Back Ground Of Volunteerism Education Essay

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From the beginning billion of Britain and in Europe carry out work with no financial cost due to some reasons. The volunteer workers are likely to be more than 83 million people (independent sector 2001) shows volunteerism as a huge production.

for the demand of communities Volunteers play main roles in the united and Europe doing a range of significance works. (borass 2003,p.3). it is suggested that volunteerism is the way for those who connect their selves in the community life. It is possible to

To encourage communities to carry out autocracy and to remove possible society issues(bloom & Kilgore 2003,clary & snyder,2002).

According to (green 2002) volunteerism is a big production which we can see it mostly with Europe, United Kingdom and america. It is important question which arises to what stimulate these volunteers to do work without money. And the importace of those moving factors which keep them going on. For instance ,a person may wish at the beginning to stay as a volunteer but what are those background thoughts which support them to sustain helping time over time.

Definition of volunteerism:

If we look deeply to our countries or look upon the study of human kind. Volunteerism can be define easily, as a person who contribute his/her time, energy, skill, opportunity, sharing his/her success, HISTORY:

1 )

Edmond and Dunlop (2004) write, mentioning the important question that "What really motivates a someone to volunteer. It is a difficult question, but understanding these motivations, it can be of great support to organizations in attracting, placing, and slug them on to volunteers" (p. 6). some non profit organizations has great experience high yield rates among their volunteer employees,and pull toward volunteers (Mayer, 1999).

2) The difficulty is that the literature is deficient in look upon to volunteer motivation; it is very strange that why some people get involved and keep on involved while other people quickly grow weary of volunteering or reject to volunteer


Therefore, the discovery shows some important reason

regarding this study ,which is literally the experiences, opinion, and attitudes of the volunteers at a Non-Profit Organization to estimate what motivates them to volunteer and what maintains their contribution over time. The reason it was to enhance the indulgent of why individuals volunteer and also how to sustain their involement.


In the non profit organisation like musjid (mosque ) the researcher look over the understandings, opinion, and mind-sets the people those who volunteer at a

Mosque (musjid) , to see what reasons led them to volunteer and what factors encouraged them to continue helping.

Question 1

To What extent it encourages volunteers to provide their time?

1. in Non-Profit Organization, To What extent underlying principles are set by volunteers?

2. What kinds of returns they get , if any, motivate volunteers?

3. state that how do volunteers in a religious location observe the rewards linked with them in volunteering?

Question 2

While keeping help ,What states must shown to motivate volunteer?

1. what will be the position for the extrinsic motivators which support them to motivate volunteers?

2. what will be instrinsic causes for unpaid helper ?

3. What is the role of management while motivating volunteers to go on helping over period?


The result shows also it is potentially useful to organizations that attract, employ, and keep a volunteer labour force, such as community welfare organizations, relief society, hospitals, and belief-based society. After study of volunteerism It is predicted that such type of organizations woauld be able to boost their efficiency as they better know what pull some one as volunteers and what moves them to carry on serving over time.



This part of the study narrate the study with some measurable stress on volunteerism, motivational theory, and volunteer stimulus. Exploring the background theory it is based in a set of real-world information and not the dynamic literature (Gall, Gall, & Borg, 2003). this literature examines the set up of the broad framework,the purpose and present the theoretical formation.

Incentive Theorists

As we know that the word motivation derives from the Latin word mover which means to be in action (Mitchell & Daniels, 2003). Motivational theory seek outs to make it clear that what stirs someone into action, what express such ways, and how this deeds is sustained (Mitchell & Daniels, 2003).


Mentioning two types of theories is stated here by Researchers and theorists, the extrinsic motivation and intrinsic motivation.

Extrinsic motivation :when someone connected in such behaviour for external factors, such as plunder, money, or social endorsement is called extrinsic motivatioon (Richter, 2001; Witzel & Mercer, 2003).

Intrinsic motivation :while instrinsic motivation is that someone engages in a certain activities for internal reasons, such as doing an activity for the natural pleasure of the activity itself (Ryan & Deci, 2000).


Extrinsic Motivational Theory

Extrinsic motivation is based in B.F. Skinner's (1953) reinforcement theory from the behavioral school of psychology.


Skinner's reinforcement theory: it express the consequences to a study of volunteer motivation. for instance, to what level (if any) are volunteers motivated by external reasons, such as appreciation, recognition, reputation, and awards. Some theories such as Reinforcement theory illustrate that persons may be motivated to carry out well if there is a pleasurable outcome. However, reinforcement theory does not make clear why some volunteers continue to serve up when they get no returns or pleasurable outcomes. As Kouzes and Posner (1995) describe:

Some of the known activities mentioning here to support the thesis which are ,Why do [people] volunteer to put out fires, raise money for praiseworthy roots, or help children? Why do people mark up for the Peace Corps or unite Mother?


Intrinsic Motivational Theory

Mentioning two major intrinsic motivational theories in the literature are self-determination theory (SDT) developed by Deci and his co-workers (Deci, 1972; Deci & Ryan, 1985; Deci, Koestner, & Ryan, 1999; Ryan & Deci, 2000) and Social-Cognitive Theory (SCT) (Bandura, 1976, 1997, 2002). Deci and his colleagues (Deci, 1972; Deci & Ryan, 1985; Deci, Koestner, & Ryan, 1999; Ryan & Deci, 2000) they put forward that foundation of human behaviour is on three natural psychological needs: the needs for 1.competence, 2.autonomy, 3.relatedness. and also They argue that these three needs must be met for one to be intrinsically motivated.


The first need, competence or ability, is the need to notice that someone is capable to do a task. According to SDT theory, people's actions are driven by the need to perform a task successfully. For a person to feel skilled, talent must be provided to them to perfom their job wel done, awareness, and provided reasonable resources to carry out their jobs (Richter, 2001; Kerka,

2003). The second need, autonomy, when one carry out a task it is the need to exercise a sense of control. Ryan and Deci (2000) declaire

Declaring some sense of control on "dangers, time limits, instructions, stress evaluations, intrinsic motivation .In difference, option, acknowledgement, and for the improvement of intrinsic motivation they provide chances for self-direction,because they permit people a better feeling of autonomy" (Ryan & Deci, 2000, under "Intrinsic Motivation").


In this part of SDT, a person needs a chance to have some say in what he or she does, an opportunity and to take part in making important decisions, and liberally they do their tasks with the best way he or she make outs fit (Kohn, 1998; 2002).

Finally, relatedness is the necessitate to tie with others and believe socially valued (Ryan & Deci, 2000). Richter (2001) it is declared in his study that , "Relatedness is the sense that some one is emotionally fasten in his or her life" (p. 87). While its must be assemble for these three needs - competencey or ability, autonomy, relatedness -if and if a person is to be intrinsically motivated, it is similarly significant to make sure that an activity that, one carry outs is meaningful to the individual. "It is a key to remember…that persons will be intrinsically stimulated only for activities that embrace intrinsic attention for them, also activities that have the plead of novelty, confront, or visual value" (Ryan & Deci, 2000, para 9 under "Intrinsic Motivation").


the first and foremost researched of Deci (1972) and his co-workers SDT along with students who solve problem. for instance, in the early 1970s Deci in his basic study, he he divided the students into two groups ,he gave one group of students a financial prize for solving problems and another group with no returns.

Deci realize that the students who were granted a financial reward demonstrate less attention in solving with the problems (1972). And another More latest Vansteenkiste and Deci (2003) trial competitively group rewards and intrinsic motivation with learner students for the purpose to find out which winners were more intrinsically motivated as copare to losers. While Using riddle solving activities, they realize that winners were really more intrinsically motivated as compare to losers and the feedbackwas positive and as well as decisive for keeping intrinsic motivation in competition (Vansteenkiste & Deci, 2003). SDT, then, it firstly has been examined in laboratory. In this research the , the researcher suppose to examine measurements of SDT - which are namely ability, autonomy, and relatedness - to guess does these these motivators has appropriate to the volunteers at the Non-profit organization.


It is randomly calculated that more than 26 years the research and the discussion has been taken among Intrinsic Motivational Theorists

, the social psychology researchers have argued with the outcomes of extrinsic returns on intrinsic motivation. The group one , psychologists' dispute that rewards students for performing tasks are naturally interesting to them with proving the expected touchable returns such as pay, awards, and prizes, reduce intrinsic motivation ( Kohn, 1998, King, Hautaluoma, & Shikiar, 1982;; Deci, Koestner, & Ryan, 1999; Ruenzel, 2000). Look upon the Theorists they think that extrinsic motivators trim down one's intrinsic motivation time to time.


Some psychologists which deals with Behavioural psychology they think that it is dissimilar, and it shows that extrinsic rewards challenges intrinsic motivation. According to Cameron, Banko, and Pierce (2001) they accomplish a meta-analysis which regard the affirmative outcomes of rewards on intrinsic motivation, they find out some result that under some situation (money which is given as a reward can boost people's motivation as well as work performance. According to Pierce, Cameron, Banko, and So (2003) checked the conception that using a riddle-solving task with students. It is clearly suggested that rewards develop intrinsic motivation.

Some £2.00 were given for each accurate answer, while some of them they gave no-reward form any pay nothing. The researchers set up that participants who get a reward (£2.00) used up more time on the task than those whose has given no touchable reward.

According to (Urdan, 2003)It was just to realize that researchers have proof to carry their arrangements, they think that one can terminate that there are circumstances in which extrinsic rewards boost intrinsic motivation and also under some circumstances whereby extrinsic rewards reduce intrinsic motivation. This present topic volunteerism will look for to address to what level extrinsic rewards influence the intrinsic motivation of a volunteer employee.

Another theoretical structure called Social Cognitive Theory (SCT that has straight significance regarding volunteers Also called Social Learning Theory, Albert Bandura (1976, 1997, 2002) developed SCT which deals with the structure of human behaviour. The respected Bandura structure they clearly mention a behavioral form known as self-efficacy. Self-efficacy present,one's faith about his or her abilities to be successful at a task (Bandura, 1997).

Albert Bandura stated that there are some people whose behaviour is directly related to their real efficacy, it can be practically examined in many different positions. According to Margolis and McCabe (2006) set up that if any students have good self-efficacy, they will be more stimulated to engage in and work through problems.

However, those students who has no high self-efficacy they will have the deficiency in the ability to achieve something, they also scared and wish to pause when any difficulties face to them .once upon a timw that Bandura (2005) applies self-efficacy to the wellbeing or health service. He describe that some one who has a high intelligence of efficacy and bring into being helpful result for behavior modification, he or she can achieve his/her goal with a minimum direction regarding to health behaviour. On other side those who has small self-efficacy,his or her healths are npt control by them selves , this type of person will require more help and to understand them as personal supervision to develop his or her health.


Some four suggestion from which one's self-efficacy derives from. The four determinants are: 1.personal mastery of a task; modelling, such as looking the performance of others; persuasion, such as getting knowledge from coperative; 4.physiological reactions, or an encouragement of one's emotional position. According to the following researcher,they notice,that decreasing stress develops one's efficacy since most of the people in non-profit organisation they notice some tension and nervousness which is the symbols of lack of knowledge for that specific task or personal shortage (Bandura, 1997; Margolis & McCabe, 2006).


According to Stajkovic and Luthans (2003) leader has great role in motivating their employees so they apply these four determinants to managers and leaders who motivate their employees in a company. Managers and leaders have four accountabilities (narrated to the four determinants).First;they must help their workers who should feel free to ask any help regarding their job. Secondly, leaders must permit their workers to watch "knowledgeable things and things related others which carry out a similar task" that they are accountable. (Stajkovic & Luthans, 2003, p. 137). Thirdly, leaders must improve employee trusts which deals with worker performance and the spoken advice and support to them. Finally, leaders must tolerate their employees for surroundings that is not physiologically or psychologically devastating (Stajkovic & Luthans, 2003).


The importance of Volunteers

every year million of British in United Kingdom give their time for a occurrence known as volunteerism. According to marx a volunteer is someone who lend a hands others for no monetary return (Marx, 1999) and gives services liberally without the anticipation of a payment (Dekker & Halman, 2003). Some of Americans volunteers their moment each year to an array of charities, community safety organizations, hospitals, sports programs, schools and colleges, and belief-based communities (Independent Sector, 2001; Freeman, 1997).

generously Even though thousands of British offer their services each year without recompense, very few academic research has been carry out regarding the work performance of volunteers.

19 some Reasons for Individuals Volunteer:

The research of the literature tells us that their are too many reasons that volunteers contribute their time .First, individuals give their time because of self-sacrifice, the "selfless look upon for the well-being of others people" (Marx, 1999, p. 52). People also volunteer for their own importance while concern to them (Lenkowsky, 2004). Suppose some one is not pleaded to some reason , he or she is not likely to devote his or her time for that motive (Freeman, 1997).

It is also recommended in the literature that people volunteer to feel to have to something (Clary &Snyder, 1999; Marx, 1999, Gerstein, Wilkeson, & Anderson, 2004), they have some reason which is to give a little back (Kumar, Kallen, & Mathew, 2002), some people wish to increase skills, knowledge, and talent that can be useful toward a career in the future life.(Marx, 1999, Gerstien, Wilkeson, & Anderson, 2004),some volunteers devote their time for individual pleasure (Kumar, Kallen, & Mathew, 2002), and get the chance to do something that is extreme attention to them (Linder, 1998).

According to (Allison, 2002, Green, 2002; Karren, 2004, Throop, 2003) people become volunteer to make a part with their day to day lives.Green (2002) stated that volunteers will gives their time to make the chance to make a variation" (p. 31).


According to Freeman (1997) bring into being that one motivating feature can support all the related volunteers. He note down, and assume that "one social event - that why individuals work for nothing " (p. 160).The investigation from the Independent Sector, Freeman (1997) originate that "44% of respondents said that they volunteered because they were eager to asked - so it is background for this the most important reason for volunteering" (p. 163).


According to Freeman (1997) initiates that people agree to that type of volunteer in which they believe , and which they have trust on that job.

Again Freeman (1997) noted that some people agree to become volunteer are for such deeds which can help their family members. For instance, some one cousin is splaying Little League, then it is assume that his or her close relatives may volunteer to become coach or to facilitate them. Even If that close relative's brother or cousin are not playing

Once again Freeman (1997) suggested that "almost one-third (33%) of helpers inform us that they first became linked in a non paid activity when a relatives member or friend was concerned with or beneficial from it" (p. 164).


The Functional loom to Volunteer Motivation

in the field of psychology called Functionalism which is not practically structure and which claim that some people act and struggle toward individual and social ambition to perform several psychological tasks (Clary et al.., 1998). Clary et al.. (1998) and Clary and Snyder (1999) have used the functional loom to imagin the grounds of individuals volunteer and sustain him/her as a free worker in non profit organisation


There are some unambiguous volunteer motivations: 1.values, 2.understanding,,, 5.protective, 5.enhancement. 6.labeled protective. some question were asked for each of these functions to determine the actual aims as an individual's volunteer endeavours. The following will introduce some of these functions psychologically.


Beginning form the first function which is values function. The individual volunteers articulate or do something on values such as compassionate or selflessness. Form this it is assume that various people become volunteer and maintain to volunteer over time if there is some values for the respected volunteer movement and is recognized it clearly. The second function serve up by volunteering is understanding. This demonstrate that people will maintain to volunteer if they are bonded in new way of learning skill and have the chance to use knowledge, skills, and talent. (Clary et al., 1998


Enhancement is the third function. This describe the development and growth of volunteers which serve for the rationales of him/her selves. The psychological function that is fullfill the "growth and improvement and engaged them with certain job" (Clary et al., 1998, p. 1518). A fourth function served by volunteering is called career. Clary et al. (1998) which describe that volunteers habitually serve with the achievement of career-related knowledge through volunteering. Social is the fifth function is called which explains that volunteers connected to in voluntary helping activities for the building structure of their social connections. Clary et al. (1998) they also note down that individuals can keep making connection to other to build up important connections, they are more likely to persist volunteering. Finally, the last function served through volunteering is labeled protective. Which also called the shielding function, from this function the person volunteers to "decrease guiltiness over being more chance than others and to get a chance to speak to one's own individual dilemmas" (Clary et al., 1998, p. 1518).