An Introduction on type of play in Mathematics

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Learning mathematics can be very interesting and fun if we have the right method teaching pupils. Mathematics is not like other subject where you need to read but also have to do a lot of practice. Only practice can improve skills. How to get pupils to learn in easier way yet can be done every time? In some reason, pupils recreate, investigate, explore, and come to understand Mathematics through play.

There are many forms of play that can be used in learning mathematics. Example

role-play

small-world play

play trays

dramatic play

construction play

Role-play

This is a very common and frequent use for learning mathematics and important for young pupils to learn mathematics. This role-play show a particular scenarios like it is been taken place.

Example, if a teacher wants to teach pupils regarding money, teacher asks a pupil become a shopkeeper and another pupil become a customer. A customer wants to buy a candy bar of chocolates. The customer asks price a item and the shopkeeper reply it.

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This stimulates a scenario in pupils' imagination and practices their addition and subtraction skill. Example, a bar of chocolates cost RM 8.30 and the customer give RM 10 to shopkeeper. Pupils able to determine the balance money in return by using subtraction concept and the return money is RM 1.70 (RM 10 - RM 8.30 = RM 1.70)

Dramatic play

This is a fun play where involving acting out script, scenes and play adopted from cartoons, books etc. Children take roles using themselves as a puppets / dolls, when they interactive together.

Example for small world play is the puppet show. Thought this play, teacher asks pupils to take part acting by using puppet. Teacher recites a short story. Example,

Ten little birds fly on top of a tree.

A hunter fires a show and kills a bird.

How many birds left?

At this time, Pupil removes a bird from the play. Pupils will notice a bird missing and able to tell how many left.

Nine little birds left fly on top of a tree.

Nine little birds fly on top of a tree.

A hunter fires a show and kills a bird.

How many birds left?

Eight

At this time, pupil removes a bird from the play. Pupils will notice a bird missing and able to tell how many left. And the story continues until no bird available.

…

Small-world play

Is an imaginative play which is an effective tool in learning mathematics It an effective tool for special learning opportunities for children. Children act in a way that ideas go through the manipulation of small equipment such as animal, lego, dolls and etceteras. This helps pupils to reflect on feeling in a safe way in their real living situation.

This game helps in teaching vocabulary like above, below, next, in front and behind. Teacher gives pupils to take card and observe pupils' action during lesson is conduct. Example:

Teacher asks pupils to set up a bird cage. The bird cage fills with20 birds. After that, teacher asks pupils to remove 6 birds said dead of food poisoning. Pupils will see the problem and need to solve it. Pupils problem solving determines by exploring set of objects holding things in their hands and counting, seeing the shape of object.

Constructional play

This play is the manipulation of objects for the purpose constructing or creating something. Constructional play offer pupils the prospect of creating representation by exploring, manipulating, decision making and collaborating. Jigsaw puzzle is a suitable to teach constructional play

.

Play-tray

This play offers another type learning mathematic concept especially in volume of liquid. It helps children to develop concept such as full, empty, shallow and etceteras.

1. TOPIC: Learn money below RM100

Subtopic: Subtraction

Using Role-Play

(Speed Smart Shopping Arcade)

Introduction

Learning is a form of continues process. Learning is the best way to get experiences. Therefore, in formal education teacher is giving an interesting way to express each topic teach in the days work. A set of well prepared introduction, content structure in the way easy for pupils to learn follow the lesson plan will give benefits not only pupils learning environment but also repairing teacher's teaching technique.

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Play can take many forms. Some of the forms are role-play, small-world play, play-trays, dramatic play and construction play. Each of these helps in the learning of mathematics in numbers of ways.

Reference can be refers from books, internets, experience teacher and so on. Therefore, teacher should think out-of-the-box. There are a lot of ideas in way to teach and many ways to relearn teaching skill. This will improve teacher teaching technique. As a result, this will increase teacher's knowledge and the knowledge will give back to pupils.

Strengths

As a physical material

Teaching money can be simple and easy if we have the correct method showing to pupils. First of all, teacher as pupils that pupils have how much money each one has. Teacher asks pupils to show out and tell if there is any different.

Teacher needs to shows pupils money, how the money looks like and the value of each money representations example rm100, rm50, rm10, rm5 rm2 and so on. Teacher also shows pupils money representation example RM 100 equal to RM 50 + RM 50 and RM 100 equal to RM 10 + RM 10 + RM 10 + RM 10 + RM 10 + RM 10 + RM 10 + RM 10 + RM 10 + RM 10.

Pupils will see and tell how they feel by holding and touching money. This help pupils to understand and connection between RM 100 needs 2 pieces of RM 50 or 10 pieces of RM 10. This will help pupils to build connection and understanding money in visualizes and later continues to conceptual. Example

Teacher as pupils how many RM 50 need to form a RM 100?

Teacher as pupils how many RM 10 need to form a RM 100?

Teacher as pupils how many RM 5 need to form a RM 100?

Teacher as pupils how many RM 10 need to form a RM 50?

Teacher as pupils how many RM 5 need to form a RM 50?

…

As a Hands-On and Learning Experience

"Hands-on and learning by experience are powerful ideas and we know that engaging student actively and thoughtfully in their studies pays off in better learning (Rutherford, 1993, p.5). Proper activity provides a simulation and built conceptual in pupils mind. This helps pupils to understand between real life, simulation and conceptual are well connect together.

This help weaker pupils to gains concept and help pupils to strengthen their conceptual knowledge

The more example or work done by pupils will increase experiences and interpersonal thinking. By observing, teacher able to detect weaker pupils that need extra attention or different method of teaching aids.

To Build Self Confident

The more the pupils do, the faster it will get the answer.

From here, teacher will know pupils are getting confident on doing their parts.

This helps develop confident, built self independent and role play helping among weaker friends

To Develop Pupils Critical Thinking Skills

It will be a crucial if a lesson plan not well prepare and stimulate pupils thinking along the process. Pupils will get bored and that to do other things inside the class. Teacher gives pupils activities to build their thinking knowledge and discovering some mathematics concepts during learning process. Along way goes, pupils will get to know their own method to understand and restructure to reply back to teacher. Developer thoughts (Chinese proverbs)

1 hear and 1 forget

1 see and I remember

I do and I understand

Weaknesses

Honesty

Teacher need to be careful when handling real money to avoid losses belong among pupils and teacher itself.

The amount of money maybe no much but it will be best to avoid from building self greediness and taking other people's money without permission.

The best way is to uses a "money representation" when conduct lesson plan.

Problem statement:

What wrong with money? Is it hard to learn? This is the common words as teacher says when their pupils did not perform after doing assessment given by teacher. Teacher will ask their self if what wrong with the pupils or the way teacher teach or the level is a bit higher for the pupils.

After thinking for quite a while, teacher change their teaching methods. Teacher prepares a more interesting way of presenting their lesson plan. In this lesson, teacher is going to conduct a "Speed Smart Shopping Arcade." Teacher will give a set of rules and regulation for pupils to play this game.

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The objectives of this lesson is to find a simple yet easy way and enjoyable for pupils to learn. Learning to give and share is a good form to understand the basic pupils need in this study. Pupils will learn the needs to spend money according to how much money they have and they well get an added value like borrow and return money in this lesson.

Learning area

Money to RM 100

Learning Objectives:

At the end of this lesson, pupils able to

Understand and use the vocabulary related to money

Add money up to RM 100

Subtract money up to RM 100

Use and apply knowledge of money in real life

Learning Outcomes

Problem solving involve money in real situations

Prior Knowledge

Pupils know how to do conversion between ringgit and cents.

Pupils can calculate the value of money.

Pupils know how to use money.

Pupils know how to give the change in buying and selling

Material

Object to sell example items from stationary, items from toys, items from clothes, ...

Worksheet assessment

Money

Content:

Briefing

Pupils should have learnt basic ideas addition and subtraction before class is conducts. Teacher gives pupils a short story (situation) and this will stimulate pupils thinking what they need to do to find answers.

Pupils have learned how to do conversion between ringgit and cents.

Lesson step by step

Teacher later show and expression relationship between numbers in addition and subtraction example, For example, the number sentences for 30, 50 and 80 are as follows:

RM 30 + RM 50 = RM 80

RM 50 + RM 30 = RM 80

RM 80 - RM 50 = RM 30

RM 80 - RM 30 = RM 50

By exposing with lots of concept and technique, eventually, pupils will gain confidence to do mathematics equation.

Teacher must be creative during conducting classes so that the class will be alive and pupils eager to learn more during the days and hoping to get more involve for the coming lesson.

The best class is to have lesson plan well so that all pupils can participate during lesson conduct.

Comparing weight of spending money with the equally same quality but different value

Organization / Procedure:

Teacher gives an introduction with doing deduction. Teacher ask pupil how do deduction. Teacher shows out game card with equation and ask pupils to do it randomly.

RM 100 - RM 8 = ??

RM 92 - RM 12 = ??

RM 80 - RM 5 = ??

RM 55 - RM 12.80 = ??

RM 23 - RM 10.30 = ??

And so on..

This will briefly give pupils a better start by doing deduction using money and models before the game begin. (refer attachment no1)

Later teacher show a game call "Speed Smart Shopping Arcade". In this shopping arcade, teacher brings pupils into a real world of virtual store. In this store, teacher lets pupils to select which field they interest to (stationary department, clothes department, toys departments, groceries department and etceteras).

Teacher will starts with showing pupils stationary department. In this department, all stationary will include various stationary products and its prices. From here, pupils will expose to lot of product available in the market and get to know the usage of each stationary that available.

The basic ideas are to do small business and stimulate awareness spending money in a real world. For example stationary departmental speed smart shopping arcade, teacher will show a list of stationary availability and its cost. Each pupils is been given an amount of money to spend. The objectives is to see each pupils to buy stationary within it money limited.

Teacher's role is to tell pupils to spend within limits given and ask pupils to spend wisely. Teacher tells pupils to buy thing that the pupils need most or they do not have. In the same time, teacher tells pupils to do comparison value they are spending.

Teacher divides the class into groups of four to six pupils. Teacher will select a group leader to become a salesperson. Teacher provides each pupil with a mixture of coins and note to the amount of RM 100. Teacher gives each pupil a piece of paper to write down what they will buy. At the same time, pupils do transaction buying things in each store (station). (Refer to attachment no 2)

Pupils have to calculate how many items they have pick, how much quantity pupils select and the total amount of each items. During the same time, pupils need to pay the amount money they have selected and see how many balance at the end of transaction. At ten minutes, teacher discusses the result what pupils have bought. Pupils will have the change to change to other store.

Teacher shows an example, a pencil with price RM 2.50 and a pencil with price RM 3.30. Teacher asks pupils which one they prefer and give explanation. In this parts teacher tells and explain why we must become a smart buyer. By becoming a smart buyer, we can save a lot of money and get more products with the same amount of money.

Conclusion / Impact / Reflection

As much as the pupils will get when doing this task include having fun in spending money within the limits given. Pupils will learn a lot not only get to know the availability of product in the market but also how to use it.

Play is an important part in pupils' life. This help pupils mentally and physically fit. By adapting effectiveness playing within education, pupils not only having fun but as well learning in more enjoyable way.

When pupils enjoy playing game, they learn about money they have and how to spend. Pupils will only spend with the amount money pupils have. Pupils learn how much money in return for what pupils have spent. This will open their mind in real life situation.

Pro: Pupils will able to learn how to do subtraction money below RM 100. Pupils learn equation and balance money for each deduction. Pupils learn some equation and need to do convertion ringgit and sens.

Pupils also learn that buying things need to use money. Pupils will learn about important money to themselves. Pupils not only learn subtraction but also comparison value added in each thing they buy. This will help pupils to do money management in future. Furthermore, pupils will learn about treasuring things they buy and use it wisely.

Cons: We can able to identify weak pupils' spending money and correct them. Teacher able to give advice in term of doing mathematics calculation but in real life spending money and saving can last longer money they might have.

As a conclusion, playing during mathematics education can help to improve pupils conceptual, strengthen pupils' skill and master it within times given to pupils. Teacher should provide more game play mathematics education for pupils so that pupils can become smarter within time and excel in this field.

2. TOPIC: Number to 10,000

Subtopic: recognizing the place values and round-up/off

Using Role-Play

(Modify card question using poker cards)

Introduction

Learning can be deferred between each pupil. Each pupil has different ability absorption knowledge and learning abilities. So pupils can easily see clearly problem and solve it in a short time whereas some pupils don know what to do. Therefore, teacher and pupils are need for each other in education and educating pupils to do better and understanding mathematics.

Strengths

As a Hands-On and Learning Experience

Pupils will get to learn guidance by teacher and friends.

Pupils will learn step by step on how to do get the nearest round number in a smaller group of three to four members.

Pupils will solve their round numbers and may ask help within the group members.

This will give all pupils opportunity to do their role in the game.

This help weaker pupils to gains concept and help pupils to strengthen their conceptual knowledge

This will help to built interpersonal communication within group member

The more example or work done by pupils will increase experiences and interpersonal thinking. By observing, teacher able to detect weaker pupils that need extra attention or different method of teaching aids.

To Build Self Confident

The more the pupils do, the faster it will get the answer.

From here, teacher will know pupils are getting confident on doing their parts.

This helps develop confident, built self independent and role play helping among weaker friends

Patients

Build stronger bond between friends.

Willing to wait for friend to doing their answer

Do not rush for other pupils until their turns

Only giving help if pupils try for many time but unable to get answer.

Weaknesses

Interactive within group member

Pupils' tent to talk too much in the group may disturb other pupils solving nearest round number.

Therefore, teacher will set a rule for talkative or uncooperative pupils with confiscating the two cards each time when there are not obedient.

In this way can help pupils to good behavioral.

The group member must not be more than four because pupils will need to wait for so long.

Only pupils able to get correct answer can take the card.

Pupils with the most card will receive sweet from teacher

Problem statement:

Number is the basic concept in mathematics. Why do we need to learn numbers? By understanding concept and foundation can lead someone do a lot of things with numbers from simple task until complex statement.

Pupils in year three learn about whole number up to 10,000 and basic concept of number. Some number as placing in thousands, hundreds, tens and ones. We also learn about round off number to the nearest thousands, hundreds, tens and ones.

Some pupils are not comfortable when seeing a large value of number. This is why, teacher need to guide pupils so that by learning proper and correct concept pupils can do well just like smaller number. By understanding round number can help pupils doing a better estimation.

Learning area

Number to 10,000

Learning Objectives:

At the end of this lesson, pupils able to

Understand concept of number up to 10,000

Recognizing the place value of ones, tens, hundreds and thousands

Learning Outcomes

Able to differentiate number placing value and do prediction

Prior Knowledge

Pupils know numbers to 1,000

Know placing value up to 1,000

Material

Cards game

Worksheet assessment

Pencil and eraser.

Content:

Briefing

Pupils should have learnt basic number before the class is conduct.

Pupils should have learnt to know placing numbers of ones, tens, hundreds, and thousands.

Learn to do number estimation for the next lesson / session.

Organization / Procedure:

First, teacher ask pupils do revision by counting number in ascending order from

1 to 20,

100 to 120,

140 to 160,

500 to 520

And so on.

Teacher show pupils' number places of ones, tens, hundreds, and thousands. Teacher tells pupils the correct pronunciation and asks pupils to read. Teacher tell pupils that when rounding a number of tens, they need to see if

Number ones less than 5 example 4,3,2,1,or 0 then round down ones to zero.

Number ones is 5 or greater example 5,6,7,8,or 9 then add up tens with one, placing ones to zero..

Teacher tell pupils that when rounding a number of hundreds, they need to see if

Number tens less than 5 example 4,3,2,1,or 0 then round down tens to zero and place ones to zero..

Number tens is 5 or greater example 5,6,7,8,or 9 then add up hundreds with one, placing tens to zero and ones to zero.

Teacher tell pupils that when rounding a number of thousands, they need to see if

Number hundreds less than 5 example 4,3,2,1,or 0 then round down hundreds to zero.

Number hundreds is 5 or greater example 5,6,7,8,or 9 then add up thousands with one, placing hundreds, tens and ones to zero.

Later teacher show example of few numbers and do round-up value. Example like:

1534 round-up tens = 1530

1369 round-up tens = 1370

1922 round-up tens = 1920

1255 round-up hundreds = 1300

4849 round-up hundreds = 4800

And so on..

Teacher will random select and call out few pupils to do round-up question. This will clearly show if pupils are paying attention in class and understand today's lesson. Teacher later introduce pupils to a game call "Snap Round Number". In this game teacher will brief about the rules and regulation that pupils must follow. Teacher will also show how to play this game.

In this game, teacher shows a deck of cards. Teacher shuffle the cards for few times so that the all cards are no in order. Then, teacher take one card and say out example 1843 round-up to the nearest 100, therefore the answer is 1800.

Teacher shows few examples. After showing to pupils how to play, teacher set up some rules that need to follows. Teacher divides class in to a group of three or four pupils. Teacher tells pupils who receive most cards in the group will receive extra sweets. This will motivate pupils to do well in their task. Teacher gives pupils play for ten minutes. Within these ten minutes, teacher monitors each group and sees how progress is.

Later teacher give pupils each assessment need to finish and submit by next day. This will give pupils extra activities and see the improvement of each pupil able to do for each question. (Refer attachment no3)

Conclusion / Impact / Reflection

Teacher able to control the class will well organize lesson plan. Pupils have good time learning and playing games. At the same time, pupils are motivated to do well and receive sweets from teacher.

For weak pupils will have to change to improve their knowledge not only from teacher but as well from their friends. The more they learn, the faster pupils can absorb knowledge and become more confident.

Pro: Pupils will learn how to do round-up numbers by themselves or help by teacher and friend at the beginning. Pupils can learn better and faster in a smaller group because it is much easier to monitor and see each progress.

At the same time, each pupil will have their time to get a question and do their part to solve the question. Teacher will see the good sign progress when pupils able to answer correctly within the shortest time.

Pupils eagerly want to finish the entire question before time. Therefore, teacher should prepare lots of question cards for pupils.

Cons: This game is fun to play but must be set within time limit because pupils will get bored for playing so long. Pupils play within ten to fifteen minutes is good enough.

As a conclusion, playing during mathematics education can help to improve pupils conceptual, strengthen pupils' skill and master it within times given to pupils. Teacher should provide more game play mathematics education for pupils so that pupils can become smarter within time and excel in this field.

ATTACHMENT

No1

First part for No1 doing money deduction

No 2

No 3