Annotated Bibliography on Web-based Design

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Introduction

An overwhelming number of full-text articles on web based design of instructional design from various journals and databases are available that suggest ways in which web-based design were applied in instructional design. Most educators agree that this skill is becoming increasingly important as classes become more diversified and the curriculum becomes more global. An institution's library is an often-overlooked faculty development resource; this annotated bibliography of web-based design offers relevant articles on web-based design application in instructional design from the many journals and databases available through UPM University's Library.

Articles Selected

A study on the evaluation and effectiveness analysis of web-based learning portfolio (WBLP).

The effects of web-based instruction navigation modes on undergraduates' learning outcomes.

The relationship between web enjoyment and student perceptions and learning using a web-based tutorial.

Better educational website interface design: the implications from gender-specific preferences in graduate students.

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Web-Based Learning: Effects on Learning Process and Outcome.

Individual and Technological Factors Perceived ease of use of web-based learning technologies in a Developing country.

Web-based learning interaction and learning styles.

Enabling meaningful learning through Web-based instruction with occupational therapy students

Developing a Web 2.0-based system with user-authored content for community use and teacher education

Weblog-based electronic portfolios for student teachers in Taiwan

Following are annotations for a number of scholarly articles related to the application and promotion web-based design application of instructional design in the higher education.

Chi-Cheng Chang (2001). A study on the evaluation and effectiveness analysis of web-based learning portfolio (WBLP). British Journal of Educational Technology, 32 (4), 435-458. Retrieved August 25, 2010, from UPM library Websites (database)

No of references 39

Chang's research is about evaluating a Web-Based Learning Portfolio through practical teaching process to understand if the WBLP system helps students to grasp the learning process and enhances learning outcomes. The research review revealed that portfolio method emphasizes that a learner participates actively and thus establishes the learning results of his/her own concern. Chang also states that with the development of the Internet technology in recent years WBLP is mainly used to provide students with a web-based user environment. Chang research is a quantitative approach that applied questionnaires which includes four aspects: system functions, interface, system use, and its impacts on learning process. The findings indicated that 85.84% of the users regard the functions of WBLP system appropriate, while 80% regard the system interface easy to operate, 48.3% perform very well in system, and 88.84% also feel the system has benefited their learning. On the evaluation results, revealed that there is still a room for improvement because the system for example has not yet established complete mechanism for scoring.

Hsu, Y.-C., Lin, H., Ching, Y.-H., & Dwyer, F. M. (2009). The Effects of Web-Based Instruction Navigation Modes on Undergraduates' Learning Outcomes; Educational Technology & Society, 12 (1), 271-284. Retrieved August 25, 2010, from UPM library Websites (database)

No of references 45

Web- based instruction is important in all classes, but researchers Hsu et al, points out that to maximize the educational value of WBI, researchers in this field have been exploring the design and usability of websites. Their study focused on examining whether matching navigation mode of the learning environment with learners' preferred navigation mode would facilitate their learning in a web environment. Their study employed a two-way MANCOVA design. The two independent variables were assigned navigation mode (nonlinear vs. linear) and preferred navigation mode (nonlinear vs. linear). The results suggested that matching or mismatching navigation mode of the learning environment with learners' preference did not lead to significant differences in learning outcomes. However, there were significant differences in achievement between groups with different navigation mode preferences. Their findings also indicated that students preferring nonlinear navigation had significantly higher achievement scores on higher levels of learning outcomes. The study provides recommendations for instructional designers and the issue concerning matching/mismatching navigation modes with learning preferences.

Mitchell, T.J. F., Chen S.Y. and Macredie R. D. (2005) the relationship between web enjoyment and student perceptions and learning using a web-based tutorial: Learning, Media and Technology Vol. 30, No. 1, pp. 27-40. Retrieved August 25, 2010 from UPM library Websites (database)

No of reference 43

Web-based learning is widespread in educational settings. Its value lies in the capabilities of hypermedia, which permit significant flexibility in the delivery of non-linear course material. This study by Mitchell, et al. examines the influence of web enjoyment on learning performance and perceptions by controlling system experience. Review of the literature in this study indicated that current research lacks a full understanding of how enjoyment of using the web is related to web-based learning. Few studies have considered examining web enjoyment amongst experienced web users. To address this gap, the study reported in this paper examines the influence of web enjoyment of users with a relatively high level of system experience on their learning performance and perception. This paper begins by building a theoretical framework to present the relationships between web enjoyment and the use of web-based learning. This is an empirical study that sampled 74 students participated in the study, using a web-based tutorial covering subject matter in the area of 'Computation and algorithms'. The results indicated that there are positive relationships between the levels of web enjoyment and perceived usefulness and non-linear navigation for users with similar, significant levels of system experience. The implications of these findings in relation to web-based learning are explored and ways in which the needs of students who report different levels of web enjoyment might be met are discussed.

Yu-chang Hsu (2006) Better educational website interface design: the implications from gender-specific preferences in graduate students. British Journal of Educational Technology, Vol. 37 No 2 2006 pp 233-242. Retrieved August 25, 2010 from UPM library Websites (database)

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No of references 16

This article indicated that websites on the Internet are widely applied in various educational settings nowadays. However, the author argued that it is challenging for educators to choose appropriate websites for teaching and learning from among the huge number of websites. The study has investigated graduate students' gender-specific preferences for certain website interface design features, intending to generate useful information for instructors in choosing and for website designers in creating educational websites. The research review revealed there is relatively little research focusing on gender differences in graduate student population. This is quantitative research that employed 56 graduate students who volunteered to evaluate 30 pairs of web page screenshots or website prototypes, and to indicate on the questionnaires their preferences within each pair of prototype. The findings indicated that there was not a significant relationship between gender and preference for colour value, button placement and navigation. The author therefore, suggested that gender may not be a factor to consider when the three interface design features are attended to and user experiences are of concern in selecting or designing website.

Khalifa, M and Lam, R (2002) Web-Based Learning: Effects on Learning Process and Outcome, IEEE Transactions on Education, vol. 45, no. 4; Retrieved August 25, 2010 from UPM library Websites (database)

No of references 22

In this paper, the authors empirically study the relative effectiveness of two Web-based learning environments, i.e., distributed passive learning (DPL) versus distributed interactive learning (DIL). In other words, the authors try to determine whether the effort required to transform traditional learning material, such as Word files and PowerPoint presentations, into a hypertext format is justified by an improvement in the process of learning and the level of knowledge acquired by the learners. This is experiment research that involved 32 undergraduate students enrolled in an introductory Management Information Systems course. The students were randomly divided into two groups that used two different Web sites in an alternate fashion to prepare for class. One of the Web sites represented the DPL environment; the second one represented the DIL environment. The findings show that DIL Web site was found to be superior to the DPL Web site in terms of both the learning process and the learning outcome. The authors interpret these results as an indication that the explicit representation of relationships between concepts with the hyperlinks has helped the learners to integrate separate concepts into a coherent whole. The results of the empirical study provided strong evidence of the superiority of the DIL environment over the DPL environment in terms of both the learning process and the learning outcome. It is also important to emphasize that in this study, the authors only considered the basic form of the DIL environment, which supported constructivist learning but not collaborative learning (no groupware capabilities).

Brown, I.T (2002) Individual and Technological Factors Perceived ease of use of web-based learning technologies in a Developing country: EJISDC vol. 9(5) Pp 1-15. Retrieved August 25, 2010 from UPM library Websites (database)

No of reference 27

This study aimed to extend knowledge by examining perceived ease of use of web based technologies in a learning environment, rather working one in developing countries. The purview of literatures has shown that many previous studies have looked at the perceived ease of use of technologies in a working or commercial environment in developed countries. Survey research method was adopted to test the hypothesis of the study.78 students who had recently been introduced to a web based learning technology (WebCT). The findings indicated that the individual characteristics of self-efficacy and computer anxiety significantly influenced perceived ease of use. The findings also indicated that ease of finding and ease of understanding have significant influences on perceived ease of use. The study conclude that perceived usefulness is not having a significant influence on usage, therefore, may not influence adoption, thus amplifying the role of perceived ease of use takes an increased importance, as it influence both usage, this makes them a good predictor of both usage and perceived usefulness.

Sabry, K. and Baldwin, L. (2003) Web-based learning interaction and learning styles; British Journal of Educational Technology, Vol. 34 No 4 2003 pp 443-454, Retrieved August 25, 2010 from UPM library Websites (database)

No of references 55

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The study dealt with web- based learning interaction which is becoming commonplace in education institutions. the authors have explore the sequential-global learning style dimension (concerned with the progression towards understanding) in relation to three categories of learning interaction, that is, learner-learner, learner-tutor and learner-information, which are based on voluntary choices made by learners rather than being compulsory elements of a particular course. The review indicated that much of the learning styles research has given little attention to influencing factors such as learner perception of different interaction types on the learning approach they take, and how this information can inform the design of effective interactive leaning system, which can be described as learning systems that incorporate certain design principles and qualities such as the ability to promote active thinking. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used for the study. 230 learners involving undergraduate and postgraduate students at UK University participated in the study. The findings show that learners exhibited higher tendency towards the Sequential rather than the Global learning style. The findings have also shown that learners have different perceptions of different types of web-based interactions. The study also shows that despite the relatively low scores in frequency of use of the three interactions, learners' perception of their usefulness and importance remains high, which suggests that, there could be other influences which need investigation in order to close such gap between "actual use" and "Perception".

Perlman C., Weston, C. and Gisel, E. (2008) Enabling meaningful learning through Web-based instruction with occupational therapy students; Journal of Education Technology Research Development 58:191-210. Retrieved August 25, 2010 from UPM library Websites (database)

No of reference

The paper explores the design of a Web-based tutorial for Activity Analysis offered within an undergraduate course of occupational therapy and how its design features influenced meaningful learning from the students' perspective. This tutorial, using a case based format, offers a learner-directed approach to students and the application of Activity Analysis, a clinical practice tool. The design is based on principles of meaningful learning for on-line instruction and instructional theories. Analysis of feedback from learners identifies the salient attributes of the tutorial on meaningful learning. This is quantitative research that uses a total of 158 students participated in the survey. The finding shows that there was the pattern of weak performance on exams from the students and staff perspectives. This study provides empirical evidence that, according to students responding to the survey, the attributes of meaningful learning when intentionally incorporated into the design of a Web-based tutorial, are likely contributors to enhanced learning in the course.

Cifuentes, L., Sharp, A., Bulu, S., Benz, M., and Stough, M. L. (2009) Developing a Web 2.0-based system with user-authored content for community use and teacher education, Journal of Education Technology Research Development 58:377-398. Retrieved August 25, 2010 from UPM library Websites (database)

No of reference

The authors of this article have investigated into the design, development, implementation, and evaluation of an informational and instructional Website in order to generate guidelines for instructional designers of read/write Web environments. The review of the paper has described the process of design and development research, the problem addressed, the theory-based solution, and the evaluation and testing of that solution. Based on our experience on the authors, they identify sixteen guidelines for future designers and developers of read/write Web-based learning environments. This study therefore, has demonstrates how read/write Web technologies can be used to address general problems that have intrinsic societal importance; examines implementation of a read/write technology in a real-life context, thereby testing distributed cognitions learning theory; informs the design of similar environments; and provides grounded theory for the design and development of read/write Web learning environments.

Chuang, H-H (2008) Weblog-based electronic portfolios for student teachers in Taiwan, Journal of Education Technology Research Development 58: 211-227 Retrieved August 25, 2010 from UPM library Websites (database

No of reference

Chuang explored how the use of weblogs within the portfolio framework affected portfolio production and development for student teachers, and how the weblog based electronic portfolio (WBEP) shaped student teachers' reflective practice during the student teaching practicum. This qualitative research, 31 elementary school student teachers from a national university's teacher education program in Taiwan have participated in this study Qualitative data analysis revealed that about half the participants' WBEP maturation level were at Level 2, the Curriculum Vitae WBEP. The two most prominent features of the WBEP platform on participants' reflective practice were personal editorship and dialogues with others. Additionally, blog publicity promoted mandated dossier-like portfolios with which to evaluate performance with respect to external evaluation requirements. Thus, the reflective themes of most WBEP contents were rather uniform in the study.

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