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Leadership is the process of influencing others to work willingly towards an organizations goal and to their best of their capabilities. The essence of Leadership is followership. In other words, it is the willingness of people to follow that makes a person a Leader. It is important to the success of any group, although the nature and style of Leadership needed in one condition may differ substantially from that needed in another. Leadership is crucial in motivating and inspiring the workforce. Some of the Leadership styles chosen are Autocratic, Democratic, Laissez-Faire and Paternalistic.
2.2.1 Autocratic style of Leadership
Autocratic style is also known as the authoritarian style of Leadership. In such a style, decision making is centralized in the hand of the Leader himself, who does not encourage participation by subordinates. Indeed subordinates ideas might be actively discourage and obedience to orders would be expected from them. Wise leaders keep the use of autocratic methods to a minimum as they know this approach closes the door to communications with the group they control (Norman, S and Vigor, H 1991). This style of Leadership can be used at school especially when the Administrators do not expect any feedback or justification; that is one way communication is used. This can be used for example in a formal meeting with the Educator.
2.2.2 Democratic style of Leadership
Under this style, leaders consult the group and solicit their opinion and participation in decision making process (Sheikh 1999, p.145). The democratic style of Leadership is more appropriate in nearly all situations in the school. Dealing with people is the most challenging task to be done. Thus Administrators can adopt this style to obtain feedback of students and also welcome suggestion for the best of the student. In the class the Educator can adopt this style to be sure that everyone has well understood the class delivered to them. In this way Educator will know whether they have succeeded in their task or not.
2.2.3 Laissez-faire style of Leadership
The laissez-faire style is also known as the free rein style of Leadership. This style may work effectively when the subordinates are highly competent, able to exercise self-control and can have the capacity to take decision (Sheikh 1999, p.146). Laissez-faire style can be used when there is any event which is organized. The role of the Educator is to set their target and leave the student on their own to complete the work. Being motivated in an event the student will likely to perform well in making the preparations.
2.2.4 Paternalistic style of Leadership
The paternalistic Style of Leadership can be helpful if it used at school. The Educator already acts as a "Father" or "Mother" for the student. Some student is even more at ease to discuss any issue with their Educator instead of their own parents. This is due to the fact that nearly all parents work nowadays and the student find only the Educator to whom they can express their views, feelings and opinions. The Administrators can also adopt this style with the Staff of the school. This will encourage the Educator to work more confidence. Knowing that they are trusted, the Educator will be more motivated to work and will therefore give their best in their work.
2.3 Administrator as an effective Leader
Leadership is part of good management. A Manager with a keen sense of business and an excellent knowledge of planning, controlling and organizing must be a strong Leader, although if his knowledge is to be of any use. The Manager seeks to see a Leader, it is important that he understands the qualities, attitudes, behavior and other ingredients that contribute to Leadership.
Leadership is a process by which a person influences others to accomplish an objective and directs the organization in a way that makes it more cohesive and coherent. According to Northouse's (2010) Leadership is a process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal. In this perspective the Administrators needs to work together with the Staff in order to achieve the aim and objective of the school. The common goal of Administrator and Educator for the school should be the success of students in their education.
Peretomode (1991 quoted by Sharma, S 2011) stated that the importance of Leadership in school for accomplishment of school programs, objectives and attainment of educational goals. Without a proper school Leadership the aim of making learning a success will not be possible. The administrative competencies can be measured from various dimensions; from the perceptions of students, Educators, parents, communities the teaching and non-Teaching-Staff.
2.3.1 Poor Leadership
If a Manager has poor leadership skills, his subordinates will still do the job but in an inefficient way. A poor Leader will often fail to win over his staff and will have problems in communicating with the Staff effectively. A Leader need to have a certain upbringing, education and a "helicopter" factor meaning that he should have the ability to rise above a particular situation and to analyze it objectively.
2.3.2 Can Leadership be taught?
Peter Drucker (1954 quoted by D'Alessio F.A 2006) presented a sound synopsis: "Leadership is of utmost importance. Indeed there is no substitute for it. But Leadership cannot be created or promoted. It cannot be taught or learned." Nowadays views differ on this issue. History has numerous ordinary people who after having studied become great Leaders for example Mahatma Gandhi. This is a reason why there is a great support on the views that Leader can be trained to adopt the key attribute of good Leadership. People can become good Leader through learning and training. How can Leader be born in this unrelenting world of today, where everything changes every day? It is more productive to start with the assumption that it is possible for everyone to lead. Everyone is a Leader in his own and in whatever he does because each one has his own way of viewing and doing things. "Leadership and learning are indispensable to each other". (John F. Kennedy)
2.3.3 Culture and Leader
The climate is the feel of the organization, the individual and shared perceptions and attitudes of the organization's members (Ivancevich, Konopaske, Matteson, 2007 cited by UK essay. Case Study of Opito Organizational Management And Leadership.). The climate represents the beliefs about how the Staff feels at school. If the Staff is at ease with the way the school functions along with the style of Leadership being adopted, this will eventually lead to Motivation of Staff. The students and the Staff of a school spend most of their time in the school premises. Thus the climate should be adaptable to the students as well as the Staff for learning process to be successful. The atmosphere should be enchanting.
2.4 Educator as a Leader
In class the Educator is the sole Leader. The Educator needs to be able to establish a positive culture and environment in order to make the teaching of the class becomes successful. As reported by Koutsoulis (2003, cited by Krishnaveni. R and Anitha. J., 2007), students demand a humanistic approach, effective communication skills of the teacher, better understanding towards them, as well as ability to control the classroom. Educator need to have good attitudes, communication skills, persuasive attitude and should be able to shift from a friendly approach to a more severe approach as and when required. ''It is the supreme art of the Educator to awaken joy in creative expression and knowledge'' (Albert Einstein, scientist). Educator need to monitor and evaluate each student's performance to know what can be done for a better improvement.
Every Educator has numerous opportunities to influence the environment in which he or she works. A research by Muijs (2003 cited by Chen 2007) said Leadership means the capacity for Educators to exercise Leadership for teaching and learning within and beyond the classroom. Each Educator should come to know the students deeply and to understand their backgrounds, their interests, their preferences in learning, and their family constellations. Furthermore Administrators need to give Educators opportunities to perform professionally so that they can perceive their roles as important. Educators need to be emotionally strong in dealing with students. Educators should expect different approach as students are from different background. Being A-Level students, they do not have the maturity yet to decide of whether they are right or wrong in their actions or in what they say.
2.5 Instructional Leader
Effective Instructional Leaders are intensely involved in curricular and instructional issues that directly affect student achievement (Cotton, 2003 cited by Reading First Notebook). Leaders cannot neglect other duties, teaching and learning should be the area where most of the Leaders' scheduled time is allocated. Instructional Leadership requires Administrators to free themselves of bureaucratic tasks and focus their efforts on improving teaching and learning. Instructional improvement is an important goal, a goal worth seeking, and a goal that, when implemented, allows both students and Educators to make a more meaningful learning environment. Blase and Blase (2000 quoted by Phillips J.A) cite specific behaviors of Instructional Leadership, such as making suggestions, giving feedback, modeling effective instruction, soliciting opinions, supporting collaboration, providing professional development opportunities, and giving praise for effective teaching. Instructional is more at the administrative level.
In short, Instructional Leaderships are those actions that a principal takes, or delegates to others, to promote growth in student learning (Flath, 1989 quoted by Phillips J.A). The principal must possess certain skills to carry out the tasks of an Instructional Leader: interpersonal skills; planning skills; instructional observation skills; and research and evaluation skills (Lashway, 2002 quoted by Phillips J.A). There should be a good relation between the Administrators and the students. Instructional Leaders need to know what is going on in the classroom. Without this knowledge, they are unable to appreciate some of the problems Educators and students encounter. The Administrators need to follow up the task of Educators by asking questions, visiting classrooms, and reviewing subsequent data to guarantee instructional changes are occurring and progress is being made. Furthermore, with the growing importance of technology in schools, Administrators also need to be equipped with the knowledge of technology integration in teaching and learning. In addition to that they are responsible for ensuring that the Educators receive the guidance they require.
2.6 Transformational Leadership
Transformational Leadership is a process that changes and transforms individuals (Northouse, 2001 quoted by Almansour, Y.M., 2012, p.162). This means that Transformational Leadership is the ability to get people to change, to improve, and to be led. If the Rector and Deputy Rector are Transformational Leaders the Educators will be more inspired to work. According to Carlson (1996 cited by Ibrahim A.S & Al-Taneji, S., 2012, p43), Transformational Leader entails moving people to a common vision by building trust and empowerment. With this trust and empowerment Educators will be more motivated to work in the interest of the student, which is giving them a better learning culture. Educators can thus bring in their own innovation in the way they deliver the learning method in the class. This can be done through the use of power point presentation, relevant materials such as articles, books, handouts, magazines, newspaper and even the use of picture, drawings and photo when it is possible to do so. By coming in class and just reading throughout the whole class will never be a benefit to the student and the Educator will not even be able to grasp the full attention of student in this way of educating. Thus the administration should focus on offering technology facilities for the Educator to be able to become more innovative.
Bass (1990 quoted by Rollinson D., 2005, p.377) Transformational leader requires the leader to have a vision of what needs to be done to cope with the situation, the ability to communicate this vision to followers and the capability to energies or inspire them to change their current way of doing things. As articulated by Bass (1985 cited by Ibrahim A.S & Al-Taneji, S., 2012, p43), four factors characterize the behavior of Transformational Leader and they are:
Figure 3: Behavior of Transformational Leaders
Individual Consideration is more about Leader giving support, taking care, understanding and gives encouragement to others. This will benefit the Educator if the administrative adopt such attitude.
Intellectual Stimulation is to encourage being more innovative and creative. The Leader of the school can thus promote critical thinking and problem solving for the Educator to do their work more efficiently.
Inspirational Motivation is that Leader motivated their followers to reach the vision set. Thus the Rector and Deputy Rector need to motivate the Educator for learning process to be promoted. In this factor Leader has high expectation on the followers.
Idealized Influence is a Leader who is an exemplary role model. By being a role model for the Teaching-Staff, the Administrators will be trusted and respected in the decision making.
Having a highly motivated Staff it is the student who will benefit more about this. The Educator will not hesitate to give their best when they are motivated. Without Motivation student will not be willing to learn and they will find it boring. It is important that the Educator makes learning interested for the student to be motivated. Educators on their side need to be motivated to become better Educators. Last but not the least the Administrators need to ensure themselves that the school keeps on improving. Participative Administrators require a culture and style that are open and flexible to be able to respond to the needs and talents of individual Staff. Thus Leaders need to keep Educators motivated for the Educators to motivate the student to learn. This shows that there is a cycle on the Motivation at different level of the hierarchy in on order to make learning process easier. This cycle of Motivation is illustrated below.
Figure 4: Cycle of Motivation
2.8 Types of Motivation
Motivation at works operates in two ways: the Intrinsic Motivation and Extrinsic Motivation. Intrinsic Motivation is more about the motivation that comes within an individual and Extrinsic Motivation is about factor which comes from outside an individual. Extrinsic motivation is easier to understand; it consists of desire for a tangible reward.
According to Armstrong (1996 p. 299) Intrinsic Motivation is when people can motivate themselves by seeking, finding and carrying out work (or being given work) which satisfies their needs or at least leads them to expect that their goals will be achieved. Furthermore Armstrong (2002 p.56) elaborated that the Intrinsic Motivation factors include responsibility (feeling that the work is important and having control over one's resources), freedom to act, scope to use develop skills and abilities, interesting and challenging work, and opportunities for advancement and growth. When a staff is intrinsically motivated they will feel an interest and will enjoy their work. Educators which are determinant in his work will likely deliver good teaching to the students. The intrinsic motivators, which are concerned with 'quality of working life' (a phrase and movement which emerged from this concept), are likely to have a deeper and long-term effect because they are inherent in individuals and not imposed from outside (Armstrong 1996 p. 299).
Extrinsic Motivation is when people can be motivated by management through such methods as pay, promotion and praise (Armstrong 2002 p.56). Extrinsic Motivation includes rewards, such as increased pay, praise or promotion and punishments such as disciplinary action with holding pay or criticism (Armstrong 1996 p. 299). Whenever an Educator has excelled in his task he needs to be appraised by the Administrators. This will bring more motivation when an Educator is rewarded when the latter has work well and with this the fourth need according to Maslow Hierarchy of needs will be achieved that is the Esteem needs which include achievement, status and recognition.
Extrinsic Motivation has an impact on individual in a short term period only. However Administrators need to focus more on the intrinsic motivation of Educator in order for the Educator to remain motivated on a longer time basis.
2.9 Approaches to Motivation
2.9.1 Behavioral Approach
Behaviorism is primarily concerned with observable behavior, as opposed to internal events like thinking and emotion (McLeod, S 2007). Behavioral is to observe any changes in the behavior. The Rector can adopt this approach specially after giving instruction or guideline to the Educator for a better learning process of the student. According to Armstrong (2002 p. 57) behaviorists are interested only in the external factors that directly influence behavior and they believe that learning takes place mainly through the processes of positive and negative reinforcement. The conceptualization of learning using this approach could be considered "superficial" as the focus is on external changes in behavior that is not interested in the internal processes of learning leading to behavior change and has no place for the emotions involved the process (Wikipedia).
2.9.2 Humanistic Approach
This approach focuses on recognizing human capabilities in areas such as creativity, personal growth and choice (Memiah Ltd, 2012). This approach sees the positive nature of human being which allows one's fulfillment and potential. The highest rung on Abraham Maslow's ladder of human motives is the need for self-actualization of people which consist of: Awareness and acceptance of themselves, openness and spontaneity, the ability to enjoy work and see work as a mission to fulfill, the ability to develop close friendships without being overly dependent on other people, a good sense of humor and the tendency to have peak experiences that are spiritually or emotionally satisfying. (Spark Notes LLC 2012).
2.9.3 Cognitive Approach
The cognitive approach organizations accelerate the learning that takes place by developing their understanding of learning and by taking steps which expedite the process (Boolaky M and Gokhool D., 2011 p.82). Cognitive theory can be more useful to manager that needs theory because it provides more realistic guidance on motivation techniques (Armstrong 2002). According to Cole (1998 cited by Boolaky M and Gokhool D., 2011 p.82) the cognitive approach is making sense of issues and situations, of developing insight and understanding and of seeing patterns in their environment. Educator adopting this approach can help more in decision-making. With a better understanding Educator is likely to take the right decision at the right time.
2.10 Importance of Educators' Motivation
The Educators' Motivation is a key for effective learning to take place. One aspect of motivation, probably the hardest to change, lies in the personality of the teacher (Eggleton P.J). The main objective of the school is the success of the student and for this objective to be met Educator need to be motivated to provide an efficient learning process to the student. To be able to teach the student Educator need to possess a good knowledge. Furthermore, to maintain a class well Educator need to use some humoristic approach in order to boost up the motivation on student and the Educator in return will also be motivated to work. Also, when Educators are motivated they will bring in personal technique to enhance student learning such as technologies as the Educator has a great impact on the learners. We often see students' motivation reflected in personal investment and in cognitive, emotional, and behavioral engagement in school activities (Fredricks, Blumenfeld, & Paris, 2004; Maehr & Meyer, 2004; Reeve, 2006 cited by Ormrod 2008).
2.11 Factors influencing Educators' Motivation
There are several factors that can influence the Educators' Motivation which are:
A good environment needs to prevail in the school.
The school needs to possess the required equipment and materials so that the Educator can allow the class to function effectively.
Recognition and feedback of Educators when they put in extra effort for their student.
Educators know that they will have support in times of difficulty.
Administrators need to involve Educator in decision making.
Staff's sharing of ideas is encouraged by the Administrators.
Staff turnover: A low staff turnover will mean that Educator is happy with his work.
Encourage Educator to take part in extra-curricular activities.
A sense of trust worthy reins amongst the Educators.
Based on the sayings of the theorists, Leadership and Motivation were viewed in different angle. This will eventually help in the analysis part of the study to identify what can be done to increase the Motivation level at ICC-FVI.