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Curriculum theory is defined as an assumption of developing and endorsing a program of study. According to Kliebard, it is also a chronological scrutiny of curriculum and a technique of viewing present learning prospectus and strategy pronouncements (2004). Development of management thinking and practice influenced the ways of thinking about a curriculum theory and practice. Fundamentally, curriculum can also be scrutinized as a set of documents for execution. Curriculum theory and practice is a process thus it is not a tangible thing, rather it is an interaction of educators, learners and knowledge. There are three major theories of curriculum, namely traditionalism, constructivism, behavioralism.
Constructivism Learning Theory
Constructivism is a curriculum theory that disputes that human beings produce knowledge and importance from relations between their familiarities and ideas. Jean Piaget formalized constructivism by articulating methods by which learners perceive this knowledge. According to him through the processes of accommodation and assimilation, persons are able to create new knowledge from their occurrences. Kliebard highlights that through assimilation, individuals include their new experiences into an already existing framework without changing it (2004). In contrast, individual perception of experiences may change, when those experiences contradict their interior representations in order to fit in. The theory explains accommodation as the process of changing onesâ€™ psychological representation of the outside world to fit new experiences. Accommodation is a technique by which disappointments leads to learning.
There are several major learning tenets of constructivism. They are
Learning entails language: Learning is influence by the language used.
Learning is a social activity: Connections to other human beings affects our learning for example teachers, peers, family and others.
In order to learn, one requires knowledge. New knowledge is assimilated by having some structure developed from a prior knowledge to build on. Learning is not abrupt; it takes time and the need to revisit ideas.
The key component of learning is motivation. Motivation is very crucial in learning because it helps one to understand the ways in which knowledge is important.
Learning is an active process. In learning, the learners apply sensory input and gets meaning out of it. Learners have to engage themselves with the world.
The important action of creating meaning is in the mind (it is mental). Learning necessitates substantial actions and practical experiences particularly in kids.
People gain knowledge of studying as they acquire information. Creation of significance and creating the techniques of meaning are both necessary when gaining knowledge Daniel Greenberg (2005).
Constructivism influences the current curriculum by allowing students to convey various skills like the computer skills, and the styles of learning to the studying course Geary (2005). When teachers introduce multi-media writing equipments, this technology give them and their students a chance to make lessons interactive, use images for presentations and projects. This also assists in solving problems in groups, critical thinking, analysis, and reflection.
Behaviorism Learning Theory
Behaviorism is a learning theory whose only focus is only on purposely-examinable conducts and marks down any autonomous actions of the brain LeClaire and Rushin (2010). According to behavior philosophers, learning is the attainment of innovative behavior based on environmental surroundings. After experiments conducted by behaviorists, conditioning is a worldwide education progression. Conditioning has two different categories each giving way to a different outline.
Behavioral conditioning transpires if a response to an incentive is strengthened. Fundamentally, behavioral conditioning is a straightforward opinion scheme. If a fortification or reward pursues a reaction to an inducement, then the reactions turn out to be more likely in the future Daniel Greenberg (2005). A prominent behaviorist used reinforcement procedures to train his pigeons how to dance.
Classic Conditioning ensues whilst a normal reply responds to a motivation. For a particular stimulus to produce a certain response, one has to biologically agitated. Examples of Classical Conditions in the learning atmosphere is when students in an education institution demonstrate unreasonable qualms and nervousness like the fright of failing or speaking in public and common school irrational fear LeClaire and Rushin (2010).
How behaviorism influences current curricula
According to Hensley and Singer, behavioral theory is uncomplicated to comprehend for the reason that it rely on noticeable deeds and illustrates quite a lot of worldwide rules of conducts (2004). Baum states that due to its affirmative and unconstructive fortification procedures, it can be very effective for example when take care of human disarrays such as nervousness disorders, rebellious behaviors, and autism (2005) Teachers who recompense or discipline student behaviors use behaviorism often. Hensley and Singer says that behaviorism contrast with constructivism because constructivists allow the use of experiments and investigations in the learning institutions placing a better weight on the teachers experience while behaviorists claims that teaching is likely to be informed by the understanding of the brain (2004).
Connectivism Learning Theory
According to Siemens and Stephen, Connectivism is a learning theory based on the assertion that knowledge existence is in the world not in human minds (2005). It is the application of set of connections standards to identify both the acquaintance and the process of studying. Down states that in this particular theory, knowledge is a scrupulous guide of associations and learning is the formation of new links and patterns and the capability of maneuvering around accessible networks (2002). According to Keengwe and Onchwari, there are four elements, which are outstanding in constructivism, rationality, sense making, understanding, and significance (2009). The major advocators of this theory were George Siemens and Stephen Downes.
Tenets of Connectivism
Learning and knowledge lies in variety of judgment.
Learning is a method of linking specific joints or information basis.
Learning may perhaps be acknowledged in applications, which are not human.
Capability to be acquainted with supplementary is more vital than what is presently acknowledged
Developing and sustaining associations is needed to make persistent education achievable.
The aptitude to perceive links between fields, thoughts, and ideas is a main expertise.
Prevalence (precise, current understanding) is the objective of all connectivist educational activities.
Siemens and Stephen states that in the current curriculum the theory, assist the students in practicing, reflecting while the teachers demonstrate, and model (2005).
In summary, curriculum theory can be described as assumption of developing and endorsing a program of study. There are three examples of curriculum theories namely, behaviorist, connectivist, and constructivist learning theories. Each theory has its principles and effects on the current curriculum as explained in the context.