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Introduction to data base: -
A database is an integrated collection of logically related records or files consolidated into a common pool that provides data for one or more multiple uses.
One way of classifying databases involves the type of content, for example: bibliographic, full-text, numeric and image. Other classification methods start from examining database models or database architectures: see below.
Software organizes the data in a database according to a database model. As of 2009[update] the relational model occurs most commonly. Other models such as the hierarchical model and the network model use a more explicit representation of relationships.
Database plays a critical role in almost all areas where computers are used including education, library, science, medicine, business, law, engineering and so on. We may encounter database in our daily life. When we purchase goods from our local supermarket, it is likely that uses a barcode to find price of an item from the product database. Similarly when we access our credit card; all our transactions are recorded into a database. Besides these when we make our booking for railway/airline tickets from our computers, we again access some database.
Limitations of Existing System:-
 In Lovely professional university there was a system in which each student had provided user ID and password to access computer systems of all laboratory as well as library in campus. In that system each student had provided with some free memory space on server to store their own data, which was mention as Z: Drive. That system should be start one again and should be continue in future.
 University should provided a small interval training to all the fresher teachers and students, how to use UMS.
Overview of proposed system: -
Lovely Professional University has one of the best criterions for the admission of students. Students can take admission in university very easily due to a well managed system. They just have to go with their documents and fee to admission block and can take admission easily. The admission can be taken online by paying online in university account.
After this much efforts of student, the management have to precede farther processes. University has its database to keep whole records of students, which helps to handle all the activities regarding students.
Components of DBMS
Design of Main Memory Database System/Overview of DBMS", most DBMS as of 2009[update] implement a relational model. Other less-used DBMS systems, such as the object DBMS, generally operate in areas of application-specific data management where performance and scalability take higher priority than the flexibility of ad hoc query capabilities provided via the relational-algebra execution algorithms of a relational DBMS.
There were chances of errors in existing system as compared to proposed system.
INTERACTIVE NATURE: -
As compared to existing system, proposed system is more interactive and creative in nature.
In existing system due to manual work and improper maintenance of data, inconsistency occur which leads to problem like duplication of data. But in proposed system the information is stored and processed in computers so that data will be more reliable and accurate.
LARGE VOLUMES OF DATA CAPACITY: -
In existing system data is maintained manually so processing of large amount of data is small time slice is not possible in the case of proposed system as everything is maintained in computer.
PAPER WORK REDUCED -
The existing system is very costly it includes many costs and overhead expenses like file management. But this system reduces cost of paper work.
In proposed system accessing of data from unauthorized persons will not be there. But it is possible in case of existing system.
Introduction to the project-Nature of project-S/W & development:-
A system is defined as the organized collection of components works in a coordinated manner, to achieve an objective. There are three main implications of a system i.e.
- A system must have a predetermined objective(s).
- There must be interrelationship and interdependent among the system components.
- The objective of organization whole has higher priority than the objective of an individual component.
DFD is a tool, which show the actual data flow in the system. It shows us various points from where the data is flows to a new point and where the major transformation takes place. The DFD uses some symbols and they are:
A Square represents the source or destination of data.
A circle represents the program name or process.
A Solid Arrow Line shows the data in flow or motion.
An open rectangle shows the data at rest.
Although DFD represents the data Flow and transformation, but still it doesn't indicate the full details of the system. for getting more details data dictionary is used. A DD represents data about data. It is a document, which is used for system documentation and reference. It contains all the details of elements of DFD.
Structured English -:
This concept is borrowing from the structured programming. It is collection of imperative statements and processing statements. The imperative statements include if then else whereas processing statements include the calculation statements.
Decision Trees -:
A decision Tree is easy to draw and follow in which each branch is called a condition and a leave or terminal node is called a processing. The root of the tree is called problem name.
A decision table is the collection of four quadrants: colon, condition stub, action stub, condition entries and action entries.
In condition stub all the condition are listed in simple English and maths. In action stub all the action are written, in condition entry. The responses to the condition are written in ‘Y' & ‘N' form. In action entry all the action response is written as X & --. ‘X' means action taken and ‘-‘means no action.
DFD of the Project: -
Data flow diagrams (also called data flow graph) are commonly used during problem analysis. Data flow diagrams (DFD) are quite general and are too limited to problem analysis for software requirements specification. They were in use long before the software engineering discipline begins. DFD's are very useful in understanding a system and can be effectively used during analysis.
A DFD shows the flow of data through a system. It views a system as a function that transforms the input into desired output. Any complex system will not perform this transformation in a “single step”, and a data will typically undergo a series of transformation before it becomes the output. The DFD aims to capture the transformation that take place within the system to the input data so that eventually the output data is produced.
System requirement-Software & Hardware:-
For the development of any good computerized system it is very essential to have a good blend of hardware and equally good software available. This system, used to develop this application software had the following configuration:
Minimum Hardware Requirements
- PII OR HIGHER PROCESSOR
-4 GB RAM
-5000GB HARD DISK
Minimum Software Requirements
- WINDOWS (XP OR VISTA OR 7) OS OR ANY OTHER WINDOWS OS
- ORACLE 9i
- Recognition of need- In this stage, preliminary survey & initial investigation is done. The old system has many limitations, which will be discussed in the system analysis part of this project.
- Feasibility study - Evaluation of existing system and procedures Analysis of alternative candidate system. Cost estimates. This study deals with
- Technical feasibility
- Economic feasibility
- Operational feasibility
- Analysis - Analysis is the study of checking the relationship components with the environment and other parts of the system. This stage deals with the ‘what is to be done to design the candidate system?'
- Design - General design specifications detailed design specifications. It is the most creative and challenging phase of system development.
- Implementation & Maintenance- It is the less creative stage of life cycle in which new system will replace the old system completely or partially. There are three types conversation: direct, phase wise and pilot. It also deals with backup, recovery, security and reliability measure of the cycle.