An Explanatory Mixed Method Design Education Essay

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In the introduction part the author first states that it is inevitable to implement the technological innovations into the curriculum in order to train 21st century's generation. Next the author presents some information about the research setting. This research is an explanatory mixed method design with a participant group including 105 teachers, 25 administrative staff, and 376 students. The quantitative data were gathered through administering a questionnaire to the participants. In addition, the qualitative data were collected through unstructured interviews carried out with administrative staff and teachers. The research results showed that teachers' and administrator staff's competency level is sufficient. The results also indicated that if there were clear guidelines, they would be more successful in ICT integration. However, according to the students, ICT integration into class is not at a desired level.

An Explanatory Mixed Method Design

Yıldırım, S. (2007). Current utilization of ICT in Turkish basic education schools: A review of teacher's ICT use and barriers to integration. International Journal of Instructional Media, 34(2), 171-185

In the introduction part, the author explains how ICT has become an important component of the new educational paradigm. Then the researcher gives some information about technology integration projects like Basic Education Project (BEP) in Turkey. The author employs an explanatory mixed method design in order to investigate teacher's use of ICT in primary schools and identify barriers that hinder effec­tive ICT integration. The quantitative data were collected from 402 primary school teachers. The qualitative data were gathered through administering a follow up questionnaire to a voluntary group of 72 teachers from the sample. The quantitative results showed that most of the participating teachers frequently use ICT to prepare handouts and tests rather than using it integratedly with the curriculum areas as part of learning and teaching process. The qualitative results indicated that overcrowded classes, inade­quate in-service training, lack of timely technical and pedagogical support, inflexible school curricula, lack of incentives, lack of strong leadership, and lack of collaboration among teachers were the factors that hinder effective integration of ICT into teaching and learning.

An Exploratory Mixed Method Design

Tondeur, J., van Keer, H., van Braak, J., & Valcke, M. (2008). ICT integration in the classroom: Challenging the potential of a school policy. Computers & Education, 51(1), 212-223. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2007.05.003

In the introduction part the authors argue that most of the research studies investigating what factors have an effect on successful ICT integration into education measure class (micro) level variables. It it is important that ICT integration should be investigated with a broader perspective; moreover, national (macro) level and local (meso) level variables should also be explored. The research study employs an exploratory mixed methods design in order to investigate teachers' and principals' perception of ICT integration and examine the relationship between school policies and the use of ICT in the classroom. The qualitative data were collected through interviews with principals from 53 primary schools. In addition, the quantitative data were collected administering a questionnaire to participating 574 teachers working in these schools. The qualitative results showed that school policies are not at a satisfying level and efficiently addressed. In addition, the quantitative results indicated that having an ICT plan, ICT support and ICT training are significant predictors of class use of ICT.

A Convergent Parallel Mixed Method Design

Vanderlinde, R., van Braak, J., & Dexter, S. (2012). ICT policy planning in a context of curriculum reform: Disentanglement of ICT policy domains and artifacts. Computers & Education, 58(4), 1339-1350. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2011.12.007

In the introduction part, the authors explain facilitating factors of ICT integration and emphasize that ICT policy planning is one of the responsibilities of school leaders. In order to identify what leadership actions are related with ICT policy planning, a convergent parallel mixed methods design was employed utilizing a multiple case study strategy. The quantitative data were collected through a questionnaire administered to teachers working in 62 primary schools in Flanders. The qualitative data were collected through interviews with principals and ICT coordinators along with focus group interviews with teachers from three primary schools out of 62 primary schools previously surveyed. The research results showed that ICT policy planning in schools is a multi-dimensional concept and related to the school culture and climate. Thus, in order to successfully operationalise a school-based ICT policy plan, ICT vision, ICT budget, ICT infrastructure, ICT training, and ICT curriculum are the policy areas that should be addressed.

A Convergent Parallel Mixed Method Design

Vanderlinde, R., van Braak, J., & Tondeur, J. (2010). Using an online tool to support school-based ICT policy planning in primary education. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 26(5), 434-447. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2729.2010.00358.x

In the introduction part, the authors list the variables affecting the use of ICT in education described in the previous research and focuse on especially one of them: ICT policy planning. Then the authors give comprehensive information about the research context and introduce Planning for ICT in Schools (pICTos), which is an online tool developed by the authors. In order to contribute to the process of developing pICTos and examine the moderating role of it during the process, a convergent parallel mixed methods design was carried out employing a multiple case study strategy in three Flemish primary schools. The qualitative data were collected through interviews with principals and ICT coordinators and school policy document analysis. The quantitative data were collected through a teachers' questionnaire. The results revealed that pICTos provides valuable data for structuring the school's ICT policy plan and also provides for teachers a better understanding of ICT school vision.

An Explanatory Mixed Method Design

HiÅŸmanoÄŸlu, M. (2012). The impact of a curricular innovation on prospective EFL teachers' attitudes towards ICT integration into language instruction. International Journal of Instruction, 5(1), 183-202.

In the introduction part, the author explains how ICT has become an integral part of the learning and teaching process and has enhanced the quality of teaching and learning. Next the author draws attention to the significant role of teacher training institutions in equipping and preparing teachers for the classroom use of ICT. Then the author gives some specific information about the historical background, socio-political and bi-communal structure of the Cyprus and the European University of Lefke (EUL), where the research was conducted. The participants included 124 prospective EFL teachers at EUL. In order to examine the effects of the new EFL teacher training curriculum, the author employs an explanatory mixed methods research design. The quantitative data were gathered by administering a questionnaire developed by the author. In addition, the qualitative data were gathered through interviews with a voluntary group of 18 student teachers from the sample. The research findings demonstrated that there was a statistically significant difference between prospective EFL teachers' ICT attitudes before and after ICT interwoven training and including more ICT-related courses in the teacher training curriculum is significantly important for prospective teachers' positive attitudes towards ICT integration.

An Explanatory Mixed Method Design

GöktaÅŸ, Y., Yıldırım, S., & Yıldırım, Z. (2009). Main barriers and possible enablers of ICTs integration into pre-service teacher education programs. Educational Technology & Society, 12(1), 193-204.

In the introduction part, the authors explain how important the ICT integration in pre-service teachers' training and present some impediments and facilitators of ICT integration from research literature. In order to identify these impediments and facilitators of ICT integration, an explanatory mixed method research design was employed by administering a questionnaire to 53 deans in teacher training schools, 111 teacher educators, and 1,330 prospective teachers. In addition, the qualitative data were gathered through interviews with six teacher educators and six prospective teachers. The results showed that 'lack of in-service training' and 'lack of appropriate software' are the strongest impediments for integrating ICT in pre-service teacher curriculum. However, the strongest facilitators are 'having ICT plans' and 'offering in-service training'.

An Exploratory Mixed Method Design

Tondeur, J., Cooper, M., & Newhouse, C. P. (2010). From ICT coordination to ICT integration: A longitudinal case study. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 26(4), 296-306. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2729.2010.00351.x

In the introduction part, the authors reveal that there is a difference between the way teachers use ICT in the classroom and reflect their viewpoint on the ICT integration and coordination, valuing the key role of ICT coordinator at schools. Next the authors review the literature placing ICT integration in the frame of school improvement. This is a longitudinal case study utilizing an exploratory mixed method design in seven schools through the years 2005-2008. The qualitative data were collected through interviews and observation techniques. In addition, the quantitative data were gathered through questionnaires. The research results demonstrated that the ICT coordinator and school leadership have a key role to support ICT integration at schools.

An Explanatory Mixed Method Design

Almekhlafi, A. G., & Almeqdadi, F. A. (2010). Teachers' perceptions of technology integration in the United Arab Emirates school classrooms. Educational Technology & Society, 13(1), 165-175.

In the introduction part, the authors briefly presents some information about the importance of ICT integration, and then categorize the literature as ICT integration and its impacts on students and teachers; factors effecting ICT integration; teachers' perceptions of ICT integration and ICT integration barriers. The participants included 100 teachers from 2 pilot schools in Abu Dhabi. In order to measure teachers' perceptions of ICT integration, an explanatory mixed methods research design was employed. The quantitative data were gathered through a questionnaire developed by the researchers. The qualitative data were gathered through focus group interviews conducted with 20 teachers from the sample. The results indicated that teachers' ICT competency level is satisfying and they use ICT in their classroom frequently. However, female teachers use ICT more frequently in their classes than male teachers do.

An Explanatory Mixed Method Design

Gülsoy, V. G. B. (2011). Elementary Teachers' Perceptions Towards ICT Integration in Teaching and Learning Process: An Explanatory Mixed Method (Unpublished Doctoral Thesis). METU, Ankara.

In the introduction part of the dissertation, the researcher gives profound information about the history of ICT integration into education. Then the researcher reviews the literature about the factors effecting ICT integration. The dissertation study was conducted employing an explanatory mixed methods research design in order to investigate the elementary teachers' perceptions towards ICT integration in teaching and learning. The researcher developed a questionnaire and pilot tested it with a participating group of 282 teachers. The main study was carried out with 1055 classroom teachers from 90 schools in Ankara. The quantitative results indicated that teachers' pedagogical beliefs are the strongest significant predictor on teachers' perceptions towards ICT integration. Consequently, according to their pedagogical beliefs, the researcher grouped teachers as constructivists and behaviorists. The researcher interviewed with ten teachers from each group in order to investigate if there are any differences on teachers' views on ICT integration. The qualitative results showed that elementary teachers' pedagogical beliefs have an effect on their perceptions on ICT integration in teaching and learning process.

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