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This assignment is about Deming's 14 philosophies and how it can be applied in academic environment and how it can help improve lecturers teaching capabilities and also students learning experience. Overall classroom performance can be improved when all the 14 philosophies is applied. The explanation of the Deming's 14 philosophies is purely based on research and facts and is explained using own words.
Originally Deming's 14 philosophies is designed to be applied in business organisations but after some research it is proven that all those 14 philosophies can also be applied in academic environment like universities and colleges. The result will be the transformation in the institution where the both employees like lecturers and students will be improved.
There are some limitations faced while doing the assignment since the total word count is limited to 2000 words. So, all the 14 philosophies definition are not explained well but more focused on how the philosophies can be applied in academic environment.
William Edwards Deming (October 14, 1900 - December 20, 1993) known as a person who revived the industrial production of Japan's afterÂ Second World War and developed the reputation for supremely high- quality manufacturing. He is considered to be the Father of Modern Quality in the field of total quality management, with his famous Deming 14 points'Â philosophy. He says that in order for an organization to achieve the highest level of productivity, an organization not only need to adhere to a good system and philosophy, but also need to adopt fresh new way in its operation.
DemingÂ philosophyÂ canÂ beÂ appliedÂ virtuallyÂ inÂ anyÂ industryÂ orÂ any organization, and Ford Automotive becomes his earliest adapter. In this assignment we showed that Deming's 14 philosophies can also be applied in academic environment. Where his philosophies can improve the quality of learning experience in class and also overall education quality in universities.
DEMING's 14 MANAGEMENT PHILOSOHIES
CREATE CONSISTENCY OF PURPOSE TOWARDS IMPROVEMENTS
In academic environment, the universities need to define goals and a clear vision of what they expecting in the present and future. In academic environment students are the customers of a university. So, both lecturers and students need to cooperate in order to maintain the quality and satisfy the student's needs. The ideas from both lecturers and students need to be combined to reach the vision of the university. The learning in classroom can be improved when all the courses and modules have a high learning outcome and syllabus structure that really serves the purpose of teaching and learning. On the other hand, even a module serves the purpose the lecturers need to understand the particular module they teaching so the student can be well taught with appropriate examples. This will improve the learning in class and vision of the university can be realised.
ADOPT TO NEW PHILOSOPHY
After making an objective the management is the one who should adapt to a new philosophy than expecting the workforce to do it. In academic environment both management and lecturers need to adopt new philosophy and learn new principles to reach the university common goal and vision. When new principles are learned the barriers between lecturers can be broken to create a relationship and interaction and increase productivity. The management then can provide the students the best tools to study effectively in class. And lecturers also can be provided with best teaching materials and trainings so the lecturers able to aid the students to understand the module. By adopting new philosophy teaching and learning in classroom can be improved and thus, vision of the university can be reach and the goal can be achieved.
CEASE DEPENDENCE ON INSPECTION
Deming believe that the focus on inspection or testing should be reduced as much as possible as it is costly and will spent valuable time. In academic environment, a new process should be practised where there is minimum inspection and focusing more on learning and teaching progress and checking every work that is done for any possible flaws. This can be done with teaching methods and teaching materials that will provide quality education. For example, the emphasis on final examination should be minimalized and instead management and lecturers should encourage peer assessing and class tests. Students who got low marks in these assessments should be focused and guided throughout the process so they will be improved and pass the module in the end. This process need constant quality improvement so there will be no defects or failed students in the end.
Move towards a single supplier for any one
It is true we will get the cheapest price when we have multiple suppliers but the price is nothing when compared with quality. We might get cheap price for a product but the quality may be lower than expected. So, it is better to reduce the overall cost by choosing a particular vendor who ensures quality for a product. In an academic environment, it is better to have single reliable supplier who able to understand the needs of the college or university. A college need to select the supplier who provides the best quality goods and services with reasonable price, and then make them the only supplier. Moreover, when an institution has a very good relationship with the supplier the institution will get discount from them since they are the only supplier the institution has which make the institution as high priority customer for the supplier. For example, a college can order books for library or computers from one reliable supplier who will give better discount.
Improve constantly and forever
Nothing is perfect as continuous improvement is very important and needed from time to time. With improvement the productivity and overall quality will get increased. In academic environment, the management need to find out the problems which need some improvement in terms of quality and productivity and also to decrease costs so there's no need for and replacement. Suggestion boxes and some surveys also can be conducted in order to get some feedback from both staffs' students as they might find something needs immediate improvement. For example, students may think that there are some upgrades needed for the computers in computer lab. The lecturers also may find the lecture hall or the projectors need some upgrades and improvement. So, the management need to find these kinds of problems and keep improving. This will help both lecturers and students to perform more efficiently.
Institute training on the job
Job training is very important in all levels of an organisation to improve staff quality. This will give an effect on the organisations development and productivity. In academic environment, everyone in the institution needs training to improve their productivity. The staffs need constant training in order to update their knowledge and experience to perform better. The lecturers should be provided with training in regards to their respective modules so, they can improve their teaching skills and have better understanding of their module. A lecturer may be well educated but as technology keep improving, the knowledge of the lecturer may become obsolete so, it is important to give them some training to improve them as well as to remove the feeling of inferiority which can result in poor lecture delivery. This will improve the productivity of the lecturers in class room and the students will easily understand the lecture.
According to Deming's Philosophy a leader not just supervise, a leader need to be proactive and take the initiative to help and guide their people to the right path to improve the overall quality. A leader should apply the modern management methods to help people to perform better at work. In academic environment, the lecturers are the leaders where they need to guider the students in the right path to improve the quality of work. Some lecturers have wrong idea of being leader where they do not improve the performance of the student. The lecturers need to guide the students and develop their skills to improve their performance so students do not lose motivation. Effective leaders should be able to identify and remove communication barriers between them and students. This will greatly improve the lecturer's performance in a class room.
DRIVE OUT FEAR
Fear usually is the greatest barrier to the development of the personal. There are different types of fear like, fear of failure, fear of reprisal, fear of relinquishing control, and also fear of change. Employees who have fear of the superiors cannot cooperate well with them. Deming believe that fear should be driven out and freedom of two way communication should be encouraged and use of other methods to eradicate fear, apprehension and hostility in an organization, so the common goals and objectives can be achieved. In academic environment the lecturers and the students should have a good relationship. Students usually have fear of punishment which leads to low esteem. Fear only make students obey but not motivates them. So, the lecturers should encourage students to research and try something new by guiding them instead of just punishing students when there is a mistake or failure.
Break down barriers between departments
There are barriers in communication and coordination which is the common factor that prevents optimal performance in an organization. Cooperation or teamwork can break down the barriers between individuals and departments. In academic environment, the institutions have many different departments and each of them have their own interests, values and traditions. Even the lecturers have their own interests and thoughts and also they teach different modules. This will create barriers in communication between two different departments and lecturer who teaches different modules. The management needs to make sure that all these departments and lecturers work together where it will break the barriers. They need to work together to solve problems and also to improve productivity and quality. The lecturers from different departments need to have a meeting once in a while to make decisions which will result a better solution and also discuss on how to improve student's productivity in class.
Eliminate slogans and targets
Use of slogans, targets and posters should be eliminated since telling someone to do their work well is useless without teaching the methods to achieve common goal. These slogans and posters are usually is not practical and can create backfire effects. Usually the quality problems are due to human errors and the employees can improve with motivational methods. In academic environment, the institutions need to eliminate the use of slogans and instead need to focus more on the best learning material and learning environment. This might reduce the burden of students since some slogans ask students to be outstanding in everything which is in both academic and co-curriculum. The management and lecturers also should not impose targets like all students need to achieve 90% in all modules. This can make students stressful and give them negative impacts where it will ultimately reduce their productivity.
"Management by numerical goal is an attempt to manage without knowledge of what to do, and in fact is usually management by fear" (W. Edward Deming, 1950)
Eliminate management by objectives
Work instructions and standards should be eliminated since it sets standards and quotas for employees and targets for managers. Continuous improvements in terms of quality and productivity can be achieved by giving support and help to employees from superior employees. Standards from short term perspective create fear which will reduce the growth of the student in academic environment. The use of ranks in among students in class will affect their performance in academic. Standardized exam scores usually cannot test problem solving skills and test critical thinking. The low grader students must be encouraged to perform better in class. Student performance and quality is more important than just the plain marks and grading.
Remove barriers to pride of workmanship
Pride of workmanship is usually a strong motivator. In academic environment, pride flows from group and personal achievements. The students are included in some decision making process like getting their opinion and suggestions they will develop a pride of ownership towards the institution. Meanwhile, the lecturers also need to give the students some credits when they make a good job. This will serve the students as a motivation where in turn they will improve and perform better in class. On the other hand, the lecturers should not critic the students as this will demotivate the students and hurt their pride. When the barriers between the lecturers and student are broken then both the lecturers and students will feel proud of being part of institution and will improve their productivity.
Institute education and self-improvement
In academic environment, everyone including both lecturers and students need continuous learning and self-improvement. Universities need to provide education program and support for lecturers and also for other staffs like management staff. All the employees need to be improved with constant education. With constant learning the employees and lecturers will able to contribute new ideas and also perform better. The management also have to constantly update their curriculum syllabus for all modules. The lecturers should be provided with courses even outside their area of expertise to improve their knowledge and skills. With this the lecturers able to deliver they lecture effectively to students in class by giving up to date examples.
The transformation is everyone's job
In academic environment, the management is the one that should make everyone including lecturers and students to adopt the transformation. The management need to take the initiative to take the first as the others will follow them. The transformation is actually everybody's job and the lecturers need to direct all students by giving training, support, and motivation. The lecturers also can make themselves a role model where they will lead the rest of the class towards transformation. Transformation is very important since without transformation and academic institution could hardly be successful.
It is recommended that the guidelines stated above should follow to get positive effects from the transformation in an academic environment. The students are encouraged to complete their task on their own so, they will learn more by putting their own effort. The lecturers also is encouraged to provide help and support to the students from time to time so, in the end the students can complete their task effectively. Even the management also need to provide training for the lecturers and learning materials for students. This will surely improve both teaching capabilities and students learning experience in class.
Deming's 14 philosophies can be a powerful tool in an educational institution, even when it was designed for business organisation.Â The key elementsÂ of successful implementation ofÂ gaining the support of everyone in the chain of supervision identify your customer, to focus on refining the process and use of Deming's 14 philosophies as a guide and checklist in the implementation effort. By implementing the Deming's14 philosophies the learning and performance of both lecturers and students in classroom can be improved. All the 14 philosophies is usually not applied in academic environment like universities but it was explained that they can be applied and in result the university will be achieve high learning quality and education quality.