An Overview into the Many Definitions of Dyslexia

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It seems a controversial issue relatively in the beginning, because dyslexia has defined in many approaches, some of the definitions reflect the theories of causation, while the other definitions in an attempt to describe dyslexia. It seems clear that dyslexia involves more than one condition as it conveys a conceptual difficulty in reading skills for the child as well as a number of other reasons ((Rice, 2004).

A hundred years have passed by since the first systematic definition of dyslexia as well as the diagnosis was established( Frith, 1999) and there is still considerable debate among professionals, professionals, psychologists and teachers about the conceptual issues of dyslexia, whoever in fact not far from agreement on their knowledge of concepts, skills development needs and capabilities, as well as diagnosis. Moreover, professionals and associations interested in special education differ in the definition of a large private educational terms, particularly in the case of attention deficit attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), attention deficit disorder(ADD) and dyslexia. In one community, has experienced difficulty in teaching reading as indicating poor reading skills that must be addressed by large-effective teaching methods. On the other hand, it is observed that another community the same way of reading difficulties in dyslexia, which contains an individual educational plan (IEP) that need to be highly efficient for the education of each individual case.

Moreover, there are many of reliable definitions that have been adopted from a wide range of different instruction environments, such as definition of the British Association for Dyslexia (2001), which seems to be a descriptive definition , which indicate that dyslexia can be seen as : "A combination of abilities and difficulties which affect the learning process in one or more of reading, spelling, and writing. Accompanying weakness may be identified in areas of speed of processing, short-term memory, sequencing, auditory and / or visual perception, spoken language and motor skills. It is particularly related to mastering and using written language, which may include alphabetic, numeric and musical notation" ( Reid, 2002).

It is agreed widely that reading skill is key for all people to complete the learning process successfully and appears to be agreement that the learning process needs to be a large number of simple skills, which requires the functions are ordered from different regions of the brain (both left and right from the Broca's area and Hamichaer ), moreover, the sequence of actions that may make it one of the most complex operations. It is clear that all teachers, practitioners and parents should have information about children with dyslexia and the most important problems they face, especially in reading to understand the definition of the educational process (British Dyslexia Association, 2003).

On the other, the World Federation of Neurologists (1968) defined it as; "Dyslexia is a disorder manifested by difficulty in learning to read despite conventional instruction and socio-cultural opportunity. It is dependent upon fundamental cognitive disabilities which are frequently of constitutional origin." (Mortimore, 2003, by Reid, 1994, p.2).

If we pay enough attention to this definition it is clear that the greatest changes considerate on the late sixties that stress and characterized problems to complete reading process to be successful, and the new millennium, that is a interested far more than three different stages of description, the first, behavioural, which is the most important element for teachers and practitioners to work daily with children with dyslexia, particularly in the school, and second, cognitive which is more relate to teacher learning difficulties who is responsible for assessment of any kind of learning difficulties and then Preparation an individual education plan, third, the level of biological, which refers to dyslexia for kind of nervous-developmental in developmental deficit of biological origin(Frith, 2003).

However, if we compare the definition of the British Dyslexia Association in the definition of (2001) of dyslexia with the equivalent, which presented by the World Federation of Neurology (1968), we will note other potential conflicts, according to the conceptual dimension to the definition of dyslexia. However, it is perfectly balanced in those who wish to present the strengths and weaknesses of children with dyslexia: "dyslexia is a combination of difficulties, and capacity that may affect the learning process in one or more of the writing, reading and spelling. It might be possible, identify weaknesses in visual perception, processing speed of the short-term memory, sequencing, as well as audio, spoken language and motor skills. and that are relevant to mastering and using written language, which may contain the alphabet and identify the digital as well as musical.

2. Causes of Dyslexia

According to ( Rice, 2004 ) there is still no consensus on the underlying causes of dyslexia. It is frequently point out that not all the difficulty in reading or writing means dyslexia. However, there are many scientists who believe that inheritance and hearing problems at an early age may cause dyslexia. This will be discussed in more details.

2.1 Inheritance

May not be possible that dyslexia is not a strong characteristic that will be inherited, even if one or both parents have it. On the other hand, this may be possible. it clear that forty per cent of the people and explained that dyslexia has a history of learning difficulties in their

According to Brain scanning of children with dyslexia by specialists in the field of medicine that bunches of cells beneath the surface in the front left side of the brain are responsible for reading problems (ibid.). This group of cells moving on the surface of brain cells while growing in the fetus, which does not occur with children with dyslexia. In addition, they have to be smaller mango cellular system, which is liable for recognition, for example, symbols and characters, which leads to difficult to read. They usually tend to use the right part for these skills, which are not designed for this job and that six times slower. It is clear that scientists consider these genetic variations and statistics that the inheritance is one of causes of dyslexia.

2.2 Hearing Problems at an Early Age

It is frequently point out that the first five years of a child's life are important for the ability to read and write in accordance with natural languages. In the event that the child is suffering from colds or other continuously during the first years of his life, without medical intervention prior to the visit of the health center, may be exposed to ban prayer from time to time and thus may lead to hearing loss. This means that there is a break in the learning process of the child because of those problems in the hearing. If the child does not have the ability to hear words correctly, and thus lead to delays in the phonemic awareness of the child that leads to learning difficulties, such as dyslexia (Bradford, 2009).

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3. Method of teaching reading skills for children with dyslexia

As has been mentioned before is that in fact the intervention to address reading difficulties in children with dyslexia is a successful strategy to provide support appropriate for them. But it is frequently point out that , is to look for on the strengths and weaknesses of the learner and learning styles appropriate through the school by the teacher, which is suited to the needs of each individual. Because it is known to us that each and every child with dyslexia is different according to the file and function of cognitive and learning styles appropriate to him (Reid ,1997 ).

1. Whole Language Instruction

According to the study carried out by Frank (1965), and Goodman (1967) it was having an impact in supporting the Whole Language Instruction, teaching reading is a natural counterpart to learn to speak the sense of learning to read instinctive. In addition, Whole Language Instruction may focuses on education to be of total to the part and not vice versa (e.g. learning the skills not included in the Whole language instruction), and learning to write must occur through fun activities functional meaning, and the focus on education priority, instead of keeping the roots. Moreover, it consenter on the learner who is the center of education rather than the curriculum and education should be based on individual interaction. It is clear that it may supports education in a social environment. Moreover, the teacher is the one who set the curriculum to be concepts are interrelated rather than dividing them up into multiple skills or subsets of content and evaluation focuses on the strengths of the learner.

It seems that Whole Language Instruction is a tool to deal with the class and adjust and it may provides disadvantaged students to be able to overcome reading problems ( ØŒPRESSELY, 1994). However, according to MATHER (1992 ) Whole Language Instruction team believe that retail could disrupt learning process, so they are opposed to direct teaching of encoding, because it split the language into separate clips and skills, which may lead to the language is not used, as well as a waste of time. The Whole Language Instruction may provide meaning to the texts and it is focusing on both reading and writing, as learn the rules of language may be done without the need to teach voice.

It is clear that Educators and researchers stress fact that learning may be the best when there is enjoyable environment for learning and learner will be active participant in learning process as well as the teacher must take into account individual differences between children. These principles focus upon the way of Whole Language Instruction in learning to read, the child will read full text and then he begins to recognize words and letters with helping by teacher and the child will feel motivation when he is reading and that is the most important needs, which increases the capacity of the child with dyslexia to learn to read correctly (FUHLER,1993 )

Learner (2000 ) pointed out that there are basics of teaching reading difficulties by using method of Whole Language Instruction as following :

1. Reading is one of the elements of internal language which is very close to oral language and written language, so teachers who use this method confirm the language written and oral reading lead to the child will be improved , when he learn to read and there is a relationship between linguistic vulnerability in children and reading difficulties, children who have language problems or mobility are likely to develop problems in writing in the early stages.

2. The method of verbal language may be acquired by the natural use, according to the teachers who use Whole Language Instruction that children may learn to speak without the need for special training and this means that children will learn to read naturally through exposure to learn to read by focusing on language and books which related to fluency of language.

3. Teachers who use the method of Whole Language Instruction avoid use of separate teaching which does not focus on the link between parts of the meaning of language, as well as the way of teaching that focuses on use of separate exercises, and they believe that books that divide natural language into small pieces and mysterious that could make teaching is difficult. In addition, Whole Language Instruction users think that learning of characters is normally by way of education , it is clear that learning of letters should not be separate, but it is normally acquired through reading.

2. CODE- EMPHASIS INSTRUCTION

It is clear that we should understand the strategies of coding in Whole Language Instruction or comic reading (ORTHOGRAPHIC) , which are one of the strategies that provide the opportunity to children to read the words by this method because they saw these words for many times . Therefore, they have image of the words in the long-term memory, the image of words are not required to be stored in the same format and font but it will be merely images. To use this strategy, the reader should has knowledge of the alphabet and how to process link this latters togather. Moreover, there are many of readers who tend to use this strategy because they have the satisfaction for the words through use of a number of consecutive times as a result, they are willing to remember these words at any time. However , when they are exposed to new words so they tend to use method of CODE- EMPHASIS INSTRUCTION so they used the analysis of these words and read them (HOIEN,2000).

According to Learner ( 2000 ) children with dyslexia often need to direct learning and systematic training on reading because the direct training on the skills of voice reading is significant due to the primary task which is a specific part which is used later for reading comprehension. However, children who start to learn to read slowly, they will become readers are strong later. It is clear that CODE- EMPHASIS INSTRUCTION is effective in that the reader have a broad reading skills in school and In the external environment, he will be able to read any textbooks or other books. In addition , Intensive reading may provide the opportunity for the growth of concepts and verbal knowledge for how to write and read the text. Therefore, children who do not learn by this method they will be deprived for this opportunity to develop their skills, because they began by a weak method as a result , they did not enable them to Intensive reading so, their reading skills will be less that lead to they had negative experiences of literacy. However, studies and research indicated that the use of method CODE- EMPHASIS INSTRUCTION which lead to high scores for tests of reading achievement. Moreover, it may lead to fluency in reading the words, because spelling process for the words will become automatic when the child have a good ability to analysis and synthesis. In addition, it has maps system or consideration of terms between letters and sounds, and when the child learns by maps that will be able to analyze the word and apply these information to produce the correct pronunciation for written words.

Moreover, there is another method called (Analogy ) which is used by many teachers to educate children with reading difficulties. In this method ,the child may uses his old knowledge to reading the new words, for example, if he reads the word (Hand) as a result, he will has the ability to read the word (sand) by benefit of his old knowledge for the similar letters in the first word. Therefore, he can use linguistic knowledge such as linguistic and grammatical rules in facilitating the process of reading (HOIEN , 2000 ).

Intervention for Dyslexia

Defining intervention.

According to Wall (2003) definition of intervention as " An intervention is an interaction between two people to bring about change and, therefore, early years practitioners undertake interventions each time they are working with children. Interventions may be short, medium or long term and will be planned carefully to ensure effectiveness and appropriateness." and He suggested idea which is what and how should practitioners draw up a plan or design different and useful intervention programs for each child as a case individually, by clarifying how it could encourage teachers or staff of these children collaborative work by each category of activity classroom, which can be caused by structured plan which made through specialists.

It can be seen that intervention has become a significant key in resolving of psychological educational issues which is more effective to clarify access for these issues or problems and also it is useful in reaching positive results, especially for children with learning difficulties who are at risk for any particular type of learning difficulties. It is important to note that it should be look at if one parent has dyslexia, which is likely to move to one of their children as a result it is important there is focus on the family history, which may to be assisted to alert teachers and parents therefore, it may get appropriate intervention program for these children (Augur,1993 ).

If we pay enough attention to Augur indicate that developmental dyslexia is justified for certain reasons, first reason, it may be very difficult to clarify kind of developmental dyslexia that a child is born through t according to the results of brain injury as a result of stroke or an accident, etc.. Moreover, the second reason which is that many specialists agree that most of these children, who are smart in most courses with the exception of some basic academic skills that need to develop and therefore it is likely that the teachers are providing success and development of the natural growth of children with dyslexia, if they were with the fact that dyslexia may not be curable but it needs to useful intervention programs.

Stages of intervention in England

According to DfES (2003) that stages of intervention used in schools in Britain, with almost identical stages in America, called ( waves ). Wave 1, which is refer to initial education for literacy in schools in that there must be effective integration of all children, high quality and a daily reading and writing hour with appropriate differentiation required. Whereas, if the children do not respond correctly to primary classroom of literacy guidance therefore, intervention will be necessary. In addition, Wave 2 shows a set of specific interventions which are additional a specific time, which refer to some children who are in need of support services to accelerate development and they can work at or above age-related t the highest of expectations . Wave 3 which is describe the governance for a small number of children and intervention is necessary to provide specifically for the processor speed of evolution or allow children to achieve their potential. It is Clearly that , this could include the 01:01 or specific interventions, so when it comes to older children, which is usually refer to the approach set out specifically for children that have been identified as requiring special education support by working in the school environment. The best example, as noted by the researcher that Wave 3 intervention which is reading recovery.

2.3 Issues associated with intervention

It is frequently point out that there is controversy about how to build effectively intervention program . Researcher will present the most important factors agreed for potential success in the planning and production of the correct intervention program. First, it taking into account the assessment procedures and examination in psychology that can explain exactly what are the skills which need to develop in children. According to Fawcett and Lynch (2000)to examine dyslexia test (designed by Nicolson and Fawcett, 1996) will be the most successful for all the teachers to their schools. In addition, this test has become highly efficient because it is interested in semantic and verbal fluency as well as knowledge of numbers. Another reason which is how quickly the application of this test. For example, it is take one minute to the task of writing and one minute in the skill of reading, moreover, spelling and other skills that could take two minutes.

According to reason (2003) enhance the quantity and quality of cognitive development of children is significant factor to reach the appropriate intervention for them, it is important to take into account to confirmation that intervention at the earliest time that in order to that this procedure may not lead to a delay which is undesirable for children who have reading difficulties. In the same context, we may emphasize that the assessment procedures and examination need to be more focus by that stage, even before the application to avoid any future problems (Ott, 1997). However, the researcher as a teacher for special education as well as lecturer at the Department of Special Education recognizes that there are no tests in a uniform and there is a clear lack of evaluation of courses in schools in Saudi Arabia. It is clear that this is an opportunity for the researcher to obtain the correct method of assessing and screening for children who have difficulties reading in schools and the transfer of these measures and the right strategies for the development of the educational process in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Ott (1997) indicate that there is an Other factor which is related to people who may play an active role of detection of children who have dyslexia. Therefore, there are some people around the children who have learning difficulties and they who provide full care to alleviate the difficulties that may be in these children as well as they are trying to find the appropriate methods in educational process such as, parents, professionals as well as specialists in health care.

1. Reading Recovery

According to State of Victoria (Department of Education and Early Childhood Development), (2007) Reading Recovery is a program of early intervention for reading, which helps first-graders who were identified because they have difficulties reading. it is designed by Marie Clay. Moreover, In 1970, it is implemented in New Zealand for over 30 years and also it was adoption of this program on a large scale in many countries of the world such as Australia. In addition, typical reading recovery lesson plan lasting 20 weeks and has 30 minutes per week. Training is applied to 1-1 with Reading Recovery teachers as well as trainers which include the whole-language approach and Reading Recovery conventionally de-emphasised decoding in favour of teaching methods to identify words through the context of the meaningful text reading.

It is clear that the program of reading recovery is include 12-20 weeks of intensive, one-to-one daily lesson, which is typically targeted at 20% of children who have difficulties in reading and thus deliver results through the teachers who have been trained to offer the program and apply. it properly is applied now in Britain in the first year of the child entered Primary school. It is clear that it usually is detected on children at risk by choosing a teacher as well as to rely on the use of investigation survey to reduce the difficulties in reading for children. In recent years, Word Reading Test and the British Ability Scales are used in schools to check children who have difficulties in reading. In addition, clear observation that is usually appear as non-uniform, including letter identification, the evaluation criterion to read of text , and the visual words ( Chris , 2009).

On the other hand, reading recovery stresses teacher' contribution to learn student . In addition, reading guidelines which is more open-ended and emphasizes that the decoding and phonics teaching does not need to be a formal and clear taught. It is clear that reading recovery philosophy confirms that phonics skills that can be obtained by the context of reading ( State of Victoria (Department of Education and Early Childhood Development), 2007).

Chris ( 2009 ) pointed out that Reading Recovery will be developed and it would be appropriate for students with dyslexia if the teaching methods obtained systematic teaching of phonics. Since the past few years there have been research work in this direction through reading recovery. Currently, although, reading recovery obtain some guidelines in phonics , it cannot indicated that phonics teaching is comprehensive.

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