In this specific article, the authors acknowledged the fast-increasing momentum and popularity of multicultural education within professional and societal organizations. The authors also acknowledged the widespread acceptance of various school institutions in the incorporation of multicultural education within the schools' curricula. Nevertheless, the authors also divulged the existing misconceptions about multicultural education and how the different educational institutions implement multicultural education based on these wrong notions and how this should be stopped completely (Aldridge, Calhoun, & Aman, 2000). Some of these predominant misconceptions on multicultural education include: a.) people sharing the same language share the culture b.) the use of children's book containing multicultural literature is reliable and presents authentic stories c.) multiculturalism mainly delves with racial and discrimination issues d.) multiculturalism must be a totally independent subject and e.) multiculturalism is already an accepted part of the school curriculum. The authors themselves argued that all of these misconceptions about multicultural education must entirely be corrected in order to promote proper learning and awareness of this phenomenon. The researcher included this specific article as it presents the actual issues and threats to promoting multicultural education in school institutions. Knowledge of these misconceptions may certainly be of great help to the proper adoption of multicultural education in the pre-school setting.
Parameswaran, G. (2007). Enhancing diversity education. Multicultural Education. Vol.14 (3). pp 51.
Based on this article written by Parameswaran, G. (2007), there is clearly a need to expose the unfamiliarity and common misconceptions of many teachers regarding multiculturalism and diversity. Specifically, its role in the public schools where a huge chunk of students come from various cultural groups, speaking different languages, the need for teachers to correct their preconceived notions and myths about multicultural education need to be eradicated. Parameswaran, G. (2007) asserts that because of these misconceptions, college students specifically those who intend to become teachers are also exposed in the same traditional and inaccurate teachings and ideas about multicultural education. Some of these wrong notions include the view that cultures remain unchanging and static while some others view that cultural differences are only mere results of differences in beliefs and practices. Hence, in this article, Parameswaran, G. (2007), presented the different strategies in order to completely drive out these preconceived notions of teachers as well as college students intending to be teachers. This article challenged the teachers and instructors of different schools to consider these strategies to effectively infuse and apply the proper notions on diversity and multicultural education.
The researcher found this article very useful especially in the context of applying multicultural education in a pre-school setting because it presented various strategies and settings for teachers to explore the proper notions of applying multiculturalism in an actual classroom set up.
D. Embracing Multiculturalism
Smith, J. (25 January 2010). Bridging Differences. The Berkshire Eagle. Pittsfield, Mass.
In this newspaper article written by Smith, J. (2010), the author acknowledges that prejudice and social racism are quite predominant among the educational institutions nowadays and that clearly, there is a need to reduce, if not completely eradicate this unpleasant social phenomenon which creates social disorder and fragmentation.
In this article, the author narrated the ways and means for teachers to become more aware of this phenomenon, therefore making them more "culturally responsive". The author laid out the different strategies and lessons in building up and uniting the different cultures that exist inside the classroom. It also taught ways for teachers in order to increase their knowledge on diversity and create a classroom environment with less prejudice, capable of immediately addressing the needs of every student. This offers refreshment learning on teachers on how to widen their students' perspective on global and cultural issues as well as teach them to respect the differences and commonalities that exist among them with regard to cultural beliefs and practices, gender, language and abilities (Smith, J., 2010).
This article caught the interest of the researcher as it outlines the different strategies for teachers to properly adopt multicultural education inside the classroom setting. This also holds valuable information which the research can apply in a pre-school setting especially that diversity is also present in pre-school settings.
Abbate-Vaughn, J. (2006). Multiculturalism in teacher education: What to assess, for how long, with what expected outcomes? (PDF Format). Electronic Magazine of Multicultural Education. Retrieved 01 March 2010 from: http://www.eastern.edu/publications/emme/2006fall/abbate-vaughn.pdf
The author of this article exposed a growing and alarming issue on the low-retention rates of novice teachers in a highly-diverse, multicultural classroom setting. This article written by Abbate-Vaughn, J. (2006) talked about how the many attempts to include the multicultural education in the curriculum of newbie teachers or those wanting to take teaching as a profession, failed to adjust the mentality of these pre-service teachers as well as equip them with the realities of a highly-diverse work setting. This article also emphasized the importance of multicultural learning not only among students but also, and more importantly, among teachers and aspiring teachers. Apparently, despite the fast-increasing rate of diversity among the school communities, the author argued that there is still a big scarcity of multicultural learning in the teacher education's curriculum itself, which was the main reason why novice teachers easily quit their jobs when exposed to highly diverse environments. Furthermore, this article provided a study on the multicultural and diverse-readiness of aspiring teachers in order to accurately evaluate whether an aspiring teacher is indeed ready or not the diverse realities of the job he/she decided to take. This article was particularly interesting because it provided the researcher a clear view on the existing dilemmas and issues that teachers themselves face in line with their profession. It was also helpful since the researcher can apply these learnings in the pre-school setting where diversity and multiculturalism is also predominant.
Ndura, E. (2006). Reflections of teachers' culture in the classroom: Beginning to see and hear. Electronic Magazine of Multicultural Education (PDF Format). Retrieved 01 March 2010 from http://www.eastern.edu/publications/emme/2006fall/ndura.pdf
This article written by Ndura, E. (2006) presented a qualitative study on the actual application of teachers of their cultural learnings in an actual classroom setting. Specifically, this article delved into the actual dealings of teachers with different types of students from different cultures, showing how their differences in views, behaviors and dispositions affected the way they interacted with other people.
The qualitative study presented in the article also showed the realizations of the student and teacher participants in the study to the extent of effect a particular culture brings in to the relationships and practices inside the classroom. Moreover the study revealed how culture affects the student-teacher relationships that exist inside the classroom and how the clash of cultures can directly hamper or destroy the relationships between teachers and students (Ndura, E., 2006).
This specific article was chosen by the researcher to be included in her references because it depicts the importance of embracing multiculturalism in classroom settings. The study revealed how to a great extent, culture affects the relationships that exist inside the classroom and how these relationships must importantly be managed. The researcher furthermore found the article useful and equally applicable in the pre-school classroom teacher so that the researcher herself will be more responsive and aware in the differences in culture that exist between her and her pre-school students.
E. Applying Multiculturalism
Morefield, J. (1996). Recreating schools for all children. Retrieved 01 March 2010 from the New Horizons for Learning Website: http://www.newhorizons.org/trans/morefield.htm
The author of this article, Morefield, J. (1996) wrote about his actual strategies in adopting and utilizing the principles of multiculturalism in his actual school setting. The author narrated that when he took over as principal of a particular elementary school in Washington, he made a vow that all kindergarten students would indeed graduate having above average grade competency level. What was interesting was the fact that the author himself conducted a study on how to achieve this aim in extremely diverse settings. As a result of this research, the author was able to identify some characteristics that schools need to possess in order to make all its students achieve higher levels of learnings and competencies. The results of the study revealed certain characteristics which stem from the principles of multiculturalism namely: a nurturing and caring environment, multicultural education incorporated in the school curriculum and unity and oneness of purpose. The author furthermore emphasized that the infusion or incorporation of multicultural education is indeed extremely important to be achieved by all schools as people are now undeniably living in a highly-diverse world wherein embracing this phenomenon would be the best thing to do (Morefield, J., 1996).
This article was chosen by the researcher as it speaks about how to fully apply and utilize multicultural education in any classroom setting which the researcher can also apply in the pre-school setting.
Dunn, B. & Adkins, M.A. (2003). The multicultural classroom: Teaching refugee and immigrant children. Retrieved 01 March 2010 from the New Horizons Website: http://www.newhorizons.org
Dunn, B. & Adkins, M.A. (2003) wrote this article in order to present a clear view of how a multicultural classroom looks like and how the principles of multiculturalism can be extremely useful in order to overcome the many challenges and issues that plague a classroom that practices multicultural education. Specifically, the article discussed about the various adjustment and cultural issues that non-English speakers or immigrant children bring in to the classroom setting. This article also presented how teacher make difficult choices when it comes to dealing with these kinds of issues and how, to the best that they can, manage these issues inside the classroom. The author also included a list of useful tips that teachers can utilize in order to promote efficient and effective learnings on all students. In this article, the author challenged all teachers to find many creative ways to enhance the development and experiences of all their students in the class by applying the principles of multiculturalism and meeting the specific cultural needs of each student in the class. This article was selected by the researcher in order to enrich her existing knowledge on applying the principles of multiculturalism. By knowing the various challenges that teachers often encounter in a highly diverse and multicultural classroom setting, the researcher would be able to grasp how to properly adopt and apply these same principles in a pre-school setting. Furthermore, this article also emphasizes the importance of managing the downsides of applying multiculturalism inside the classroom.