Autocratic And Participative Style Of Leadership Education Essay

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I have experienced in the past that I have an Autocratic and Participative style of leadership; this was recognized through group activities in school, activities at church and at workplace. My style of leadership was confirmed by the online surveys that were conducted during the course of this leadership programme. These surveys will be attached to this document as reference purpose.

According to the two surveys I discovered that both style of leadership will be helpful as it suits my character and is also used by many others who have chosen the same career as I have.

Authoritarian (autocratic) - This style is used when leaders will tell their employees what they want done and how they want it accomplished, without getting the advice of their followers. Some of the appropriate conditions to use it are when you have all the information to solve the problem, you are short on time and your employees are well motivated.

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Participative (democratic) - This style involves the leader including one or more employees in the decision making process (determining what to do and how to do it). However, the leaders maintain the final decision making authority.

According to my view, these leadership styles are appropriate for a grocery store or supermarket as I have experienced that these two leadership style is also used by my seniors at workplace and it has also been noticed that using participative style is a sign of strength that the employees respect. On the other hand having an autocratic style also helps at different situations mostly when the businesses are facing problems. It has also been seen that employers who have autocratic style are professionally dealing with these issues and are not abusing their power.

I have realized that both Autocratic and Participative form of leadership has been helping with the ongoing day to day activities held at school and work. I strongly believe that many New Zealand leaders are following the same leadership style so this could be appropriate for me as well. It is also seen that I lack some qualities of a leader especially in terms of time management and anger issues so I believe this things are becoming a hindrance to my leadership skills so I plan to deal with these issues as soon as possible. I strongly believe that I could become a good leader at some point as this survey has helped me see where and at what stage I stand and through evaluation where I could be standing in the future. I have also recognized my strengths, which are better task allocation, good communication skills and building good friendly relationship with all the staff and people around me. The other aspect that I have noticed is that all staff or friends come to me and share their views at a personal level either personal issues or issues related to work.

1.2 Leadership Theory

Participative Theories:

Participative leadership theories suggest that the ideal leadership style is one that takes the input of others into account. These leaders encourage participation and contributions from group members and help group members feel more relevant and committed to the decision-making process. In participative theories, however, the leader retains the right to allow the input of others. (Cherry)

It is assumed that involvement in decision making improves the understanding of the issues, people are more committed to the activities where they are involved in decision making, people will be less competitive and will work together to achieve goals and several people deciding together can make better decisions than one person alone.

Management Theories:

Management theories, also known as transactional theories, focus on the role of supervision, organization and group performance. These theories base leadership on a system of rewards and punishments. Managerial theories are often used in business; when employees are successful, they are rewarded; when they fail, they are reprimanded or punished. (Cherry)

Transactional leaders tend to be directive and action-oriented they are willing to work within existing systems and negotiate to attain goals of the organization. They seem to be little passive and within transactional leadership, there are two factors, contingent reward and management-by-exception. Contingent reward provides rewards for effort and recognizes good performance. Management-by-exception maintains the status quo, intervenes when subordinates do not meet acceptable performance levels, and initiates corrective action to improve performance. (Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)

Relationship Theories:

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Relationship theories, also known as transformational theories, focus upon the connections formed between leaders and followers. Transformational Leadership motivates and inspires people by helping group members see the importance and higher good of the task. These leaders are focused on the performance of group members, but also want each person to fulfil his or her potential. Leaders with this style often have high ethical and moral standards. (Cherry)

Transformational theory tends to connect the follower's sense of identity and self to the project and the collective identity of the organization; being a role model for followers that inspires them and makes them interested; challenging followers to take greater ownership for their work, and understanding the strengths and weaknesses of followers, so the leader can align followers with tasks that enhance their performance. (Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)

Comparison between Transactional and Transformational theories

Transactional

Transformational

Leadership is responsive

Leadership is proactive

Works within the organizational culture

Works to change the organizational culture by implementing new ideas

Employees achieve objectives through rewards and punishments set by leader

Employees achieve objectives through higher ideals and moral values

Motivates followers by appealing to their own self interest.

Motivates followers by encouraging them to put group interests first

Management-by-exception: maintain the status quo; stress correct actions to improve performance.

Individualized consideration: Each behavior is directed to each individual to express consideration and support

Intellectual stimulation: Promote creative and innovative ideas to solve problems

Incremental Vs Radical Change

Incremental Change - refers to slight changes that do not cause to move too far from what employees know and are comforted with.

Radical Change - Employees will react very differently to a change that introduces dramatic change to what they know.

http://www.change-management.com/tutorial-ecm-failure-modes-pic1.gif

This model reflects the outcome of the decision made as many tend to forget this and focus on the current solution. This diagram can determine at what stage an individual person or organisation is and what would be the best solution for changes with current limitation of resources. This helps determine the future outcome. It is seen that current leaders often tend to think at a current level and make incremental changes but this affects them in the future when their competitor introduces new technology which decreases their costs and maximises their profit. So using this model will affect the growth as well so it is advisable to plan ahead and make changes.

Strategies for Overcoming Barriers to Change

Awareness - Being aware of the situation and the need to change and the consequences if changes are not made.

Knowledge - Plan on the situation and find best possible solutions with the given resources.

Ability - Having the positive attitude of "yes I can make a difference"

Reinforcement - can be a sort of backup tool as others' support and motivation will be needed for the accomplishment of the goal.

Desire - Seeing the desired future will help overcoming small obstacles on the way and at the end glory will be achieved.

Frameworks for Effecting Change

Laying the foundation for new ways - leadership and readiness for change

Establishing a sense of importance

Forming a team/ defining change management interventions

Creating strategic alignment

Communicating the vision for change

Maximising connectedness

Creating and celebrating short- term wins

Consolidating performance improvements and institutionalising new ways (Charles Sturt University)

Role Model

Mr. Ashween Prasad

He is one of the inspiring Pastors at Assemblies of God Church in Fiji. He runs two churches and is dedicated with his work. He is a full time Pastor and is keen to help others grow in the Lord. I have been inspired by his determination in spreading the Word of God. He had nothing with him when he started his career of a Pastor and now he rents a church and pays mortgage of the other. Pastor Ashween.jpg

He has been an inspiration to me as he had obstacles all his life at each turn but the more troubles that arose, the more he got closer to God and that's the part which I like about him the most. He was like a father to me who helped me realize my true potential and taught me the true colour of nature.

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According to the World earning money, buying a new car having a mansion is everything but he taught me that live for God and I shall inherit all the desires of my heart. It's not that having money is wrong but living and serving others is a part that many tend to forget that money is not everything. He also taught me to be easy on anger and speak with an open mind with everyone. I have learnt that time management is an important aspect as he woke up early mornings and opened the Church himself, as there were few staff he cleaned the benches and got the Church ready for service.

He is been an inspiration to others as well and through his hard work and dedication he has succeeded in gathering followers at just an age of 26. Being with him for two years has changed my way of thinking and my perspective of life has also changed as I also plan to be a Pastor and live life without the greed of money. I learnt that planning, managing time and money and having a place for others in your heart will lead to greater things in life.

New Zealand Leaders

John Key (Less Debt, More Jobs)

He is the former Prime Minister of New Zealand. He is a democratic leader who became the Prime Minister on 8th November 2008 who leads the New Zealand National Party. He has been inspirational as he struggled through life to achieve such a high post. According to his history, it has been that he worked hard in accomplishing his goals and managing his career. He started off as an auditor and walked up towards the ladder of success. His leadership style determines that he acknowledges others views and respects their values. His recent plan is to make New Zealand a better place to live through various techniques. In regard to addressing the social destruction caused by binge drinking, in 2008 Key voted for an ill-fated attempt to rise the legal drinking age from 18 back to 20. ( Wikipedia)

Building a Brighter Future

Building a stronger economy

Building better public services

Building world class infrastructure

Building a safer New Zealand

Rebuilding Christchurch (New Zealand National Party)

Each of his vision is categorized in small missions as this could lead to his desired future. It has also been seen that to make things go right he is making overseas trips in relation to finding job opportunities for New Zealanders. "The screen industry in New Zealand supports over 2700 businesses, over 95 per cent of which are involved in production and post-production work. We need to keep New Zealand front of mind for those individuals who can bring further investment to New Zealand." (admin, news release)

Phil Goff

He is an autocratic leader of NZ. He is a current leader of Labour Party. He was a determined person with great political knowledge through his studies and was a great achiever with an positive attitude. He is self motivates as he believes in himself that he can create a better society for New Zealand. "Should a smack as part of good parental correction be a criminal offence in New Zealand?" His idea is that it is not wise for parents to discipline their children through corporal punishments. "GST increase will hurt families that are already struggling to make ends meet". (wikipedia) It is also seen that he opposes on John keys decision as he is a person who is social minded too. It seems that he wants incremental changes rather than radical as it affects at current situation. He has a strong belief in himself and does not lose hope as he said "wasn't our time this time....but our time will come again...we're a bit bloodied but not defeated." He also went to investigate further on the oil spill issue that arose recently to find answers. As he admits he's going to Taranga with more questions than answers, including whether New Zealand is equipped to handle the risks of offshore oil drilling. This also shows that he has great care for the environment. As an opposing leader it is hard to maintain trust and confidence of the people but somehow the other he is trying his best to cope up with this.

Evaluation

It has been seen that both are political leaders with two different leadership styles. John Key has an democratic style while Phil Goff has an autocratic style and it is assumed that both leaders are performing well in their sight and in the sight of others as well. Both have some similarities like opposing on corporal punishment but it is mostly the differences which are mostly noticed due to challenges in the poloitical parties.

I believe that I inherit both their qualities as my leadership is both autocratic and participative, not forgetting the things that I lack and also focusing on my strengths I should be able to become a good and just leader some day. My goal is not to become a politician but rather serve the people in a different manner but i believe that these two people are great role models to look up to as they both struggled and are managing change effectively either it is small or big. I have learnt that dealing or facing issues help succeed in future and never to lose hope.

Benchmarking Tool

This helps evaluate the effectiveness of the leaders. There can be infinite number of leader's as mums are leaders at home as they continue with their budgeting etc, likewise students can be leaders in school as groups are formed.

1) Setting goals

Being goal oriented is a vital part and the most important skill that should be learnt. It is important to know or realize beforehand what you want to achieve in future. If you are sure that your goals will provide benefit to all then you should begin to communicate that with your team in order to achieve the goal(s).

2) Influencing

It is vital for a good communicator to influence its audience as influencing is a subset of communication. If you can influence their thoughts you will be able to influence on their actions as well. So it is important to understand each other possibly recognize strengths and weakness and then it may be easier to influence minds.

3) Planning ahead

If you have a vision but have no idea how to obtain it, it will be of no use. Likewise having a goal is not enough as there should be some future plan as how it could be achieved. The goal should be divided into arbitrary periods and all plans should be sound and reasonable to obtain within a certain time limit. It is seen that one wrong plan could lead to failure after long periods of hard-work.

4) Conversation

Having conversations can open certain doors that people never imagine could be possible. Leading occurs in the conversation that gives others the opportunities to accomplish something that they had no idea could be accomplished. New ideas could be created or something better could be accomplished.

Benchmarking Criteria

This is the process that is used to see the variance between business processes and performance mostly relative to the same industry with regards to time and cost.

Current rating against those criteria

Analysis

Benchmarked Figure

Actual (My Own)

Deviation

self-confidence with high-level

3

2

1

Social responsibilities (awareness)

4

1

3

Positive thoughts

5

4

1

Practical approach

2

2

0

RESULTS

14

9

5

I have noticed that I am ambitious and goal oriented and have the skill o influence on others but with less regard of the social responsibilities. I have specific goals that I need to accomplish at times and have positive thoughts most of the time regardless of the time span. I have realized that in order to accomplish my tasks I stay focused and have a practical approach towards issues or limitations that hinder my performance. I need to focus more on the social side of life to be balanced on the benefits that will be retrieved.

Reflection

I have a strong vision towards helping others as I have knowledge of the outside world where children eat only once a day or even go to sleep without food. I have thought of becoming a member of Save the Children's Fund and other social committees who help support these kinds of children. I have always dreamt of opening an orphanage for these children where help and support will be provided at no cost. This was my vision since I was a small boy and I believe it is time to accomplish it. My second vision was to get educated and become a well known person in the society, become a full time accountant and also a Pastor at one of the finest Churches.

I currently work at Moshims Supermarket and struggling to achieve both of my vision but deep down I know that I have the power to overcome financial difficulties and other obstacles along my way to achieve this. I also believe that I will be a role model for others and influence them to do the same and help the community so that New Zealand can also be friendly and helpful to other countries.

I believe that having an autocratic and participative styles of leadership will be helpful to my career as being autocratic would help me at workplace but being democratic will help me influence others and make them part of a team. This could also be made easier as I am planning to become a Pastor and having influencing factors would change others ways of life.

Opportunities

Computer Skills - Global economy is changing day by day and manual systems of accounting are not used at current stage.

Anger Issues - At times during communication I get angry and speak at a high pitch or sometimes ignore the person who is speaking.

Improve on Communication Skills - I have problems communicating in English as I get stuck more often and usually wrong conclusions are drawn when I try to express my thoughts.

Rationale

Computer skills - I should learn how to do transactions in the computer without anyone's help as I am used to manual reports and also increase my typing speed. This will help me become a good employee for my employer.

Anger Issues - To become a Pastor it is advisable to be humble rather than grumpy so I think that I should take this opportunity to deal with this issue. Ignoring people is a sign of disrespect so I think I should develop skills to focus on the speaker to encourage him from sharing his view.

Improve on Communication Skills - To be an accountant or a Pastor, it will lead to communication with various kinds of people. My strengths are high in my mother tongue but are a weak in English and as this is a multicultural country, so I think I need to improve. I also need to communicate in a way that people could get the right message what I am trying to portray.

Strategies

Computer Skills - I have talked to a firm who will help me understand the basics and further I will go to a University upon financial arrangements to learn accounting at a business level. Furthermore, I will consider taking help from my relatives who are charted accountants in order to become a successful accountant.

Anger Issues - I will try to observe things and use my mind rather than using my mouth and always try to understand and evaluate what the other person is trying to say and give appropriate feedback. Try to be friendly with everyone and treat everyone the same. At the same time change my attitude towards being humble and respective. As this would help in my career.

Improve on Communication Skills - I will try reading more story books and start having communication in English with external parties and also with family and friends to ensure I become fluent. Also try to send txt messages in English and try communicating with different races of people to gain knowledge on their dialects. This would help me understand everyone at a personal level.

Time Frame

Computer Skills

Learn from relatives Learn from visiting XYZ office

Mon - Tue 8am-11am Mon - Tue 12pm-1pm (During their break)

Anger Issues

Read books regarding anger Join Anger Management Class

Wed - 9pm-10pm Wed - 9am-12pm

Improve on Communication Skills

Read story books and newspapers

Thur - Fri 9pm-10pm

Measures

Computer Skills - I will seek external help during the training session and at the same time personally observing on what I learnt and asking them as well to help evaluate on any progress. This will take place after a few weeks of their guidance to ensure that I lack no knowledge and the time they are spending are also wisely used.

To ensure that I am on the right track I will also help them complete their task and ask them to have a final check.

Anger Issues - I will discuss this situation with my employer before hand and plea him to give his observation at weekly intervals to ensure that I show signs of improvements. I will also observe the way I deal with issues and compare it with the way I used to deal with it and self evaluate. I will also request friends and families to judge on my anger issues and tell if there is any sign of improvements.

Improve on Communication Skills - This can be self evaluated as it will be recognizable while speaking to people. It would mean a good sign if I understand and respond appropriately to the speaker as they will be encouraged to speak more. Other things like reading newspapers and story books will start becoming a hobby. I would integrate more with other races of people.

Resourcing

Search for accounting firms that would consider helping and seek assistance

Search for a anger management class in my region and enrol

Read the books and watch videos on you tube to strengthen listening skills