Afghanistan is one of the worst educational records in entire world, due to the low school attendance rate and huge amount of illiterate Afghanistan people. According to universal declaration of human right, everyone has right to education freely and elementary education is compulsory for everyone  . Furthermore, it is a high relate problem in the continuity development of Afghanistan, since human's personality can been effectively developed and to strengthening the sense of human rights and respect. In this project, I will analysis the historically accomplishments and the facing challenges of Afghanistan's education system. Passing through the Taleban government's harsh govern, the Soviet war and the civil war, the education scheme had been totally destroyed and a completely disaster of all Afghanistan people. Not only the Afghanistan education, there has a huge gap between female and male - gender discrimination, although there has not visible rules or regulations to forbid young girls study, lower than 40% of girls enrolled in primary school currently  . Last not least, I will explore the fundamental education mishap via the gaps and challenges mention above, follow by the synthesize opinions.
Ministry of education of Islamic Republic of Afghanistan deems that education is a basement for stability, reconstruction and evolution with the war-ravaged country  . In fact, Afghanistan education was very highly regarded before the Former Soviet Union forces entered Afghanistan in 1979, afterwards its states starting decline. Moreover, Taleban inflict restrictions the Afghan education and emphasised the religion education, to let the Afghanistan back to older mullahs' education system, teaching the religious precepts of Koran, reading and writing and so on. In spite of the turbulence of Afghanistan has been stable gradually, the fundamental issues of education do exist unchangeably. Regarding on different aspects within Afghanistan, gaps identified and analysed concluded four topical areas:
Judicature and politics
The quality of education
Sustainability of development and amendment
John Rawls  claims that each person has equivalent claim to a fully adequate scheme of basic rights and liberties. Everyone has freedom to get information, and no one can forbid the opportunities of study. In addition, the improvement of education systems actually can drive the sense of human right development and national prosperities' empowerment.
In my observation, the human rights development record is dark with the gender discrimination field and historical culture background both lead the Afghanistan to low education expansion currently. After the war baptism, people in Afghanistan are fear to let children study in school since threats and attacks by suspected Taleban supporters. Via the internet research and books of John Rawls, it clearly for us to categories the human rights problem in Afghanistan. According to the database of Ministry of Education in Islamic Republic of Afghanistan and some organization, such as United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), it supports our study case and assists our analysis in civil equality. On the other hand, I will relate other trustable research in order to clarify and provide insight into specific conversations. The research paper is for academic purpose only, and it is not to provide any substantial stance to eliminate the historical, complicate challenges, but to discuss about the sensitive topic.
The project provides a snap shot to learning the accomplishments in wide variety areas of education in Afghanistan, and has a dig at emphasize some challenges of serious consequences and hence coming out recommendations for improve the overall national power and human sense in equal opportunities. In my consideration, challenges or gaps caused by the uncertain environment and the crucial reasons are mainly focus on the four fields, such as historical culture background, the current social environment, the communication gap, the legal structure and policy etc. For guiding we to the centre circumstances and bring ourselves into the problem of human rights. Justice is fairness since it shows how a society organizing in fair and equitably and "meets the principles of free and equal, person assent to under circumstances what are fair situation".  Until recently, female in Afghanistan were denied the right to study in school, and lower than half girls are in educated. The situational approach helps me to explore in depth with the Afghanistan education development.
Since the research project is an excited task for me, and I have decided carefully with my research topic. Also, I am an outsider might limited me in the revealed period. To process and handle the information learning in course, and develop to the related case, surprisingly it's a great chance to finish an individual task and getting experience in near future's carrier. But, the limitation face is it can't only rely on resource in library's database, the internet search can provide a variety selection and official search which can help for our own project.
The major purpose this paper concerned is not shows the concrete prescriptions to solve the complex issues, but invite discussion about this neglected topic.
Critical educational challenges in Afghanistan:
In facts, there are still a numerous challenges ruin millions of Afghanistan adults and children the opportunity had quality, systematic education. Obvious constraints like insurgency attacks, Taliban threats, refugee or returnee states factors, have continually cause the low level of education in Afghanistan. Moreover, it highly related to the legal framework of Afghanistan, educational quality, opportunity to admission and the sustainability of development and amendment. In other words, it has many different aspects to cause these four large issues in Afghanistan's education system. Below I will separately discuss the current states of them and the major gaps in education system.
Judicature and politics:
Past-to-current judicature and politics environment
Education in Afghanistan was not significantly low from past time; King Zahir Shah (from 1933 to 1973) had paid a large effort in education improvement, building the primary schools available for 12 years below children, further developing the secondary school and continue expanding the national university system. Afterwards, since the Sovient invasion war begins at 1979, this war was virtually damaged the whole Afghanistan education system.  Teachers in this country gradually fled Afghanistan during the Sovient's occupation and the subsequent civil war. In addition, Taliban regime controls the Afghanistan political systems after the war, and starting forbidden the females' education in 1996 and set rule to restrict the education systems and information. Assist by American army, Taliban regime system collapsed in 2001, the New interim government tried to reconstruct the education system and restore the school. But the Taliban threat remain unchanged for female education, they attack the female teachers and students in school and control some schools to forbidden female study right. And the threat was continue now since the vicious power cannot stop and many leaders of Taliban still controlling the Taliban proponents activities.
According to the ministry of education in Afghanistan constitution, the education is important their country and play a role as basic right for all people of study and they has the obligation to provide the free, safety education. Furthermore, the current educational systems' state that the education services for all girls and boys from grade 1 to 9 is compulsory.  On the other hand, the education institution expected that, the teachers will plan to be increased by 50%, 70% will been passed national competency test, the new net primary grade enrolment rate for males and females will more than 75% and 60%.  The new government and their regulations were trying to increase the equal right for female children to study instead of the Taliban regime's forbidden restrictions. It is a positive and great method to building the equality social environment for Afghanistan.
challenge of Judicature and politics environment
In my analysis, although the government has great confidents to achieve the goal of Afghanistan education development, the invisible or visible insurgent attacks and threats by Taliban insurgents are still existed and continue affect children to access school. In other words, it has not any policy to protect children from the emergency situation in Afghanistan. Around 5 million children have not access school or quit education under the circumstances forced.  Another critical point is, no classify Judicature and politics arrangements being there to guarantee the meaningful capacity improvement and the safety of the institution-building development and education activities. Not only the existed and more build schools improve the access rate of education, but they need the safe schools and education environment to study.
In fact, though 2002 thousands of teachers were recruited for providing education to a huge number of children, unfortunately most of them were not qualified for the test of educational services; furthermore, female teachers were distributed to remote, rural area of Afghanistan to served or even unserved to education system. It is not sufficient source of teachers in Afghanistan to provide standardization education, at the same time textbooks and teaching materials in children's hands were not enough and they need to share the materials all the time. In addition, the majority of children in around 11 thousands of schools still have the problem of insufficient teaching materials and textbooks. It intensively impacts the educational quality for both children and teachers.
The current situation of quality of education
Recently, the Afghanistan government's education department has paid efforts in reforming the existing education quality, to enhance teachers' ability and profession, also produce more qualified teachers inject to educational serves. Hence, a district teacher training program (DT3- national program on In-service teacher Training, NPITT) in order to improve the profession and become a training provider to support the administrators and teachers in running education serves.
TTCs teacher training colleges was a underway course for students to become a qualify teachers, which increase the production of teachers and enhance the existing teachers. Two systems provide the incentive program for students finish their study and give an opportunity to teach after the graduation. Since 2003, a new curriculum for education has been implemented for primary level education. This new curriculum developing the systematic and generalization for education, it can help the irregular education quality to improve the overall performance of the teachers.
Issues to develop quality education
Teachers related issues
Over eight thousands teachers teaching in approximately 300 schools were damaged or closed down because of insurgencies and Taliban related threat, teachers cannot reached and be provided the professional or training development support. Teachers and supporters were faced with difficult challenges to bring them to safer places from the centres of the provinces. Furthermore, there were over 4000 teachers in insecure districts have not be registered and facing the dangerous teaching environment. Due to fear of insurgents and threats, teachers not come to centre of province in reduce the risk being killed for participating the education institute's registration and assessment programs.
Disaster or threat management challenges
On the other hand, teachers and school staffs have no special training or solution to dealing with the threat and insurgency attacks. There were thousands of risky invisible mines and bombs lurked to cause an unrecoverable disaster to schools and people. Even the natural disasters or incidents, they need training for handle these kinds of situation to keep their personal safety and security. Crisis education is deficient in both teachers' training programs and the schools' curriculum.
Although there was continuity threat and suffered from extreme violence and aggressions, it have no policy or programs focus about the psychosocial affect and have not specific training systems to handle this problem. Furthermore, many war-traumatized individuals and emotionally affected people were waiting support and orientation within the education system. Only small group of organizations provided the training and courses to cope the psychosocial problem, this non-stop issue still exposed with insurgency attacks or threat. Many teachers and students are afraid to have lectures in schools because of the personal unsafety. Thus, to detect, solve and cure this problem face a tough task for education staffs and education development.
Accomplishments of education opportunities
Since 2001, the schools' enrolment rate increased from 900 thousand to over 6 million in 2008 about three-five percentage of girls involved the education systems. Furthermore, most of Afghanistan institutions of education were damaged or ruin during the Taliban and the Soviet Union's governance, from year 1978 to year 2001. Lucky, via the support by other countries like German and America, around four thousands of schools were rebuild and wait to reconstructed by the Afghanistan government. It is not enough for Afghanistan to rebuild the tangible education system, but also need to provide the taught opportunities for elder teenagers.
As result, in 2003 an accelerated learning program was established to help children to return schools, this new system is target to the problem of the children to attend class. For example, the village schools and the non-safety schools, to transfer the students into the closer and safety schools to study. The learning environment is improved, and accelerates the schools' reconstruction, and initiates the continually medium participation in the systems of education. Schools management committees (SHURA) is a system which provide a suggestion and as a role of assistants for helping the schools\ facilities development and recondition, to meet the basic requirements to conduct a normal education events. As a facilitate partner between the institutes and the organizations to make children have a better learning environment and improve the school administration's accountability and transparently.
Challenges of education opportunity
As I mentions before, the security issue is a major challenges for both students and teachers to enter schools and conduct the education. Although in 2006 each province has hired at least one religious leader and security advisor to protect and solve the security problem, it is still not safe enough since teachers and pupils to go school attack by Taliban's upholders without stop. And the new government need to maintain the public safety and security in order to eliminate the risky road to schools.
Currently, the enrolment rate of girls in primary schools is 35% which is not balance and relevant for the whole population. Girls had educated is always lower than the boys, the reason for girls cannot been educated is cause by:
In some far away countries, the schools are distance for students
The traditional custom and cultural conflict for female education
Less female teacher is remote areas, and less female educational schools
Nevertheless, around 29 percentages of female teachers are teaching in major urban cities, and 55 percentages of female teachers are stay in five big urban centres like Baghlan, Kabul and Balkh and so on. And 90% of 364 districts do not have female schools and 13% (48 out of 364) do not have female teacher inside schools. It is a worried number for female education development, and it could be a difficult for Afghanistan faced the long last gender equality problem.
Sustainability of development and amendment
The current Afghanistan is lack of resource and provisions for improved capacity and makes education system more systematic and complex so that the recovery action can be sustain and conduct continuity.
Although both the Islamic country, there are differently treated in gender equality between Iraq and Afghanistan. Taliban and the current theocratic Iranian regime are also caesaropapism countries, but Taliban develop the policy with conservative Pashtun custom.
Since the research in my project is to consider the education systems capacity of Afghanistan, below is some assumption according to my case. First of all, Afghanistan education system lacks a safety location due to the threat of suspense of Taliban and the unsafe environment with the unstable country. Through U.S. government assist the reconstruction of Afghanistan, there has a huge number of active Taliban soldiers ready to attack any time. And the task of U.S. army is to protect the public safety and eliminate remain Taliban supporters. Unfortunately, the soldiers on duty in Afghanistan are not enough to defend the threat of Taliban and also to maintain the peace environment of Afghanistan. Furthermore, power of army cannot protect the remote village and everyone's safety. According to BBC world service, there were still many of instable incidents inside the Afghanistan and the gender inequality was invisibly, tacitly agreed by the public and the society.
In July 2004, three years after the collapse of notorious, harsh Taliban regime in Afghanistan, a Hong Kong correspondent on a bus going to Kandahar, a city in Afghanistan. The bus stopped in a desolate desert every hour, male passengers rush to get off the bus to stretch, smoke, urine and praying, but women wear Burqa and stay at back and can't do anything. Women on the bus wear a traditional loose garment to hiding their whole body in public; they can't take it off whenever one woman caught a fever or need a deep breath or go toilet. The correspondent notices a girl with Burqa seems very exhausted and cough seriously, woman need to tolerate until they arrive the destination. Actually, it is a deep contrast between the self-think devout Islamic men and a losing liberty and unequal-treat women. Furthermore, it is still high gender gap within Afghanistan and many restrictions or customs existed to lower the female's value and state, the unfair situation deeply affects the Afghanistan society equality.
Though Iraq similarly have policy to resist the gender equality, Iraq also focus on the girls' education development, to improve the state of woman and decrease the illiteracy rate of female. That's the major different between the two Islamic countries, women in Iraq gradually become equal state with men and tried to fight for their equal human rights. When male priests quote the classics to support gender discrimination, the most powerful weapon to refute is female Muslim use classic to against the unequal situation. The determination of equality and conservative is based on the educational level and economic development. To regain the dignity of the Muslim women, things they need not the American strong army, is the school and education. People in Afghanistan need to positively face up this long term problem and solve it immediately in order to improve the women social stages and it is a trend for these Islamic countries need to do, gender equality can well balance the conflict between female and male, also can improve the country power by the both powerful female and male.
Susan Wardak, Dr. Michael Hirth, "Bridging the gaps: Risk reduction, relief and recovery",
31 March-2 April, 2009,
Retrieved from: Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, ministry of Education.
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, "Education in Afghanistan", 11 November, 2010
Retrieved from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Education_in_Afghanistan
Abdullah Qazi, "Afghanistan's education", April 10, 2008 Last updated August 29, 2010
Retrieved from: http://www.afghan-web.com/education/
BBC world services, "I have a right toâ€¦", "right to education", 2006
Retrieved from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/people/features/ihavearightto/four_b/casestudy_art26.shtml
Morten Sigsgaard, education in emergencies and reconstruction, "education and fragility in Afghanistan: a situational analysis", 2009
Retrieved from: http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/RWFiles2009.nsf/FilesByRWDocUnidFilename/SNAA-7UF8DF-full_report.pdf/$File/full_report.pdf
United Nations website, "The universal Declaration of human rights", from 1948
Retrieved from: http://www.un.org/en/documents/udhr/index.shtml