Teaching is a quality that is concerned with the inclination of imparting knowledge that is required to teach different grades. This quality according to many has reduced in helping to create an unbiased learning environment for all the learners. In this review, examination of the ideal characterization of teacher competence and the noticeable analysis on teachers' knowledge for distinct learners is discussed. To educate is a tradition of liberty in the way of teaching that anyone can achieve. That knowledge hunting process comes handy to those who educate and who believe that the countenance of this profession is divine; who give credence to the belief that it is not just sharing information but it is also the sharing of the cognitive and ecclesiastical learners. To educate in a way that appreciates and administers for the enthusiasm of learners is important if teachers are to transfer the requisite circumstances where learning can begin profoundly and effectively.
The history of teacher training reveals a continuous research to emphasize the most productive method of instructing teachers and to characterize the competence that each teacher should possess to teach the students (Howard and Aleman, 2008) This is particularly important because teachers imparting knowledge in institutions come from a diverse background with varying levels of training to their credit. Therefore if they are to become valuable for their institutions, they need to be trained at various levels. .
Nemser believes that lore, achievements and commitments that teachers need to master derive from a conception of proficient teaching which in turn cogitates a view of what students should learn and what institutes are for (Nemser ,2008) This concept is further supported by Ball & McDiarmid who say that teachers should be skilled enough to ameliorate the pedantic learning of all students. They should have in depth understanding of the subject matter and how to impart it to different learners (Ball & McDiarmid, 1990; et al 1991). Darling Hammond & Bransford also validates the same concept that the teachers should have an understanding of the children's growth and learning and how ethos and tradition influence their learning. They should have a knowledge of the curriculum, pedagogy, classroom structure and examination. They need to develop an understanding of the universal purposes of schooling and how those purposes affect their performance (Hammond, D & Bransford, 2005).Hence all this will lead to an effective teaching and learning environment .The students will be able to learn more enthusiastically. Students will be highly motivated in the classrooms. And it will be a two-way learning process for both the students and teachers.Teaching and Learning Skills of Teachers
(Stronge) An important aspect of professionalism and of efficacy in the classroom is a teacher's commitment to students and to their profession. Going through different testaments a twofold engagement to student learning and to constantly strive to improve one's self has been found frequently in effective teachers. A common credence in effective teachers which unfolds their commitment, is that it depends upon them how they provide a number of strategies to reach students. All good and efficient teachers hold themselves responsible for the success of their students. (Tauber & Mester 2007) also agree with the same argument suggesting that the strongest quality in effective teachers is enthusiasm prevailing in all grades and all categories of students. Highly motivated teachers are extremely articulate in speech, body language, and have high level of energy. All these aspects lead to student success. Elison (1990) believes that in a classroom, a teacher's motivation and inspiration is often effective; and same is when he or she lacks it. He believes that "enthusiasm and energy can carry the day"(pg 24). Hence this would lead to the holistic development of students encouraging them to excel in learning.
The significance of the subject knowledge has been under argument the last two centuries (Darling-Hammond, 2005). The teachers should have a sound knowledge of their subject and they should take it as a challenging job which would prove their competence. (Shulman,1987). Many researchers have reflected that knowledgeable teachers with sound understanding of the subject are helpful in creating learning abilities amongst the students. (Darling Hammond; et al 2000).This will ultimately result in affirmative outcomes as far as student learning and knowledge seeking is concerned. A number of researchers have also established that subject command is an integral part of teacher capacity, however there are still others who believe that knowledge of the subject is not sufficient in isolation. This is because if the subject knowledge possessed by teachers is not communicated to the students then learning cannot take place. (Grossman et al, 2005). Therefore, the effectiveness of the teacher will not depend only on the command of the subject but also on the skills of the teachers which they will use to impart that knowledge. A combination of sound knowledge of the subject and effective teaching methodologies will enhance the performance of the learners.
Expertise and teaching
The data about the connect of proficient learning and teaching methodology is highly essential for teacher understanding. Teachers must have effective class control for efficient performance. They should have a sound knowledge of the subject to satisfy the learning urge of the students. Teachers with poor knowledge will face difficulty in delivering their subject matter to the students. (Darling Hammond & John Bransford 2005). Shulman (1987) explains that efficient teachers need to inculcate "pedagogical content knowledge" in themselves that goes up and above the usual discipline gives an understanding of how learners strive for knowledge as they struggle their way towards learning through different strategies. Therefore it can be deduced that if the teachers lack the required knowledge about their subject and other pedagogical matters students will lose their trust and confidence in their teachers and therefore the classrooms will not seem like centres of learning rather they would reflect chaos and unrest on the part of the students.
In addition to teachers' expertise there are other abilities and strategies which need to be devised. Researchers like Grossman states that teaching and learning environment in the classroom that would result in increasing learning skills amongst the students. It contains different teaching methodologies used by teachers, the type of discussion and the presentation of the subject. Teaching styles such as case-based teaching, simulation, role plays, and use of video cases. Project and assignments are other important means of developing the students skills of learning and teachers skills of instruction as they emphasize on various learning skills which would improve students' analytical approach to their problems. Hence the involvement of all these strategies will make the whole learning process interesting and worthwhile.
Palmer (2007) introduces yet another effective aspect of efficient learning that is the integrity of the teachers. He believes that "good teaching come from good people". Unless teachers realise their own potentials, weaknesses and their limitations they will not be able to do justice to the profession. This leads this review to a critical aspect of teachers and their learning. If teachers want to become good then they need to broaden their horizons.
Leiberman (1995) says as far as curriculum, pedagogy, and assessments are concerned only then will it lead to a proficient learning environment. Teachers should engage themselves in fixing their methodologies regarding students' behaviour about their learning skills. Many expertise of the teachers are a result of their contacts with the subject matter, pedagogical strategies, new ways of assessment, or just learning. New and creative ideas of subject matter captivate teachers in educating themselves through different strategies. The teachers should improve their writing and revising skills to enhance their learning abilities. All this approach will help them guide students to achieve better understanding of reading, writing, listening and speaking skills. Therefore these new strategies motivate teachers to be good learners as well as efficient teachers, striving for individual knowledge which would eventually lead to a better understanding of their subject. These methodologies of learning do not demote the understanding of basic knowledge. They utilize the interests and skills of students and teachers to motivate them towards better understanding and leading them to solve their problems more skillfully with the help of these methodologies. Therefore it can be inferred that teachers should be motivated to become learners if they want to enhance their teaching skills as delivering lectures based on text is not simply enough. They need to develop multidimensional skills which will bridge the gap between them and their learners. This is particularly important for realizing they students' diverse needs.
In this regards Timperley argues that expertise of teachers emphasize on achieving knowledge and skills that are suitable when teachers' existing learning are similar to the recent information and therefore it can be created into their existing learning. In case of mathematics and science, for example, existing curriculum usually impress upon the computational and factual learning while new curriculum typically emphasize on analytical reasoning skills. Hence such change emphasizes more on learning new knowledge and skills. The teachers should understand that the knowledge they acquire along with the knowledge gained through different methodologies both are valued. (Timperley 2008)
Teachers Expertise in managing classroom interactions
Teachers expertise in controlling and managing classroom interactions is a vital part of the learning process, Cizek approves that the assessment abilities of the teachers start with their professional beginning. Although assessment is an essential ingredient of teaching yet most of the candidates fail to achieve this before their service. (Cizek et al.,1995/1996)
The assessment abilities of teachers are important as far as the students' reaction is concerned. The assessment skills cannot be achieved by just keeping away from the actual teaching programmes (Donovan, Hammond, Bransford, 2005; et al). Timperley also agrees that real assessment would always inculcate amongst the students an inclination towards their learning. For assessment actual teaching in the classroom and contacts with the students are essential ingredient of learning. Teachers' therefore, need a variety of ways of assessing their student's progress, ways that include, but go beyond standardized testing. These include interviews with students about their learning, systematic analysis of student work, and classroom observations.(Timperley) This review calls for understanding the need of the students to absorb knowledge in a manner that goes beyond the standard learning procedures.
While talking about the teachers' knowledge and expertise it is important to remember that they should not be regarded as technicians who can be taught a new set of behaviours and then be expected to implement them. Whereas Timperely ignores this complexity of teaching and disregards the need for teachers to be responsive to the learning needs of their students. Effective teaching practice is based on a coherent and integrated set of beliefs, knowledge, and values. (Timperley). Therefore it can be concluded that focusing on subject knowledge alone is not sufficient for effective learning of the students. Teachers in this regard should also play a vital role in developing themselves professionally.
Teacher capacity- their knowledge, skills and dispositions- must be informed by the complexities of the changing demographics of the students they are teaching. This has major implications of how we can care about young people in a diverse society and how we view equity, justice, and students' opportunities.
Teacher's understanding of what outcomes are important and achievable often evolves in the course of professional learning cycles has new possibilities suggest themselves. What is important is that the teachers always maintain a focus on the students. Those teaching approaches that have been subject to research and wide debate are most likely to have positive impacts on student outcomes. Teachers need to be able to answer the question, "What knowledge and skills do we as teachers need to help students bridge the gap between current understandings and valued student outcomes".
Teaching is a complex activity in which moment-by-moment decisions are shaped by teachers' beliefs and theories about what it means to be effective.