market economy known as structural adjustment programs (SAPs). These changes resulted into various reforms in educational system including cut-down of government expenditures on social services, allowing private schools and universities and re-introduce of school fees to the public schools. Therefore in order to reduce the impact of this transformation the government decided to start a holistic education sector development program (ESDP). These initiatives led to the introduction of twin education development programs PEDP and SEDP in 2001 and 2003 respectively. In 2002 the government re-introduced free and compulsory primary education resulting in huge increases in enrolment (Nguni, 2005; Ten/Met, 2007). The impact of these efforts results on the large expansion in students' enrolments with net enrolment ratio rose to 97.3 percent in 2007 from 58 percent in 2000 in the primary schools (BEST, 2010). However, there were concerns that the quality of primary school declined of overcrowded classes, high pupil-teacher ratio, para-professional teachers and insufficient school infrastructure and facilities (Komba and Nkumbi, 2008).
In Tanzania the structure of the formal education and training system constitutes two years for pre-primary, seven years for primary education, four years for junior secondary education, two years for senior secondary education and at least three years of tertiary education. Specifically, the education system has three levels, Basic, Secondary and Tertiary levels. Alongside with formal education there is non-formal education for adult people who lost the opportunity to get a formal education. Kiswahili is the language of instruction in primary schools and English is taught as a compulsory subject in all classes. But, some of the private primary schools use English as medium of instruction famous known as "English Academy." In Secondary Education, English is used as a language of instruction except for Swahili subject; at the end of each cycle the students write examinations which are national standardized examinations before jump to the next level. Similarly, English is the language of instruction at universities, higher learning and polytechnic institutions.
The Ministry of Education and Vocational Training (METV) has the legal mandate for policy formulation, coordination, monitoring, setting standards, quality assurance and quality control of the whole education system. However, local government authorities (districts, town, municipal and city councils) are responsible for management and delivery of primary and secondary education services within their areas of jurisdiction. Also the ministry through its teachers' training colleges is responsible for training, recruiting, deploying teachers in the public schools across the country.
3.2: Public School Teachers in Tanzania: Briefly Situational Analysis.
The Tanzania agenda for development as it is stipulated in the Development Vision 2025 aims to build up a well educated nation and attain a high standard of living for all citizens (Malkeen and Chen, 2008). Yet now a great progress has been made to achieve Millennium Development Goal (MDGs) number two and three on primary education enrolments. This comes as a result of successful implementation of PEDP from 2001 - 2006 which enable to increase net enrolment ratio to 97.2 percent in 2009. However, as country still there are challenges facing education sector including the low quality education. Teachers are said to play a central role in the process of provision of quality education services. But still in Tanzania public teachers are encountering problems which affect teaching and learning process.
3.2.1: Administration and Management of the Education System in Tanzania.
Several ministries, non-governmental organizations, and communities are involved in the management and administration of formal education system. The Ministry of Education and Vocational Training plays principal roles for policy formulation, coordination, monitoring, setting standards, quality assurance and quality control of the whole education system (UNESCO-WDE, 2011). It is also responsible for supervision of the higher education, teachers training and management of teaching workforce; curriculum development, examination management and school inspectorate (Woods, 2007).
The management of pre-primary, primary, secondary and out-of school education is confer under the control of the Ministry of Prime Minister's Office - Regional Administration and Local Government (PMO-RALG). It oversee the work of the local authorities which are responsible for day to day to the operations of primary and secondary schools such as resources mobilization, management of teachers, financing and payment of school supplies (Woods:2007:12). Teachers are employed as government staffs on the permanent pensionable basis; receiving monthly salary according to fixed scales basing upon specific qualification. Usually there is annual salary increment and three years promotion subjective to his/her job performance or/and career development. According to BEST 2010, there were 165,856 public teachers in primary schools and 30,252 in secondary schools (BEST, 2010).
Teacher training is conducted in the teaching colleges, universities and high education institutions both state and private-owned. Basically, teachers' training is divided into three main levels:
(i) Grade 'A' teachers are the ones who had completed 4 years of secondary education and undergone training for two years in a teacher's education college (TTC). After successful completion of two-year course he/she awarded Grade IIIA Teaching Certificate' and they qualified to teach primary schools. According to the education policy of 1995, Grade A is the lowest teaching qualification to primary schools in Tanzania. The minimum entrance qualification to Education College is division three in the ordinary level certificate of secondary education examination - CSEE  (Komba and Nkumbi 2008; URT, 1995).
(ii) Ordinary diploma teachers are those who required to have completed at least advanced level of secondary school (form six) and acquired two-year professional course of teaching training from teachers' education colleges or universities. Diploma teachers are trained to teach secondary schools and teaching colleges (Nguni, 2005).
(iii) The third level of teachers is university-graduated teachers who are studied education degree with either major in arts or science. The graduates' teachers are usually recruited to teach in secondary schools and/or teaching colleges.
According to Basic Education Statistics of Tanzania (BEST) report, there were total of 92 teaching colleges where by 34 were publicly owned and 58 privately-owned. For instance, in the 2010 enrolment in government teachers colleges increased by 18.8 percent as compared to previous year of 2009. Out of the total enrolment 63.3 percent are diploma students, 34.95 percent are Grade A and 1.7 percent are taking special education (BEST, 2010).
Moreover, in Tanzania public school teachers' represents approximately 95 percent of all teachers in primary schools and 75 percent in secondary schools. The government is the main employer of teachers, where teaching staffs constitutes approximately 60 percent of all public civil servants. Currently both primary and secondary school teachers are employed by the local government in respective district councils.
3.3: Challenges facing Public School Teachers in Tanzania.
In the Education International Global Monitoring Report 2008 and other studies and papers has confirmed that the practice of "teacher recruitment, their working conditions, their appropriate remuneration, as well as the quality of their initial and continuous education are crucial factors if the quality of learning is to become a reality for all" (EI GMR:2008:2). However, the EI GMR 2009 asserts that ... many countries face a crisis of teacher morale that is mostly related to poor salaries, working conditions and limited opportunities for professional development." (2009:10)
In Tanzania teachers in public schools are experience a number of challenges when exercising their duties. These includes poor working conditions, low payments and other fringes, limited opportunities for professional development, low motivation and work recognition from the community.
3.3.1: Working Conditions - Teachers in public schools has been experiencing unfavorable working conditions hence negatively affecting their work performance in due course the quality of education. The 1990 World Bank study admit that, "most teachers find poor working conditions more discouraging than their salary levels."(Bennell and Mwakyanuzi, 2005:20). Presence of overcrowded classes, high pupil-teacher ratios, improper housing; inadequate supplies of textbooks and workbooks is common to most of public schools. The situation is very pathetic in more remote rural areas, where almost 93 percent of schools are located. Teachers experience terrible moment due to the lack of clean water, poor housing and inadequate accommodation; and lack of social amenities like medical care, good roads and access to electricity.
Furthermore, some of teachers reluctant to be posted or fail to report to their duty station located in rural areas with a number of reasons like suffering chronicle illness, marital reasons and lack of accommodations. For instance, in the 2008 World Bank report on Teachers for Rural School shows the critical shortage for teachers' houses especially in rural areas. In 2005, Tanzania had a total of 32,064 schoolteachers' houses; this is only 20 percent of requirements of 161,396 schoolteachers' houses countrywide. In rural areas where is difficult to get even a room for rent the shortage is 75 percent (Malkeen and Chen, 2008). Similarly, the study done by SACMEQ II in 2007 indicated shocking results that, only 3 percent of standard (grade) six pupils in schools had use sole mathematics textbooks down from the 7 percent in 2000. This is very far from the country benchmark of 100 percent and SACMEQ countries average of 41 percent. In this situation teachers end up use much time copy the notice on the board instead of concentrate to teach students especially those slow learners (SACMEQ, 2011). The empirical study affirms that "... access to books has shown to significantly improve learning." (p116)
It is upon such context that the research conducted by SACMEQ  in 2007 sought to examine the quality of education provided in primary schools revealed unequal of PTRs between the urban and rural public schools. The study discovered that in the year 2000 the mean pupil-teacher ratio (PTR) in primary schools was 47:1 which was above the country's benchmark of 40:1. However, in 2007 the country mean had risen to 63 pupils per teacher which is very far from the country benchmark. Nevertheless, the study disclosed the huge variation between the urban and rural schools, whereby the mean PTR for urban schools stood at 46:1 while in rural schools the situation was worse than in urban schools (71 pupils per teacher). The country mean pupil-teacher ratio of 63 was very far above the SACMEQ countries which was 43 pupils per teacher in public schools (SACMEQ, 2011). Likewise, the figure below shows the average number of pupil in standard 6 per class in different zones in Tanzania Mainland.
Figure no 3.1: Average Number of Standard 6 Pupils per Class in Tanzania (Mainland)
Source: SACMEQ (2011:4).
From the above figure it obvious that there were huge variations of the number of pupils per class among regions and zones, whereby Southern Highland recorded highest average of 71 and the Central zones had lowest average number of 45. However, the overall mean number of Tanzania was 56 pupils per class which was higher than SACMEQ mean number of 46 pupils per class. Different studies and researches proved that small class size guarantee the maximum teacher-pupil interaction to enable the teacher to attend each individual learner's needs (EI GMR, 2008).
Poor working environment has also facilitating another problem of uneven distribution of teachers in public schools. Teachers usually tend to move from disadvantages and remote rural areas to more well-off urban areas; normally resulting into acute shortage of teachers that also affecting the learning outcomes. For instance, in the figure below illustrates the pupil-teacher ratio between the peripheral districts, the national average for rural district and national average for urban districts.
Figure no 3.2: Pupil-Teacher Ratio (PTRs) in Primary School in Some Remote Rural District
Name of the Districts
National average rural districts
National average urban districts
Source: Basic Education Statistics of Tanzania (BEST: 2010)
Source: Basic Education Statistics of Tanzania (BEST: 2010).
The situation is more critical still as far as qualified teachers are concerned especially in rural areas where there was acute shortage of qualified teachers. The pupil to qualified teacher ratio (PqTR) ranges from more than 100 pupils per teacher in the remote rural districts (Bahi, Ulanga, Nanyumbu, Ukerewe, Manyoni, Urambo, and Uyui districts) to less than 35 pupils per teachers in some of urban districts. For instance, in 2006 out of 10,510 qualified teachers posted to different district councils countrywide, only 7,271 (69 percent) were reported to their respective duty stations (Curlitz, 2009). This exacerbated the shortage of qualified teachers in rural schools reflected in higher pupil to qualified teacher ratio in rural schools. For instance, Dar es Salaam city (urban) it has 68 percent of qualified teachers as compared to 38 percent in Lindi region which is located in upcountry (rural).
3.3.2: Low salary payments and other fringe benefits - In most of developing countries including Tanzania, teachers' salary is considerably below the level to ensure their motivation to work hard. Generally speaking as compared with other professions (doctors, nurses, lawyers, accountants) the teachers' salaries in Tanzania is relative low and, unfortunately they also lack other fringe benefits that other civil servants enjoys such as adequate housing allowances, transfer allowances, lunch allowances, leave allowances, and hardship allowances. The situation seems to be more terrible in rural schools where teachers they have to travel quite long distance to the district centers where most of banks are located to collect their monthly salary, which is costly in terms of money and time but nobody refunds all these additional costs. This is one of the factor demoralized teachers in public schools and some of them decide to move to private schools which are better off in term of salaries plus other benefits. In the figure below illustrates the sharp increase of teachers (particularly qualified teachers) in private schools due to attractive remunerations and good working conditions.
Figure number no 3.3: Number of Teachers in Primary Schools in Tanzania 2008 - 2010.
Source: Basic Education Statistics of Tanzania (BEST: 2010).
This figure shows, from 2008 to 2010 the rate of increase of teachers in private schools is more than threefold (24%) of the rate of increase in public schools (6.5%). Likewise, this may also expected to affect the education system since some of qualified teachers are likely to find another occupation, be absent, or late to work, or not do expected work in the classroom to meet the learning needs of the students hence adversely affecting the quality of education (Bennell & Mwakyanuzi, 2005). Empirical studies suggest that, the teachers' salaries can influence who enters the field and how long they will remains in the teaching (Vegas, 2008).
Though the ratio of salary for primary teacher pay to GDP per capita is 6.1, which is higher almost twice the as compared to the Sub-Saharan average (4.2) and the Field Track Initiative (FTI) benchmark indicator of 3.5 units (UNESCO/URT, 2012). But when comparing with other countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, it is evident that public schools teachers in Tanzania are getting minimal salary and other remunerations. Only with the little information, the figures below show the average salaries for teachers in different levels (primary, lower and upper secondary schools) in Tanzania and other neighboring countries in sub-Saharan African. Despite the fact that the cost of living varying from one country to another but the data in the figures below gives overview of teachers' salaries in Tanzania as compared to other countries in different categories in public schools (primary, lower and upper secondary).
Figure Number 3.4: Teachers' Gross Salaries per Month in US$ in Some of African Countries (2005-2006).
Source: Sonyolo, D. (2007:56)
From the table above, out of the six surveyed countries, Tanzania has recorded the lowest monthly gross salary rate of US dollar 20, 95, and 125 for primary, lower secondary and upper secondary teachers respectively.
Figure Number 3.5: Average Monthly Income of Qualified Primary School Teachers in Selected African Countries 2004 - 2006, (US$ per month)
Source: Bennell and Ntagaramba (2008:25).
As shown from the figures above it is apparent that, teachers' salaries in Tanzania are lowest as compared to other countries with exception of Sierra Leone and Rwanda. Conversely, in neighboring countries like Kenya, Uganda and Zambia teachers' salaries are relatively higher than in Tanzania. Additional to this, in Uganda teachers get 20 percent and 30 percent of their salaries as s housing and hardship allowances respectively (Sonyolo, 2007).
As a result of low pay, some of teachers are not teaching well, and even cases of absenteeism arise. For instance, in Tanzania the government pays salaries through electronic transfer via banks. Therefore, teachers from rural areas need to travel long distance to collect their salaries from district centers in each month. Sometimes they have to spend three or more days waiting for the salary when it is delayed. In this regards teachers forced to miss a number of classes in every month. In the meantime, students would losing a lot of valuable learning time which eventually affecting their performance. This is said to be one of the major causes of teachers' absenteeism in rural schools (Sonyolo, 2007). But on the other hand, this becomes a burden to teachers since they have to incur additional costs which they have to deduct from their little salary. These contribute to disgruntle qualified teachers to join teaching profession or posted in remote schools.
According to the study conducted on effects of increase of salary and incentives of the teachers on learning outcomes, the research findings revealed as follows:
"In Chile, a salary increase of 156 percent associated with 39 percent increase in number of teacher-education applicants and 16 percent increase in average test scores applicants. Similar test-score increase not observed among applicants to other university programs." (Vagas and Petrow: 2008:128).
3.3.3:Limited opportunities for professional development - Teacher professional development can be defined "as the process of improving both the teacher's academic standing, competence and efficiency ... so as to allow him/her to discharge professional obligations in and outside the classroom."(Komba and Nkumbi, 2008:70). Professional development gives opportunities to explore new roles, increase new teaching skills, improve their practice, and broaden their mindsets both as professionals and individuals (Komba and Mwakyanuzi). In education system teachers' education plays a prime role to ensure quality education for all. Nevertheless, in the most of the developing countries education programs usually used to neglect the teacher education and professional advancement. The experience has shown that even in the 'World Declaration on Education for All in 1990' the continuous preparation of teachers received little attention (Kruijer, 2010). Besides, Vagas and Petrow argue that, "the initial education of teachers is only first steps in a series of important steps allow teachers to grow and develop professionally over time."(2008:117). Then the need for teachers' professional development is inevitable since it gives teachers competence, confidence and make them improving the standards of the job performance.
In this regard Tanzania during the implementation of the Primary Education Development Program (PEDP) from 2001 to 2006 focused on universalization of primary education; the program did not put much attention on development of teacher professional (Komba and Nkumbi, 2008). The government just put more concentration on enrolment expansion, recruitment of teachers, construction of classrooms, and provision of teaching and learning materials. Nothing has been done about provision of in-service training to the existing teachers to equip them with new changes happen within and out of the teaching professional. It is common to hear that a teacher work for twenty or thirty years without get chance to attend even three days workshop to improve his/her teaching skills. In this regard, if as a country in order to improve its education quality should put more emphasis on teaching workforce since teacher is the heart of the classroom instruction. (Komba and Nkumbi, 2008).
The effectiveness of the teacher depends on the competence to cope with the changes and challenges happen in the class not even the pre-service training. Therefore, for the short while the best way of improving the existing school performance is to improve the current teaching workforce rather than recruit new teachers. This is due to the fact that, the teacher who is well trained and professionally updated can easily handle class of pupil above the recommended ratio. Consequently, in-service professional development is essential because it gives opportunities for the teachers:
"to update teachers' knowledge of subject matter periodically, in light of new development in the field; to update teachers' skills in light of new teaching techniques and educational research; to help teachers apply changes made to curricula; to enable schools to develop innovations in teaching practices; and to help weaker teachers become more effective." (Asia Society Partnership for Global Learning 2011:12).
According to Malkeen and Chen (2008), teachers from the rural schools they have less advantage as compared to their fellow from the urban schools though urban schools represent less than ten percent of total schools in the country. It is easier for the urban teacher have to access to further education and training opportunities than their rural counterparts.
3.3.4: Low motivation and job recognition from the community - Learning is the process involving interaction between the teacher, students and sometimes parents or community in general. The teacher is the central point required to engineer the teaching and learning process in the classroom. Therefore, learning achievements can be determined in the classroom by motivated teacher who plan for teaching by put in to practice what they have learned in the teaching college. But the teachers' motivation remains as ignored factor in all level of policy intervention (Oluech, 2006). Consequently, becomes responsible factor for the rapidly declining of the status of teaching profession among young generation.
For instance, in Tanzania nowadays most of bright students do not prefer to join teaching and yet becomes the last resort among applicants. Teacher motivation and job recognition helps to retain teacher in their work places through provision of the material and psychological needs does not necessarily being payments. Such kind of things like bonuses, gifts, and study opportunities can be use as a means to attract bright students to join teaching and even to work in remote rural areas. However, in less developed countries public school teachers' motivation is said to be low and it is been detrimental of the quality of education (Oluech, 2006). The situation is more serious in the developing countries Tanzania in particular, where high-quality applicants refuse to join or retain in teaching profession. Many who join profession use it as a stepping stone or stepladder to join other lucrative jobs such as lawyers, accountants.
According to the 1990 World report on Teachers' Conditions of Service asserted that, in absence of motivation to teachers which can be used to induce them to perform better; the quality of education will deteriorate since de-motivated teachers is the major contributing factor to the poor learning performance of students in primary and secondary schools (Bennell and Mwakyanuzi, 2005). Unlike other neighboring countries, in Tanzania there is no any allowance or bonus is paid to public school teachers as a means to motivate and encourage qualified teachers to work in remote rural areas. In other countries the government attempted to use some incentives to make rural areas attractive to live and work for qualified teachers. They have different forms of incentive such as financial or material incentives (hardship allowance, travel allowances, housing subsidies) and non-material incentives (special study leave, training opportunities). In the figure below shows the different forms of incentives allocated to the rural schools in the some of the East and Southern Africa countries.
Figure number 3.6: Incentives to Encourage Teachers to Work in Rural Location.
Source: ADEA Biennale (2006:15).
As shown from the above table is only Tanzania where teachers working in rural areas paid nothing as motivation to work in remote rural areas. In Malawi, though no financial incentive offered, but the government provides housing where help to attract teachers to work in rural areas. The EMIS data reveal that there is strong correlation between availability of good-quality housing and presence of female teachers in rural school in Malawi (ADEA, 2006).
4.0: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations.
4.1: Summary of Findings from the Study.
The paper has been sets forward to describe the challenges facing teachers in public schools in developing countries and its implications to the quality of education. Specifically, the focus was on the challenges facing the public school teachers and the way it affects the quality of education in Tanzania. The study focused on the four issues: teacher salary payments and other fringe benefits; working conditions; opportunities for professional development and motivation and recognition among the public school teachers and how is affecting their job performance hence the quality of education.
In addressing these issues the research study seek to answer the following research questions: (i) what are the problems with low salary payments to public school teachers? (ii) how do teachers' poor working conditions affect their teaching performance? (iii) how does the limited opportunities for professional development affecting teachers' performance hence poor quality public education? And finally, (iv) what kind of motivations can be provided to teachers so as to improve service delivery in public schools?
This research paper is mainly use of the secondary data surveyed from the books, academic journals, articles, working papers, reports, and website. The paper is made to document what have learned after thoroughly surveyed of different literatures aimed at public school teachers in developing countries. The results from the literatures review highlight the following findings:
Generally, as other developing countries, Tanzania is experiencing the huge of shortage of qualified teachers in public schools both for primary and secondary levels. This come after implementation of PEDP and SEDP led to rapidly expansion of enrolment in primary and secondary schools in 2000s. The expansion of enrolment does not consider the supply of qualified teachers hence the government end up recruited para-teachers or crash program teachers.
Teachers' salaries are generally low and unattractive as compared with other profession hence teaching becomes the last resort for many young applicants. In comparison with other neighboring countries, Tanzania teachers in public schools are paid lowest salaries and other fringe benefits. For instance, according to 2005 - 2006 statistics, the average salaries for public teachers was US dollar 20, 95, and 125 for the primary, lower secondary and upper secondary teachers respectively. In this regard Tanzania recorded the lowest salary rate among East and Southern African countries. Unlike other countries teachers does not get even hardship allowance to enable them to cope with pathetic working environment especially in rural schools. This demoralized teachers' working morale and discourage the competent candidates to join teaching profession.
Working conditions remain the major constraint for the teachers to exercise their duties efficiently so as to improve learning outcomes. Challenges such as overcrowded classes, inadequate housing, dilapidated buildings with few desks, and lack of relevant textbooks and workbooks are common in public schools in most of developing countries. Findings indicate the terrible situation in rural areas where due to poor water supply, poor roads, electricity supply, inadequate accommodation, and poor health services. All these discourage teachers work there and in due course cause shortage of teachers. Teacher absenteeism and lateness is common phenomena in most of remote rural schools. For instance, teachers from rural schools travel long distance to district centers to collect their salaries hence significantly reduce and disrupt available time for teaching and learning.
Teacher professional development is said to be crucial factor to give teacher chance to become confident, competent and up to date in the curricula changes. It gives opportunities for the teacher to acquire new teaching skills, improve teaching practices, familiar with policy changes, and broaden their mindsets as professional and individual. For instance, teachers in primary schools lack skills to handle certain topics in the revised school curricula and pupils with special needs especially in rural areas where special schools are not available. Besides all these significance, most of the governments in developing world put more efforts on recruitment on new teachers, enrolment expansion and construction of infrastructures. Nothing has been done about in provision of in-service training, seminar and workshop on curricula changes, or new subjects.
Lack of motivation and job recognition on the part of teachers remains an obstacle for the government to improve education quality. Likewise in other developing countries working environments for teachers is unsatisfactory. Consequently affecting the teaching and learning process. Deliberate efforts should be taken to ensure teachers are well motivated, respected and recognized. Unfortunately, unlike other neighboring countries, the study reveal that there is no any kind of incentives offered to teachers to encourage them to work particularly in rural schools where working environment is unattractive. Currently, nothing has been done to make working in rural schools more attractive especially for young and newly qualified teachers. Neither financial (allowance, bonus, subsidy) nor material incentives (study opportunities, gifts, study tours, housing) is offered to attract, retain and motivates qualified teachers to work in remote rural schools. For instance, statistics shows only 20 percent of teachers were provided with houses across the country. Due to this, now days teaching profession is not well recognized and respected as it was before. Now days teaching profession become has last resort profession among the young generation applicants. For instance, some of the teachers have discouraging their children from choosing teaching as their future career.
4.2: Conclusion and Recommendations.
Increase teachers' and other education employee's salaries so as to be more attractive to the best school-leavers. This should include the payments of allowances, promotion structure and other fringes benefits - hardship allowances, bonus allowance, and study leave should be offered to teachers working in rural areas as a means to attract qualified teachers to work in remote and peripheral districts.
The government should take deliberate efforts and actions to improve teaching and learning environments in public schools particularly in rural areas where majority of population located. Such measures may include provision of decent accommodation, transport vessels, medical services, and support services (solar energy, water supply). Similarly, the government should train and supply of enough qualified teachers, construction of buildings, provides better resource for good teaching (textbooks, workbooks). All this to make teaching attractive and first option profession among best young school-leavers.
It is deemed that teachers' hearts are broken due to adverse working environments especially in rural areas. Thus, the government should come up with special program exclusively at improving teachers' incentives to reinforce their motivation and professional commitment. This will help to motivates teachers to work in remote rural areas and the best school leavers to join the teaching profession. Such mechanisms include recognizing and rewarding teachers, as well as use of the media to profile excellent teachers.
Meanwhile, for the short-term the government may re-consider the formula to allocate teachers in favor of the disadvantaged and peripheral districts with high pupil-teacher ratios including introduction of contract system of employment as a means to ensure remote and rural areas are supplied by trained and qualified teachers.
To accomplish education for all (EFA) government should increase the budget allocation as well as massive investment in education sector. The government should increase budget allocation (public expenditure on education) from 6.2 percent to at least 10 percent of the Gross National Income (GNI). This should be done purposely to match with the pace of highly expansion on enrolments, teacher recruitment and professional development both for primary and secondary education.