Applying Principles of Instructional Design for diversity

Published:

This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.

Abstract

Adult volunteers of Boy Scout Troop 21 are a very diverse group, with many different ideas about what does and does not make a successful youth activity or project. There is little understanding of each others' backgrounds and culture, which leads to conflict and the absence of an adequate number of successful youth projects. Diversity training is identified as the solution, to address the organizational needs of increased youth participation and greater interest. The instructional design process considers many different design models and perspectives on how to address the needs of learners. Those perspectives that specifically address the particular group of adult volunteers, as learners, tend to focus on relevance and the consideration of learning activities that both maintain interest and provide plenty of opportunity to practice. Time constraints on adult volunteers and limited resources also influence the design process, in terms of identifying those learning activities that not only meet learner needs, but do not require major financial investment in tools and learning aids. Therefore, the design includes limited use of technology, while focusing on the actual end product, increased collaboration, in utilizing the tools that are available.

Purpose

The diversity training planed for adult volunteers of Boy Scout Troop 21 should be

designed with some type of plan, which serves as a blueprint for developing and delivering the

training now and possibly for future sessions. While the goals of the organization are to increase

the number of successful youth projects and generate greater youth interest, the learning

objectives for this group of adult volunteers are to increase acceptance of those who are different

and to improve collaboration among all adult volunteers. The instructional design process takes

into consideration the types of behavior that need to change, in order for training to be

considered successful. The instructional design presented is an effort to address the changes in

attitude and behavior that must occur for the organization to achieve its goals.

Instructional Design

Definition

A combination of science, discipline and process, instructional design is an activity

that considers the individual learner, the complexity of learning, learning environment and

theory, goals of the specific learning process, context in which learning takes place and the tools

that help learning take place and learners to be successful. Instructional design incorporates

learning and design theory, in a process that also involves analysis, testing and feedback, from

peers, learners and experts. It provides a working blueprint that considers needs of the

organization, the learner and the learning environment, and allows us to develop learning

experiences that are both relevant and effective, in accomplishing learning objectives.

Application

In the academic environment, learning objectives are those goals that the institution,

professional or accrediting organization and professor or instructor consider important for the

learner to know. In the corporate environment, learning objectives are tied directly to

organizational goals, which may be determined by executives or managers, as well as by

instructional designers. Therefore, it seems likely that a more inclusive needs analysis will

be performed in the corporate setting. When the history of instructional design is considered,

the Cognitive Load Theory of Sweller (1988, in JIU, 2010, Module 1, Theme 2, ¶ 12), suggests

that "the format of instructional materials had a direct impact on student success." This means

that instructional materials must take into consideration the context, abilities of learners, learning

objectives and other factors.

Therefore, instructional design provides the blueprint for selecting the proper materials

used in the most effective manner, at the right time, within specific constraints, situations and

settings. In the specific learning environment which is the focus of this design, there is great

diversity within the group of learners, with respect to culture, socio-economic status, levels

of education and ethnic background. "Teaching students takes place through a continual process

of constructing, interpreting, and modifying their representations of reality based upon

experience and negotiation of meaning with others" (Grabinger et al, 2007). Whether the

the socio-cultural approach to instructional design is embraced or not, the specific challenges of

a diverse group of adults, within the organization, demand that a process of interpreting and

modifying takes place, in order for individuals within the group to learn to identify, accept and

value the differences of others.

Exploring Instructional Design Models

In choosing the appropriate instructional design model, the context and organizational

needs must be considered. The ADDIE model is appropriate in that it provides a thorough

analysis, planning, designing and end analysis to develop a high quality training module.

However, it does not specifically address the needs of a diverse group of learners, who work

best when they can learn through a more interactive approach. This is the preferred method of

learning identified by all participants. It also tends to generate more interest and motivation in

learning success. Therefore, the Four Component model will also be incorporated. This model

allows for design of hands-on learning processes and provides a type of checklist or guide to

help in designing such learning activities. This model "encourages designers to consider the

components as interrelated in the learning design process" (JIU, 2010, EDU651, Module 2,

Theme 2, ¶ 11). The three different training modules are designed to build upon each other,

so that learners can take concepts to the next level.

The ADDIE Model

The ADDIE model first considers the needs of learners. This is important, as the group

of adult learners is very diverse, in terms of education levels, speaking and writing abilities, and

ability to transfer learning. The design step is necessary as training goals must be aligned with

performance outcomes, which were identified at the first thought of developing the training. The

process of designing training in sequential models, with the next module building upon the

previous, is essential for a group of learners in which some have not participated in any formal

education or training for several years. It helps learners get back into the learning frame of mind,

with the most important tasks reserved for the last modules. As applied to diversity training, the

modules are divided into the module for introduction, module for acceptance and identifying

diversity and the module for utilizing diversity in collaborative hands-on activities.

In development of the training, there are enough volunteers willing to participate in the

testing, to provide valuable insights into any modifications that may be required. The

modifications should be made prior to implementation, so that all learners are given an optimal

opportunity to apply new concepts and learn new skills. It is hoped that by the time

implementation occurs, any unforeseen obstacles or challenges have been addressed, in the

development stage. The evaluation stage provides an opportunity to identify any further

modifications that may be required during the training, through summative evaluation. "We

support the notion that reflection is an integral part of a systematic instructional design process"

(Brantley & Calandra, 2010). It also makes provisions for modifications to future training

sessions, through formative evaluation and long term observation of the effects of behavior

changes on performance. Formative evaluation, summative evaluation and observation are

all methods of reflection.

Four Component Model

The Four Component model involves selecting learning tasks that are authentic and

relevant. By reviewing how other organizations with diverse groups of volunteers have

conducted diversity training, the case studies that have been designed are based on authentic

diversity issues and help provide learners with opportunity to collaborate in solving problems. It

also allows learners to practice the concepts learned in the first two training modules, the

introduction and acceptance/diversity identification modules. Learners are then able to take the

"abstract concepts" (JIU, 2010, Module 2, Theme 2, ¶ 12) learned in prior modules and use them

in actual problems presented, that they must solve. It is through hands-on practice that learners

will be able to refine and sharpen their collaboration skills that are needed for organizational

success. "Using a holistic design approach solves three common problems in education, namely:

compartmentalization, fragmentation and the transfer paradox" (Merrienboer & Kirschner,

2008). Compartmentalization refers to teaching knowledge, skills and attitudes as separate

learning activities. Fragmentation refers to the failure to connect the interrelated concepts or

components of learning. Finally, the transfer paradox refers to the utilization methods that are

most efficient for the instructor, rather than those that address needs of learners. There is

convincing evidence that those common learning problems can lead to a design that fails to

achieve its goals.

Table 2.2: Rationale for Instructional Design Models, in Appendix B, provides a list of

stages in both design models utilized, with a rationale or application for each stage or process.

Backward Design Template

If backward design considers the reasons for the specific learning, it should investigate

which needs of the organization are greatest, or in the academic environment, which

competencies are most necessary to work in a specific field or to obtain professional

certification, if one exists. This does not mean that other subject matter is not important, but

should support or tie into the learning objectives. A needs assessment which determines the

goals and related learning objectives is essential in the beginning of the instructional design

process. The needs of Scout Troop 21 are greater achievement and increased interest in the

youth program. Therefore, instructional design addresses the organizational goals and any

underlying issues that stand in the way of meeting those goals. These are attitudes and/or

behaviors which may hinder performance in one or a group of learners. "In many nonprofit

organizations, planning is an intellectual exercise. But until it becomes actual work you have

done nothing" (Wiggins & McTighe, 2007). The authors focus on strategy, because identifying

shortfalls in performance, is only the beginning. The Backward Design Template, in Appendix

C, illustrates how strategy in the instructional design process relates to addressing organizational

goals of Scout Troop 21.e reached that goal. 

Evaluation of Instructional Design

If evaluation is the process of determining value or merit (Reiser & Dempsey, 2007), that

evaluation of instructional design must determine its value, in terms of what it provides for

learners, organizations and other stakeholders. To determine its value, the instructional design

process must be frequently evaluated for its effectiveness and its ability to meet the needs of

stakeholders. In an educational institution, often the main goal is simply to educate and prepare.

In the corporate environment, however, goals may include increased productivity or profitability,

improved customer service or some other specific challenge.

As the instructional design process for diversity training of adult leaders of Scout Troop

21 focuses on tasks that are learner-centered, there is little formal instruction taking place. The

training module provides general instructions and lets the adult learners discover themselves

and others, through hands-on learning activities. Therefore, both summative and formative

evaluation focus more on the learners, achievement of organizational goals and methods in the

design, while focusing less on the trainer or facilitator effectiveness. Any adult leader in the

troop may have to step in as trainer, at any point in the training or within the year. The design

already takes into account that some will be more effective as trainers than others, so the

function of the trainer is that of facilitator, rather than that of teacher or instructor.

The formative evaluation tools used include learner reaction survey, written learner

statements, observation and assessment of each learner's individual achievement. This is done

by reviewing how well each learner is able to creatively utilize the skills of others within the

group, in the verbal/written statements learners are asked to provide. The summative evaluation

tools include observation for changes in behavior, assessment of group achievement and an

impact study, to "determine the difference between pre and post training data" (Esereyel, 2002).

One of the organizational goals of training is to increase the number of successful youth projects,

so the impact study will compare the number of projects and youth participation in 12 months

leading up and during training, with the same statistics for 12 months after training. By utilizing

both the impact study and the assessment of learner achievement as a group, "designers are

better able to see the relationship between effective design, needs and learner success" (JIU,

2010, EDU651, Module 4, Theme 3, ¶ 11). If specific aspects of the instructional design do not

help achieve organizational goals, another method or other modifications may need to be

implemented. Appendix D, Table 4.2, labeled Evaluation Component, outlines the tools and

strategies used for both formative and summative evaluation.

Selecting Instructional Design Models

In choosing and instructional design model, the context and organizational needs must be

considered. For Boy Scout Troop 21 leaders, learning activities must include all group

members simultaneously, as they always work together. They prefer hands-on learning activities

as this method keeps them interested and allows for activities that are relevant to what they are

asked to do weekly. Troop 21 needs to increase the number of successful youth projects and

generate more youth interest in the program.

The ADDIE model is appropriate for this group of adult learners, in that it provides a

thorough analysis, planning, designing and end analysis to develop a high quality training

module. However, it does not specifically address the needs of a diverse group of learners

who have very different educational and cultural backgrounds. They work best when they can

learn through a more interactive approach. This is the preferred method of learning identified by

all adult leaders participating in training. It also tends to generate more interest and motivation

in learning. Therefore, two of the four components, learning tasks and part task practice,

will be used in conjunction with the ADDIE model. This model considers how various learning

activities are related. Module 1, personal introductions, active listening and identification of

others' skills is the foundation for the next two part module, the four case studies that require

group collaboration to construct a viable solution to the diversity challenge presented in each

case.

The ADDIE Model

The ADDIE model first considers the needs of learners. This is important, as the group

of adult learners which the instructional design is intended for is very diverse, in terms of

education levels, speaking and writing abilities, and ability to transfer learning. This design step

is necessary as training goals must be aligned with performance outcomes, which were identified

at the first thought of developing the training. The process of designing training in sequential

models, with the next module building upon the previous, is essential for a group of learners in

which some have not participated in any formal education or training for several years. It helps

learners get back into the learning frame of mind, with the most important tasks reserved for the

last modules. As applied to diversity training, the modules are divided into the module for

introduction, module for acceptance and identifying diversity and the module for utilizing

diversity in collaborative hands-on activities.

In development of the training, there are enough volunteers willing to participate in the

testing, to provide valuable insights into any modifications that may be required. The

modifications should be made prior to implementation, so that all learners are given an optimal

opportunity to apply new concepts and learn new skills. It is hoped that by the time

implementation occurs, any unforeseen obstacles or challenges have been addressed, in the

development stage. The evaluation stage provides an opportunity to identify any further

modifications that may be required during the training, through summative evaluation. This

approach is in agreement with that of Brantley & Calandra (2010), which states "reflection is an

integral part of a systematic instructional design process." It also makes provisions for

modifications to future training sessions, through formative evaluation and long term observation

of the effects of behavior changes on performance. Formative evaluation, summative evaluation

and observation are all methods of reflection.

Four Component Model

The Four Component model involves selecting learning tasks that are authentic and

relevant. By reviewing how other organizations with diverse groups of volunteers have

conducted diversity training, the case studies that have been designed are based on authentic

diversity issues and help provide learners with opportunity to collaborate in solving problems. It

also allows learners to practice the concepts learned in the first two training modules, the

introduction and acceptance/diversity identification modules. Learners are then able to take the

"abstract concepts" (JIU, 2010, Module 2, Theme 2, ¶ 12) learned in prior modules and use them

in actual problems presented, that they must solve. It is through hands-on practice that learners

will be able to refine and sharpen their collaboration skills that are needed for organizational

success. This is based on the suggestion that "a holistic design approach solves three common

problems in education, namely: compartmentalization, fragmentation and the transfer paradox"

(Merrienboer & Kirschner, 2008). Compartmentalization refers to teaching knowledge, skills

and attitudes as separate learning activities. Fragmentation refers to the failure to connect the

interrelated concepts or components of learning. Finally, the transfer paradox refers to the

utilization methods that are most efficient for the instructor, rather than those that address needs

of learners. There is convincing evidence that those common learning problems can lead to a

design that fails to achieve its goals. Table 5.2 below, Rationale for Instructional Design models

provides justification within each step of the process, as to how it applies to this specific learning

situation.

Table 5.2: Rationale for Instructional Design Models

ID Model

Steps Utilized

Justification

ADDIE

1. Analysis

2. Design

3. Development

4. Implementation

5. Evaluation

Considers the needs of the particular group of learners. With needs of learners in mind Can be tested with small group Designed for easy modification To assess future success

Four factor

1. Learning task

2. Part-task practice

3. Supportive information

4. Procedural information

Practical application needed to apply new skills Practice includes new ideas

Utilize new information about others and selves New concepts encourage re-thinking former beliefs

Instructional Design Outline

The instructional design outline provides an overview of the design process,

organizational and learner considerations and specific activities determined most suitable to meet

the various needs of diversity training. While the ADDIE model is identified as very relevant to

the specific learning environment, additional focus on learner needs was also identified as a key

part of the instructional design process. Two components of the four component model are also

included in the outline and indicate where the components are most necessary. The components,

learning tasks and part task practice, "incorporate authentic, relevant tasks that promote problem

solving, collaboration, inquiry, and interaction" and " integrate opportunities for practice and

application" (JIU, 2010, EDU651, Module 2, Theme 2, ¶ 6). Problem solving, collaboration and

interaction are behaviors that are best learned through practice and are necessary for the

instructional design to be considered successful. The Instructional Design Outline for Diversity

is viewed below.

Analysis

Organizational needs

Improve performance of adult leaders

generate greater interest among youth

facilitate ore completed youth projects

Time frame-improvement in 2 months

Cause analysis related to HPT/HPI

Little collaboration among adult volunteers

Lack of acceptance of differences

Learner needs

Varied abilities and skill sets

Time constraints with professional and family obligations

once every two weeks for training

sessions no longer than 2 hours

Saturday mornings preferred by majority

Four component model considerations

learners desire hands on activities

considers acceptance and collaboration activities together

Design

Performance outcomes

Viable solutions for 4 hands-on case study challenges

4-5 additional successful youth projects by Nov. 2010

Observation of increased group collaboration

Demonstrate compromise and creativity in written case solutions

Content

1. Module 1-personal intro/1st Sat.

a) Web resource reading for training preparation b) active listening c) identifying and utilizing unique skills of others d) formative assessment-skills identification and utilization statements

Module 2- 4 case studies/3rd and 5th Sat.

diversity issue-small group collaboration on solution

summative assessment-written case study solutions

Development

Group forum/open discussion

Hands-on case learning

Field test

Group of 4 volunteers

Volunteer survey

a) determine if learner needs met b) revision of activities or structure

Implementation

Materials organized

Case studies printed for learner use

Web resource reading lists printed

Facilitator training

redirecting group intro sessions

keeping group focused on collaboration

Feedback

learner survey

focus group-2 facilitator/assistants

Evaluation

Formative evaluation

Tools

Learner reaction survey

Written learner statements

Strategies

Preproduction evaluation

Implementation evaluation

Summative evaluation

Tools

Observation

Assessment of case solutions

Strategies

assess group of learners for ID suitability

determine level of behavioral changes

determine if organizational goals met

Conclusion

Of the many instructional design models, it appears as that one or any combination may

be applicable to a specific learning environment. However, the specific learning situation,

organizational goals and probably most important, needs of learners often determines which

models provide the best blueprint for instruction. For Boy Scout Troop 21 adult volunteers,

time constraints, learning preferences and diverse backgrounds of learners are all determinants

of which models will be used in the instructional design process.

The type of training or learning activities developed could be addressed with a more

informal approach, such as an informal group discussion where everyone provides their view

on what the problems are and how they should be addressed. But this has been previously

attempted and results in merely generating a few ideas. No specific learning activities to

improve performance have been carried out. The instructional design presented makes use of an

appropriate blueprint and justification for why this blueprint should produce desired results of

improved adult volunteer performance and increased youth satisfaction in Troop 21 involvement.

Writing Services

Essay Writing
Service

Find out how the very best essay writing service can help you accomplish more and achieve higher marks today.

Assignment Writing Service

From complicated assignments to tricky tasks, our experts can tackle virtually any question thrown at them.

Dissertation Writing Service

A dissertation (also known as a thesis or research project) is probably the most important piece of work for any student! From full dissertations to individual chapters, we’re on hand to support you.

Coursework Writing Service

Our expert qualified writers can help you get your coursework right first time, every time.

Dissertation Proposal Service

The first step to completing a dissertation is to create a proposal that talks about what you wish to do. Our experts can design suitable methodologies - perfect to help you get started with a dissertation.

Report Writing
Service

Reports for any audience. Perfectly structured, professionally written, and tailored to suit your exact requirements.

Essay Skeleton Answer Service

If you’re just looking for some help to get started on an essay, our outline service provides you with a perfect essay plan.

Marking & Proofreading Service

Not sure if your work is hitting the mark? Struggling to get feedback from your lecturer? Our premium marking service was created just for you - get the feedback you deserve now.

Exam Revision
Service

Exams can be one of the most stressful experiences you’ll ever have! Revision is key, and we’re here to help. With custom created revision notes and exam answers, you’ll never feel underprepared again.