After School Education Center Education Essay

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Introduction

In school systems across America, children are suffering from different needs whether it is physical, psychological, or emotional needs. This paper focuses on children relating to all three terms along with facing the social crisis of deficiency while trying to survive the American life. The school system of focus is East Oktibbeha County Elementary School of Starkville Mississippi. The main focus of this paper is to present a project in order to help the school system, the town, and most of all the under privilege students. Throughout this paper there will be many oppositions and proposals in order to set up the after school center for East Oktibbeha County Elementary School. In order to create the center, we must receive grant money to help financially provide the center for young children.

Abstract

This paper is written to supply information on the needed after school education center for a low income school district in the Northeast part of Mississippi. The school district has already been taken over by the state of Mississippi due to test scores and financial need. The number of students attending the elementary school is around 350 students for the year of 2012. The school is 95 percent free or reduced lunches, graduation rate is 74 percent, and the school ranks 410th out of 500 out of elementary schools in Mississippi. However, the district has accomplished much in recent years. The school has met the goals associated with the Mississippi Subject Area Testing Program and the Mississippi Curriculum Test. These scores met the school's requirements through the No Child Left Behind program in all content areas.

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In order to reduce student failure rates and increase achievement in many areas of life, we feel the educational center will grant us the opportunity to provide these young students with a drug free, safe environment which will encourage and support students to a have a strong will to learn and boost confidence while in the learning environment. An extended school day will alleviate pressure from unwanted circumstances and help increase students physical, social, and mental well-being.

East Oktibbeha Mississippi Schools

AFTER SCHOOL EDUCATION CENTER To help better the community from the educational stand point of young children, this paper will explain, describe, justify, discuss, and provide additional information and resources on an after school education center for the elementary students attending East Oktibbeha County Elementary School. East Oktibbeha County includes grades K through 6th and has a total of 350 students, which is 46.9% less than the average total students for all Public Schools in MS. East Oktibbeha County High has a total of 21.01 full-time equivalent teachers, which is slightly less than the average for all public schools. The student to teacher ratio is 10.9:1, which is 28.3% lower than the average for all public schools. Below is a graph listing the ethnicities for the elementary.

This School

(MS) School Average

% American Indian

n/a

1%

% Asian

n/a

1%

% Hispanic

1%

3%

% Black

73%

51%

% White

n/a

44%

Unknown

26%

n/a

 

This School

(MS) School Average

The information provided above describes East Oktibbeha Country Elementary from the school static numbers showing the majority of students are of the black ethnicity. However, looking at the students on the financial scale all come from low income families. Most students come from a single family background or live with other family members. Below are bar graphs showing statistics for the county of Oktibbeha and for the state of Mississippi for the average income based of the year of 2010.

Average household size:

Oktibbeha County:

2.4 people

Mississippi:

3 people

Estimated median household income in 2010: $29,123 ($24,899 in 1999)

Oktibbeha County: $29,123

Mississippi: $36,664

Median contract rent in 2010 for apartments: $529 (lower quartile is $392, upper quartile is $684)

Oktibbeha County:

$529

Mississippi:

$467

Estimated median house or condo value in 2010: $117,514 (it was $76,300 in 2000)

Oktibbeha County:

$117,514

Mississippi:

$98,000

Lower value quartile - upper value quartile: $57,774 - $204,272

Mean price in 2010:

Detached houses: $188,002

Oktibbeha County:

$188,002

Mississippi:

$150,055

Townhouses or other attached units: $167,349

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Oktibbeha County:

$167,349

Mississippi:

$180,099

In 3-to-4-unit structures: $9,258

Oktibbeha County:

$9,258

Mississippi:

$111,160

In 5-or-more-unit structures: $1,926,638

Oktibbeha County:

$1,926,638

Mississippi:

$940,330

Mobile homes: $61,471

Oktibbeha County:

$61,471

Mississippi:

$37,232

All data was found and provided online at www.city-data.com

With the information provided above, one can see that the income and living situations of the county are below average for the state and on national scale. Therefore, these children are more than likely living in deficiency or severely low income situations. The need for this project on a scale from 1 to 10 is a 10. From a personal experience from student teaching at East Oktibbeha Country Elementary School, I cannot describe the experiences and situations that I experienced within 4 months of teaching. My class size contained 16 students. Out of the 16, 13 children came from a single parent household or lived with their grandparents or aunts and uncles. The stories and ways of life of these young children were more than moving to hear. A portion of the student's preceded to describe their daily life style on the ways of surviving. Students would talk about how when they got home they fended for themselves. Throughout these experiences and stories, keep in mind this was a fourth grade class. Therefore, the students were aged 9 to 10. One young student, whom longed for attention, explained to me that once he got home off the bus, he was home alone Monday thru Friday because his dad worked in construction and it was only them two. The nine year old student proceeded to explain to me how he cooked and washed clothes for himself. Once again, this student was in the remediation class had struggled dramatically with reading and writing skills. He described how he cooked for himself, he said, "I like chicken, so I fill a pot of water and place it on the stove. I put the chicken in the pot and then when the chicken floats I know it's done and I eat it". He said he usually had crunchy rice with his chicken. I am only guessing, but I would say it was crunchy because the struggling self providing nine year old didn't cook it long enough. To my unwilling conscious I than asked the child how he washed clothes. He explained, "I don't know what the buttons mean or say, I just put my clothes in the machine then turn the knob until it starts." I than preceded to ask if he added any soap or detergent into the machine, he replied, "No, I don't think we have any." The student told me he loved playing outside, but the rural area he lived in was prone to gang related activities. Sometimes he said it was scary so he just stayed inside his trailer. Another student who lived around the same area had tougher consequences with gang related issues. The little boy didn't attend school for 3 days in a row, which was out of line for this sort of young man. Therefore, the homeroom teacher went to the principal to check on the situation of the missing student. Come to hear, the fourth grader was attack by gang members once he got off the school bus. The little child's father was a member and apparently ran or hadn't followed through with a situation. Therefore, the other gang members took to the man's most valuable prize possession, his nine year old son. Unfortunately these are only two of the many horrendous stories of survival that I heard over 4 months. In turn, to help better and benefit the community, school, and innocent young children, we have created an after school education center to help these students with education, company, daily life skills, and most of all surrounding these young souls with warm, loving, caring hearts. We believe there is a strong need for this after school education center in the county area of Starkville. We believe the center can provide in multiple positive ways than just one.

In creating this after school education center, we believe there are multiple purposes for this project.

Project Design

Mission

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The mission of the EOC Education Center is to:

To support East Oktibbeha County Elementary School through a service that assists the progress of students throughout the school.

To create a learning environment for children that will demonstrate high standards of early childhood education and advocate ideal child development.

Project's goals and objectives

To develop early childhood acceptance, individual strength, self-image, and attitudes

To create a helpful learning environment that supports children socially, emotionally, physically, and intellectually.

To allow children to develop basic skills through individual learning styles, abilities, and educational levels.

To create an environment that allows hands on learning experience that helps make learning feel important and tangible.

How will the project's objectives be achieved?

Objectives for the education center will be achieved by using both application and knowledge. Basic to more advanced hands-on activities, guided practice, and demonstrations done by instructor's will help boost developmental stability in children and also increase cognitive reasoning when information presented by instructors are done independently. Feedback will also be a factor in the application process to solidify that tools being used to achieve objectives are going as efficiently and effectively as possible. The knowledge area will also be utilized through comprehension and recollection by using presentations, discussions by small group, self-awareness, questions with answers, and web-based instructional systems.

How will the project's objectives be evaluated?

Objectives will be evaluated through formative evaluation. Attendance will be constantly monitored to insure students are coming to the education center on a consistent basis, this will also help instructors recognize if there are any problems with children getting to and from the center and if so provisions can be made. Journals will be made for each student and instructor. These journals will be reviewed by level; student journals will be reviewed by instructors and instructor journals will be reviewed by one of the co-directors. These journals will help with the improvement of the entire program. Student journals will help instructors understand where improvements can be made on an individual class basis, while instructor journals will help co-directors understand where improvements can be made for the entire program. Conducting quizzes will evaluate how much each student is learning in the classes at the educational center. Each quiz will help instructors understand what level the student is on and where the most improvement is needed. Every class will also have a portfolio. The portfolio will consist of lesson plans, quizzes, and journals. This information will be given to one of the co-director for review to insure classes are consistently helping the students to improve in the class environment. If deficiency still remains over time corrective actions will be taken.

How will the project's activities be monitored?

The projects activities will be monitored through reports.

Data Collection

To collect data necessary for the project we will do a community assessment. The assessment will help with identifying local assents as well as areas of problem. To make sure this assessment is precise, extensive, and beneficial we will partner with administrators, parents, teachers, and other community members. Information projected in this assessment will be primarily focused on economic conditions, school success, and family issues.

Economic conditions evaluated include:

Poverty rates

Number of students receiving free or reduced-price lunches

Housing mobility rates

School Success Evaluated includes:

Student mobility rates

Grade-retention rates

Measurement of academic achievement in challenging subject matter

Family Issues Evaluated includes:

Number of foster care placements

Number of families on child care waiting list

Number of new and reopened Aid to Families with Dependent Children cases

Source: http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/envrnmnt/css/ppt/chap2.htm

The information used will come primarily from pre-existing information collected by agencies, in the Oktibbeha area, also fresh information from community members and families will be collected to get a thorough insight of the community so this project can be geared in the best direction for the needs of the children. Information collected from community members and families will be gained through interviews and surveys. The data collected will take four to six weeks to gather and analyze.

General Project Format

The educational center is designed to address the needs of underprivileged children in the Oktibbeha area. This project will have activities appropriate for young children, with an assortment of subjects that address the physical and mental needs of our students. The educational center will support teachers in the classroom by helping students improve in areas considered difficult while in their primary learning environment. The educational center will provide services to approximately 300 students daily throughout the course of the year.

While the primary objective is to increase achievement in student academic areas, the educational center will also provide students with a sanctuary that will increase knowledge in areas that are non-academic. These areas include nutrition and health, and social development. These included areas will help students outside of the learning environment and give those in at risk areas the knowledge and confidence to say no when in the face of a bad situation.

Daily student programs and services will be administered Monday through Friday from 2:00-6:30 PM. These services will be presented on handouts for students in the program; all of the programs and services that will be provided are outlined and explained in more detail below in the activities section.

Saturday programs and services will also be available. These programs will be designed for up to 100 students, operation hours will be from 9:00 - 12:45 each Saturday. The points of focus for the Saturday schedule will be the improvement of learning strategies, social activities and development, technology exploration, and recreational activities.

Activities

Educational Activities will be administered by the program directors, employed teachers, and volunteers. Activities at the educational center will be centered on age and grade levels. The activities included will be broken down into multiple groups and will be classified as clubs. Naming the individual groups clubs will help students in feeling they have a sense of belonging to a group and this will impact them socially also. The clubs involved will include the homework, tutoring, technology, nutrition and health, social development clubs. The homework club will provide students with a structured environment and allow them to complete homework with assistance if needed. The tutoring club will be formatted in individual or small group learning environment, to help students in need of remediation. Both the homework and tutoring clubs will be in all areas of study within the kindergarten to 6th grade levels. The technology club is designed teach students about technology and inspire them to use creative thinking to enhance their abilities through hands-on technology programs. The nutrition and health club will teach students about healthy eating and provide organized recreational activities to help students stay active and healthy. The social development club promotes and provides a healthy atmosphere to help students grow socially so they will learn and be able to fit into social situations comfortably.

Since school lunch is so early in the day for these young students the educational center will provide a daily free nutritional snack. Without this students will be more irritable, their ability to learn will be affected, and they will be less enthusiastic and have difficulty completely participating in the activities at the center. To meet USDA nutritional guidelines, all meals will include:

1 serving of milk

2 servings of fruits and/ or vegetables

1 serving of grains

1 serving of protein

Meals served will be hot or cold and will include

DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES for each co-director

1. Program Implementation and Infrastructure

• Plan, coordinate and implement seasonal activities for children and adults with disability

• Establish policies, procedures and safety guidelines for all programs

• Purchase, maintain and inventory all program equipment

• Evaluate programs and provide feedback as needed

• Supervise provision of safety and in-service meetings

• Report and discuss activity schedule plans with Executive Director

• Coordinate necessary equipment procurement and maintenance

• Provide on-site surveys and review of programs

• Attend necessary workshops, events and training seminars

• Communicate policy and information to program staff

• Communicate program status with Executive Director on weekly basis

2. Personnel

• Recruit, hire, and provide training and supervision of instructors and volunteers

• Ensure appropriate instructor and volunteer training

• Provide written evaluation of program staff at the completion of, or during, each program

• Maintain open communication lines among instructors, volunteers and participants

• Supervise Volunteer/Outreach Coordinator's documentation of volunteers

• Schedule staff and volunteers to ensure safe and competent delivery of services

3. Public Relations

• Assist Volunteer/Outreach Coordinator with program promotion

• Provide public presentations and demonstrations as needed

• Assist with fund raising events

• Contribute to the production of newsletter articles and other promotional materials

• Attend and/or present at relevant trade shows, volunteer fairs and organizations

4. Administration

• Assist with office supervision and management

• Interface with, and cultivate relations with, professional and community partners

• Assist with program budget development

• Maintain program expenditures within budgeted parameters

• Apprise Executive Director of program and project status

• Assume duties as directed during Executive Director's absence

How will the after school program be financed

Public Funding

The primary revenue source for the EOC elementary school will be public funding from the federal, state, and local levels of government.

Public funding from federal, state, and local governments is the primary revenue source for after-school programs serving less affluent children. In addition to the federal CDCTC, a variety of federal funding sources are available to help defray child care costs for low- and moderate-income families and to establish and build after-school programs and systems.  These funds are often combined with state, local, and private funds in efforts to subsidize child care for low-income families and to increase the supply and quality of programs.

Federal Funding

A large number of federal funding sources can be used to support after-school programs. Over 100 federal programs that potentially can be tapped to fund out-of-school time programs-including after-school programs-and community schools have been identified in a recent publication titled Finding Funding: A Guide to Federal Sources for Out-of-School Time and Community School Initiatives.25 These include programs targeted directly to child care services, out-of-school time programs, or community schools; broad entitlement or block grant programs with some flexibility; and a large number of discretionary programs that can provide funding for specific purposes such as violence prevention or drug abuse prevention among youth.

There are several major federal programs that directly, although not exclusively, support after-school programs:

21st Century Community Learning Centers.   A rapidly growing source of federal funding for after-school programs is the U.S. Department of Education's 21st Century Community Learning Centers program.  The program was funded at $40 million in 1998, $200 million in 1999, and $453.71 million in 2000.  The purpose of the funding (called the "absolute priority" in federal parlance) is to provide expanded learning opportunities for children in order to improve academic achievement (particularly standardized test scores) and to reduce drug use and violence.  Several dimensions of this funding stream are relevant to using these funds to support after-school programs.  First, schools must be the grant recipient, but they can subcontract some or all direct services to community-based agencies.26 Second, after-school programs are not the only intended beneficiaries of these funds.  Among the 13 different activities from which schools and school systems can choose to shape their programs are senior citizen programs, expanded library service hours, parent education, and employment counseling, training, and job placement.  Finally, grants under this program are short-term (three years), so grantees will need to replace these funds in order to sustain their programs.

The Child Care and Development Fund (also known as the Child Care and Development Block Grant). Federal funding under this block grant program was $3.5 billion in fiscal year 2000.  Most of this money is used to provide subsidies to help low-income working families access childcare.  Federal funds from the Child Care Bureau of the Department of Health and Human Services are administered by state agencies (usually human service, social service, or child welfare agencies), which combine the funds with their own to create different kinds of programs.   Subsidies are distributed through vouchers to families or slots funded by contract with licensed providers.27  Some states and localities subsidize a good deal of after-school program provision, some very little.  It is estimated that about 30 percent of all children subsidized through CCDF are school-aged.28   This percentage reflects only a modest proportion of all low-income children who participate in after-school programs or who are eligible to receive subsidies.29   In addition to subsidizing direct services, CCDF regulations also provide for three earmarks of funds that can be used by states to improve systems of school-age care.   First, four percent of CCDF funds must support activities to improve the quality of care (also referred to as the "quality set-aside"), including after-school care. Second, $172.7 million (above the 4 percent set-aside) is earmarked for quality expansion activities or for availability activities that states were unable to fund in the past.   Third, $19.1 million is earmarked for childcare resource and referral and school-age child care activities.

Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF).  While this program was not established to support after-school programs, its significance as a funding source cannot be overlooked.  States have the option of spending TANF funds directly on various forms of assistance, which may include after-school programs, or transferring up to 30 percent of their grants to their ChildCare and Development Block  Grant or the Title XX Social Services Block Grant.30   To give some sense of the magnitude of these dollars, in FY98, $652 million was transferred from TANF to CCDF.  (It is not clear what proportion of this was spent on after-school programs.)  Unfortunately, information on how much funding is being spent directly from TANF on out-of-school time is not available.  A growing number of states also are choosing to use some or all of their unspent TANF funding from previous years to support programs for children and youth.

The Child and Adult Care Food Program.   This federal program provides funding for meals, snacks, and nutrition education provided by childcare programs, including after-school programs, operating in low-income neighborhoods.  Although theoretically available for adult as well as children's programs, almost all of the $1.6 billion spent by the program each year goes to children's programs.  It is not known how much of that goes to after-school programs.  Eligible programs include those where 50 percent or more of children in their school or service area certified for free or reduced lunch; programs do not need to provide evidence that individual participating children would be eligible for free or reduced lunch.  After-school programs also do not need to be licensed to participate in this program when they are license-exempt. 31

In addition to the programs targeted fairly directly at child care or after-school programs, there are a number of major federal entitlement and block grant programs whose purposes are broad or flexible enough to provide funding for these programs.  Those programs that could potentially be used to help fund after-school programs are listed below:32

Medicaid.  With over $100 billion annually in federal matching payments, Medicaid provides financial assistance to states for medical assistance payments and administrative expenses made on behalf of low-income children and adults who meet income, resource, and categorical eligibility requirements. States have flexibility in designing and operating their programs within federal guidelines.

Title I Grants to Local Education Agencies.   This program helps local education agencies and schools improve results for children who are failing and those most at risk of failing, in order to meet the state's academic standards.  The use of funds can vary broadly to address student needs.  Funding for FY2000 is estimated at $6.8 billion.

Title IV-E Foster Care.  This program provides funds to states to assist with the costs of foster care maintenance, which may include child care and other goods and services, for eligible children. It also pays for administrative and training costs under the program.  Estimated FY2000 funding for this program is $4.5 billion.

Community Development Block Grants.   This program provides states and localities over $4 billion in grants to undertake a wide variety of activities directed towards neighborhood revitalization, economic development, or provision of improved community facilities and services, including child care.

Social Services Block Grant.  This block grant will provide states an estimated $1.8 billion in FY 2000 to be used on a range of social services such as child care, substance abuse prevention, information and referral services, counseling, and others.  Funds must be directed to one of five goals specified in federal law.

Community Services Block Grants.   Funded at about $0.5 billion, this program helps states provide services and activities that alleviate poverty; assist families and individuals to achieve self-sufficiency; address needs of youth in low-income communities; and improve service systems.

Child Welfare Services, Title IV-B. This program provides approximately $0.3 billion to states for a range of child welfare activities that enable children to remain in their own homes or provide alternative placement for them.

Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention - (Title V) Block Grants.  This program provides grants to states to improve their juvenile delinquency prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation programs and juvenile justice systems.  The program is funded at around $0.1 billion.

Title IV-E Independent Living.   Grants under this program help states establish and carry out programs to assist youth in foster care make the transition to independent living.  The program is funded at approximately $70 million.

It is important to keep in mind that, while these funding sources can help support after-school activities focused on providing a broad range of services and supports to children and families, they make only a small dent in the documented demand for care under current funding levels and with current funding priorities.  Nevertheless, many states and communities have developed successful strategies for leveraging the two entitlement programs-Medicaid and Title IV-E (Foster Care)-to pay for portions of the administrative costs, staff training, and specific program activities associated with providing care and related services for specific populations.

Block grants are distributed by the federal government to the states for use on broadly defined purposes.  While these sources may be flexible enough to provide funding for after-school programs, each nonetheless comes with certain strings that complicate their use.  For instance, superficially, Title I appears to be an excellent potential funding source.  But operating after-school programs usually requires additional local funding, which has proved a disincentive for some school districts.  School-age care also has to compete for Title I money with other possible supplementary approaches to improving poor children's school success, including nutrition and preschool programs.  Indeed, the major difficulty for after-school programs in accessing such funds is likely to be competition with other agencies or programs that may be long-standing recipients of the grants.

Finally, there are a large number of federal discretionary grant or loan programs administered by a variety of agencies that provide funding for specific purposes that after-school programs may be able to use to help support their activities. Examples include programs aimed at preventing school violence or drug abuse prevention (e.g., Weed and Seed, Safe Start, Drug-Free Prevention Communities Support Program); encouraging community service volunteers (Americorps, VISTA); fostering positive youth development (4-H, TRIO, and the Adolescent Family Life programs); and supporting community development (Empowerment Zone funds, Department of Housing and Urban Development funds).33

State Funding

States around the country are beginning to invest in out-of-school time programs and services for a variety of purposes.  Some of these investments focus directly on improving the quality, supply, or access to after-school programs.  Other states are investing in after-school programs as a way of enhancing academic performance.  Not surprisingly, the varying purposes of the state programs directly affect the approaches that states are using to meet their goals.   The following examples demonstrate the range of strategies being employed.

Improving quality.  Some states are investing in efforts to improve quality by focusing on improving the skills of providers.   For example, Alabama provides funds for technical assistance for school-based providers.  Washington state created the State Training and Registry System (STARS) that took effect on January 1, 1999.  STARS requires directors and lead teachers at licensed school-age care programs to attend 20 hours of basic training and 10 hours of annual continuing education.

Improving access.  Several states are investing in efforts to improve access to after-school programs, through the use of resource and referral agencies and by expanding the use of subsidies.  For example, Massachusetts is considering legislation to expand eligibility for state childcare subsidies from ages 12 to 14.  In addition, a few states are structuring programs specifically to serve at-risk populations of children.  For instance, in Kentucky, some of the funding for the statewide network of Family Resource and Youth Centers, based in schools serving "high risk" children, is used for after-school activity.

Expanding supply.  More commonly, states are investing in efforts to expand the supply of after-school programs, typically through grants programs to defray start-up costs.  Many of these states provide funding only for school-based programs (some of which are operated by schools and others by community-based organizations).  California recently enacted the After-School Learning and Safe Neighborhoods Partnerships program, one of the largest state commitments to out-of-school time programs.  The Partnerships program will provide $50 million in grants to develop after-school programs in elementary, middle, and junior high schools.   Indiana provides $6 million in grants for the Safe Haven Schools program, which operates in 30 school systems.  South Dakota provides Out-of-School Time grants to assist school-based before- and after-school programs with start-up costs.  The state Department of Social Services also provides ongoing technical assistance and support to grantees.

Improving academic performance.   Improving students' academic performance by using after-school programs for remediation is the focus of another set of state-supported after-school initiatives.   For example, the Massachusetts Department of Education recently earmarked $20 million for academic improvement activities that will include after-school programs targeted to children who failed the state's standardized test.  Delaware is also earmarking $10.4 million-about $100 per student-in its fiscal 2000 budget for the Extra Time Program, which provides additional instructional time for low-achieving students.

State funds that support such after-school initiatives flow through a variety of different state and local agencies, including education, health, human and social services, youth development, juvenile justice, and parks and recreation.  These initiatives are supported with general funds and, occasionally, earmarked funds from specific revenue sources (such as tobacco taxes or fees) or funding mechanisms (such as trust funds or special taxing districts). 34

Despite states' increasing attention to investing in out-of-school time programs, recent state investments tend to be relatively small in scope and often limited in time.  For example, many state programs provide short-term grants to providers, but are not a source of ongoing support.35 State tobacco settlement funds may provide a boost in state support for after-school programs in the future.  A number of states have considered or passed legislation to allocate all or a portion of their tobacco settlement revenue to after-school programs or other programs for children.36 For example, Kansas will deposit all funds received from the settlement into the Kansas Endowment for Youth Fund.  Interest revenue from the endowment will provide an ongoing source of support for programs (potentially including after-school programs) that contribute to children's physical and mental health, welfare, safety, and overall well-being.  New Mexico also passed legislation that allocates some of its tobacco settlement funds to school-based programs for children and youth, including school-based after-school programs.37

Local Funding

Local governments are an important source of innovation in financing programs and services for school-age children.  Recent data show that municipalities have become increasingly active in supporting after-school programs.  According to a 1995 survey of municipal officials conducted by the National League of Cities, forty-nine percent of respondents provide or fund direct services for before- and after-school programs, thirty-three percent have staff or departments responsible for before- and after-school programs, and 20 percent have a commission or task force to address these programs.38

Most local governments finance programs for school-age children through general funds.  The largest portions of municipal and/or county funds that are used to support after-school programs and services flow through human service departments, park districts, and city school systems.  These sources fund some after-school programming, either out of their operating budgets or through special authorizations.  Such funding is sometimes used for general-purpose after-school programs and sometimes must be used for specific policy purposes.  The Chicago Park District, for instance, runs an after-school program called "Park Kids," with 70 sites open to all children who wish to enroll.  Two-thirds of the $3.8-million annual budget comes from the park district, and one-third from the public schools, which expect an hour a day of homework help and academics in the program.   In addition, the Chicago Board of Education funds a citywide after-school program called the Lighthouse Program, focused largely on academic remediation for children who are not doing well in school.  In Boston, the police department provides grants for arts staffing, and other city funds are used to provide subsidies for transporting children to cultural activities through a program called PASS.

Some counties and cities have created special funding streams for children's services, including out-of-school time programs, through guaranteed expenditure minimums, special tax levies, fees, or special taxing districts (local units of government authorized by voters to raise money through levies).39   Examples include the following:

In Oakland, Measure K requires the city to set aside 2.5 percent of unrestricted general revenues in a fund for programs directly serving children and youth.  In Fiscal Year 1998, Measure K generated $5.2 million.   During the first grant period, the city council mandated that $1 million of these funds be set-aside for special youth development grants.

Seattle voters approved the Families and Education Levy in 1990 and again in 1997.  This levy generated $10 million in 1997.   Funds are used to support out-of-school time programs, as well as early childhood development, school-based student and family services, and comprehensive student health services.

Six counties in Florida have created special taxing districts that fund children's services, with Pinellas County being the oldest.  The district board allocates the property tax revenues to particular purposes or programs.  For example, nineteen percent of revenues in Palm Beach County are allocated to out-of-school time activities for children ages six through twelve.

Minnesota has a law that allows local school districts to levy local property taxes to ensure that schools running after-school programs have adequate resources to serve children with disabilities (e.g., transportation, and interpreters for hearing-impaired children).

Private Funding

For many after-school programs, and particularly for those serving lower-income children, contributions from private sources are a significant source of revenue.  National foundations currently sponsor a number of initiatives that support after-school programming directly or indirectly, and a growing number of community foundations also provide some funding for after-school programs.   Businesses and individuals also provide important resources.

Funding from private sources supports program start-ups, as well as ongoing operations.  For instance, a portion of the Wallace-Reader's Digest Funds MOST grants to Boston, Chicago, and Seattle has been used for program start-ups, and the church-based School-Age Ministry of Philadelphia's Northwest Interfaith Movement also provides some funds to local churches for program start-ups.  United Ways are another important source of ongoing core operating support for after-school programs in many communities.  For instance, several local United Ways recently made long-term commitments to support Bridges to Success community-schools programs, which provide after-school programs as well as a range of other services to the school community.

A small percentage of businesses around the country subsidize after-school programs for children of their employees, and a few corporations also provide small grants to after-school programs in low-income neighborhoods.  Likewise, a small amount of union funds may go to after-school programs.  In New York City, Local 1199 of the National Health and Human Service Employees Union administers funds set aside by employers (as part of the collective bargaining process) as seen fit at each work-site by a committee.  A portion of those funds supports after-school programs.

In many communities, there are also local "specifically directed" private funding sources supporting after-school programs.  For instance, the Ronald McDonald Foundation provides a $4-million grant to the Chicago public schools for after-school remediation and social activities in schools on probation due to low test scores.  Likewise, the City Mission Society in Boston provides funding to one program serving low-income children in the Dudley Street neighborhood to take them out of the city during the summer.  And last but not least, many after-school programs rely on traditional fundraisers (e.g., bake sales and raffles) to help support their programs.

In-Kind Contributions

Many after-school programs and most programs serving low-income children are subsidized (in some cases heavily subsidized) through in-kind contributions.  Programs may rent space at below-market rates or use it completely free of charge, pay less than their share of utilities, and/or use volunteers or work-study students.  Church-run programs are particularly likely to be subsidized with financial and human resources from their congregations.  In large multi-service agencies, after-school programs are sometimes subsidized out of the revenue from programs that are more generously funded.  A few agencies (including YMCAs and YWCAs) subsidize services to low-income children through fees paid by more advantaged families.   Subsidies also come in the form of free or minimum-cost activities provided by other institutions.  For instance, a science museum may have a program that sends staff and exhibit or "experiment" materials out to after-school programs, or a dance company or sports team may provide free tickets to an event.40  One childcare study estimated that in-kind contributions accounted for 25 percent of total costs.  The percentage of in-kind funds for after-school programs is likely even higher.41

How will I implement the after school programs; recruitment of teachers, purchase of equipment, technologies and other materials needed

Discuss the involvement of the school where these after school programs will be

Implemented

Provide a timeline for the start and completion of the after school prgrams

Discuss the responsibilities for each co-director

Discuss how you will evaluate the after school programs; the paremeters that will measure success or otherwise.

The school could be the review board for the implementation of the program.