The education system in UK is considered to be highly sophisticated when compared with that of the Arabs, African and Indian nations. As a result of these, a lot of people from different countries tend to come to the UK for studies. According to (Africa Statistical Year Book, 2002) shows that the number of African country who come to study in UK has consequently gone from 2580 in 1970 to an enormous 1.8 million in 2002 and they are increasing yearly Because of their education style in this report, we will be considering the various approaches that international students face when during their study year which is stated below as follows:
Teacher/student role expectations
Ethical issues i.e. referencing and plagiarism
Working part time - meeting your expenses
Strategies of persuasion and how they differ in the UK
TEACHER/STUDENT ROLE EXPECTATIONS
These expectations vary and are seen in different ways by people. The role of a teacher can be firstly to teach, According to (William De Salazar, June 11, 20007 Influencing Students Performance) the role of a teacher is to state what is required in a particular class as well as having high expectation helps to get the best out of the students by clearly communicating the means through which academic performance is to be measured. The roles of students are also different. This also relates to culture and the way students were allowed to behave at school back home. Some students may need more help with their studies and want to be taught exactly what they need to do and how to study. Other students may be used to studying on their own and prefer to find information without any help from teachers, do a lot of reading on their own but in the UK, student are encouraged to work as a group in order to deliver presentations, reports and assignments which helps the students learn faster and also gives them the opportunity to make a better life.
International students face many issues when they arrive in the UK which is related to their ethics and culture which includes values, cultures, knowledge, religion and beliefs. This difference makes it hard for them to adapt to the UK system. Language difference is also of great concern because English is not the first most of the people that come to the UK. In addition to above stated, the educational pattern is also different in other countries. For example, In Asia most country have different education system in which student go to class, write down their home work and at the end of the course they write exams which is the only form of assessment. But in UK education system it is totally different experiences because there are different ways of assessing the students either through group work or presentation or individual report and exams.
This is the way to determine student's abilities either as a group or individual, it is also the process in which teachers judge student's skills and knowledge. Teacher analysis the strengths and weaknesses of the students and advise them on the best way to overcome it.UK education system is based on assignment which are related to course and covers all the aspect of study, either it can be in written report, answering the question, small research and problem solving.
TYPES OF ASSESSMENT
Diagnostic assessment-This process measures the initial stage of student, to identify gap and enable to fill them.
Formative assessment-This process measures the weakness and strength of student and helps both teacher and student to detain the weakness.
Summative assessment-It measures the progress of formative assessment and it evaluates the overall performance.
Evaluative assessment-It is the quality assessment itself. It is the final stage of assessment and it covers all the study module and programs. It covers the satisfaction of students, teachers and the institutions.
Assessment helps examiner to evaluate the student skills and outcome of learning. Now technology is delivering a key role in assessment process. For student it is positive aspect that they can find all the material related to assessment or assignment on the internet and they can access all the statistic data on internet. But on the other hand it helps examiner to find how much % data is taken from internet and how much from books. If students are taking some idea or words from internet and books than they have to give the references for that. Without giving proper references they cannot get good grade in their assignment or assessment. The main and important part of assessment Strategy is Plagiarism. It is similar to crime in UK education system. Plagiarism covers all the idea and words which uses in assignment without giving credit to the source from where they take the data.
WORKING PART TIME - MEETING YOUR EXPENSES
Part time work can be defined as contract work / temporary employment. It can also be said to be the time in which the working hours are less than the normal (full time) working hours. In part time work payment will be calculated depending on the number of hours the employee has worked. These types of job are mostly fund in large places such as food courts, shopping malls, retail stores & private institutions. These also help the students to gain some valuable work experience and work related skills, improve their communication and leadership skills while studying. This is one of the great advantages of studying in the UK because it provides flexibility for students to manage their work & studies.
The term culture can be said to be people's beliefs, mindset, values or way of life of a group of people that differentiates them from members of another group (Bibikova et al, 2005). Culture shock can be defined as "the impact of moving from a familiar culture to one which is unfamiliar" (UKCISA, 2008). It is something a person cannot control and it can happen to everyone, students, businessmen and even people on holiday. It happens when the familiar people, family and friends are not there to help and support and we meet a lot of new people and deal with unfamiliar situations. This can include small things like food, dress and weather, but also big ones like language, values and social behaviour. Every person will feel different about this change and it can take different time to adjust. This happens when we travels from one place to another. This change can affect the person physically, emotionally and involve loss of confidence and identity. students who come to the UK first find it hard to accept the culture because it is entirely different from what is in their countries and they feel its a treat to their identity but in order not to be seen as being biased, they begin to appreciate the culture and from this, they start to blend and integrate to the new culture. This shock is a challenging life event that every international student faces when they come to study in the UK.
STRATEGIES OF PERSUASION
Persuasion can be said to be the act of influencing people strongly to belief or accept a particular set of ideas. This occurs in our everyday interaction with people either in politics where a particular candidate tries to win peoples vote through their speech or advertisement, at work where a British who oversees a multicultural group of employees tries to convince them to apply a different form of operation or during negotiation where a marketer wants to sale a product at a particular price. (Lustig .M. W. Etol, 1999) The effective use of persuasion in today's multicultural world varies from country to country or culture to culture. For example, the way a Nigerian student who goes to his polish lecturer to appeal for a change in his report date is different from the way an Indian student who goes to the same lecturer for the same reason will because of the difference in their persuasive style.
Persuasion can be divided into three different styles:
Quasilogical style: It is mainly used in the westernize world. e.g. United Kingdom. This style is also known as logic or evidence based which is now linked to claims in such a way that it will be logical and easy for people to believe or accepted by people. This style is preferred in the United Kingdom because they believe that it is easy to identify what is right or wrong or true or false.
Presentational style: in this style, there is no existence of truth. People form ideas and persuade people to accept it because there is no way to clearly discover if the idea is right or wrong. This is mainly done by the use of language to form emotional reaction by the use of words and ideas that make people believe it is real.
Analogical style: this form of persuasion is associated with historical precedents where people are provided with an analogy, story, parable that suits what the people want to know.
Culture shock has been a key problem that student face when they come to study in the uk. Geert Hofstede 5 cultural dimension of national culture has been well taught out to help us understand the different cultural differences and how best to improve its efficiency amongst countries. It gives useful insights in the values and beliefs of countries with different cultural background and how to interact and understand them.
In this report, we will be laying emphases on Nigeria, India and Kuwait and also use the five dimensions to differentiate between the UK.
Power Distance Index (PDI): power Distance in Nigeria is about 79% compared that of uk which is 38%. This indicates that the connection between teacher and student in Nigeria is quite powerful and the teacher is considered to know better than the student, therefore Students are not allowed to counter the teacher's words as it may be considered as being disrespectful. In the case of UK, Teachers and students are equally measured; this system allows students to effectively voice out their opinion to their teachers without being considered to be impolite.
Individualism (IDV): this shows that Nigeria has a narrow-minded in their approach to collectivism whilst UK to be an individualist. In this case, there is a chance that the Nigerian students will find this to be challenging due to the difference in their education and way of living. Nigerians from birth have been integrated with strong family ties and tough relationships and thus form cohesive groups. While in UK individualistic ties are said to be loose and people are only expected to cater for themselves and their immediate family. Also they are very Independent in decision making.
Muscularity (MAS): UK is 20% higher in masculinity compared to Nigeria where masculine nature dominates the women. This shows that the Nigerian society is comparatively feminine and that there are distinct sets of occupation and values that have been divided amongst women like sitting in the house as full house wives, cooking, taking care of the children etc and also amongst men like providing for the house as the head of the family. While in the uk, everyone is treated equally
Uncertainty Avoidance Index (UAI): This is 20% higher amongst Nigerian people compared to the UK. They also tends to avoid risk taking at any possible means whether present or in advance. Some Nigerian parents will rather their children study within the country in order to avoid uncertainties. However, in the UK, things are accepted in the way they are and but people try to avoid any rules or set of laws.
Long Term Orientation (LTO): These two countries have very similar indexes and are known as long-term oriented countries. Their various values and beliefs are appreciated and given main concern but Nigeria has an upper hand than the UK. Because they cultivate realistic qualities that is used in achieving the lasting result.
Power Distance Index (PDI): The score of PDI is about 79% compared to that of UK which is just about 38%, which is the same as that of Nigeria. This shows a loose gap of roughly 49% score. It can be said that in a country like India, there is a high level of inequality between teacher student relationship unlike in the UK where everybody is treated equally and the confrontational system is at times efficiently encouraged by the teachers in UK schools.
Individualism (IDV): India lies at approximately 40% score of individualism while UK possesses a higher around 90%. This figure shows that Indians live in a collectivism environment and are very emotional attached to their families as a whole which is highly influenced by forming cohesive groups which has been bestowed upon them from birth and continues to guard them, in substitute for obedient loyalty. But some are still more equal than the others because of the power difference. However, people in the UK are more prone towards independence in the choice of decision they make since they are not emotionally attached to their families.
Muscularity (MAS): These shows an estimated score difference of 10% which indicates a lower gap in the masculinity index. Show that women are more concerned with the feminist which deals with the division of roles between two genders. India, having a lower score implies that the gender roles are extremely separated in terms of performing the normal responsibilities or at the proficient stage. In spite of their laid-back nature, there are certain ethics of femininity or customs that women must follow in Indian society while the men are still take the head position in the family. But in the UK, there are no strict rules on deciding which role a woman should play. It is likely that this gap between the two genders will diminish in the nearest future.
Uncertainty Avoidance Index (UAI): it is shown that india scored 40%, While UK scored around 38%. This simply demonstrates that the Indians are very wary in recognizing of worst situations and consequently take preventive measures. In this case, Indians are known because of their uncertainty acceptance nature. States that people are more emotional and that's why the incentive issue arouses from the inner nervous energy. People in India tend to behave cautiously and try to minimize the risk associated with it. While in UK, things are accepted the way they appear to be and are governed by the truth and realism and not based only by the emotions. They are also, subjective towards the environmental practicality and thus not driven by just emotions.
Long Term Orientation (LTO): The gap of 38% between two countries LTO is quite significant which illustrates that India has a short term orientation where the traditions, social norms and values are considered to be highly notable despite of the fact that the objectives remain unachieved. People work in order to fulfill the social wellbeing and moral obligations and thus give higher priority to protecting ones` respect into the society. On the other hand, UK is considered as a Long term oriented country where people aim to achieve the objectives irrespective of the social wellbeing. Indians are highly biased towards protecting the social norms and traditions distinguishing them with that of UK. This can be considered as a critical aspect when one decides to come and study in UK as it should adopt the latter approach in order to achieve the longer term goals.
Power Distance Index (PDI): the show that PDI score in Kuwait is 44% higher than in UK, the education system indicates a high respect level for teachers because their decision is of utmost value. The gap suggests that their is no teacher/ student relationship because teachers are again said to be more superior. But on the order hand, the two parties are measured equally in UK.
Individualism (IDV): Kuwait being a collectivist country with a score of 38%, people are tied in parental bond and affection where parents are expected to look after the children and to direct their heirs accordingly. On the other hand, UK shows their their individualist society with a score of 90% where everyone is expected to live an independent life from their upbringing and hence left with individual decision making processes.
Muscularity (MAS):Â There is a gap of approximately 12% score between Kuwait and UK. Kuwait societies are biased in nature with the male heading the society while women have certain responsibilities that is set aside for them because of their culture and tradition. But in the UK, both genders are equally treated.
Uncertainty Avoidance Index (UAI): 38% score. People in UK expect the changes being carried by truth and reality and hence let things happen the way they are in real scenario. The education system in UK is further based upon the practical knowledge and experiences and the students are expected to critically evaluate a given scenario rather than to find alternative for the same. The two can be considered to be low uncertainty avoiding countries.
Long Term Orientation (LTO): The social customs and traditions are of supreme value in as compared to UK. People are expected to follow the social rituals at highest priority. China can thus be concluded as a short term oriented country. UK, on other side, has a longer term approach where everyone is expected to achieve their results at the highest priority. The Chinese education system has the highest respect for its teachers while it may not be the case with UK and hence a gap of over 75% points
UK`s education system has a more practical approach in which is focuses entirely on given research work by seriously evaluating the study data both within group and on individual basis. Students have an exposure to a different world where they can judge their opinions with that of teachers and for this reason they get to independently share their opinions through group discussion and the cohesive study also lead to conclusion that everyone has a diverse experience when they come to the UK but they also realize that they all faces same problem. Although some of the problems can be well avoided if one can be prepared of with basic things and thus have some basic knowledge about the culture and living structure in UK. Things are certainly different than they look like from the home country and hence one can successfully achieve their aim of studying in the uk by proper management of resources.