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According to Thomas ADDIE is the most possibly used model for creating instructional materials. The ADDIE model is consists of five steps: Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation (p.191). This model provides a systematic process to assist Instructional Designers to plan and create training programs. Figure 1 below illustrates the ADDIE model:
Figure 1 Adapted from Rodriguez (2012) picture of the model
Within the analysis phase the designer identified the instructional problem the target audience and their characteristics. In addition, the designer identifies the behavioral outcomes and prior knowledge of the target audience. In this phase the designer also reflect on the delivery option, online pedagogical and the timeline for the projection completion (Learning-Theories 2013, para 1).
In the design step the learning objectives are developed and instructional approach is selected based on the objectives. In addition, thorough storyboards and prototype are created and visual design are applied (Learning-Theories 2013, para 2). The design step is a continuation from the development step. According to (Learning-Theories 2013) it is "the actual creation (production) of the content and learning material based on the design phase" para 3).
Learning-Theories (2013) states that this phase involves formative and summative evaluation. A formative assessment is conducted at each stage to determine if the goal was accomplished. The summative assessment is "â€¦consists of tests designed for criterion-related referenced items and providing opportunities for feedback from the users" (para. 4). In addition, revisions are made accordingly (para. 4).
Smith and Ragan Model
According to Smith and Ragan (2005) their model is a "A Common Model of Instructional Design" (p.10) and claim no uniqueness to their model. Their model consists of three phases which includes the analysis, strategy and evaluation (p.10). In addition, these three phases are further developed in to different steps of their Instructional Design (ID) process. These steps comprise of analyzing the learning context ,analyzing the learner, analyzing the learner task, assessing the learning for instruction, determine instructional strategies, write and produce instruction, conduct formative evaluation and revising instructions (p.10). Figure 2 below illustrates the Smith and Ragan model:
Figure 2 Adpated from (Smith & Ragan 2005, p.10)
As asserted by Smith and Ragan (2005) analyzing the learning context entails two major elements. The first element includes "the substantiation of a need for instruction to help learners reach learning goals" (p.43). The author mentioned that a needs assessment is essential in order for the first element to be materialized. Therefore, they proposed three types of assessment models to assist Instructional Designers (ID's), the problem model/crisis model, the innovation model and the discrepancy model (44-45).
The second element is "a description of the learning environment in which the instruction will be used" (p. 43). The authors strongly believe that it is imperative that the designers should have a thorough understanding of the learning environment. As a result, they provide six questions that designers should ask about the learning environment before developing materials. These questions are geared towards the characteristics of the teachers/trainers, the existing curricula, existing hardware and equipments, characteristics of the classes and facilities, characteristics of the school system or organization and the philosophy and taboos of the larger community (49-50). The authors argued that once these questions are answered it "â€¦helps to ensure that the instruction will, indeed, be used in the environment". (49).
When analyzing the learners Smith and Ragan argued that this is crucial step for success. They believed that a description of the stable similarities and differences should be highlighted as well as the changing similarities and differences of the intended learners. They also believed that the target audience specific prior learning is the most important factor for the designers (p.69). The authors further provided an outline of learner characteristics that should also be used in target audience descriptions. These characteristics are broken down into four groups: cognitive, physiological, affective and social characteristics. In addition, each of these groups consists of a list of primary characteristics for designers to utilize. Even though the authors mention these characteristics they clearly stated that not all of these characteristics must be consider by the designer (p.69-70).
Once the needs assessment is completed the designer will have a list of goals. These goals will assist designer in identifying what the learners need to know. Smith and Ragan considered this procedure analyzing the learner task. They mentioned that the primary steps in analyzing the learner task are: writing learning goal, establishing the type of learning goal, performing an information-processing analysis, conducting prerequisite analysis and establish the type of learning of the prerequisites and writing learning objectives for the learning goal and for each of the prerequisites and writing test specifications (p.76).
The final phase of this step includes "â€¦ list of goals, amplified with test specifications, that describe what the learners should know or be able to do at the completion of instruction and the prerequisite skills and knowledge that learners will need in order to achieve those goals" (Smith & Ragan, 2005, p. 76).
Smith and Ragan argued that evaluation serve two purposes because this will assist the designer with learner performances and the type of instructions needed to improve the learners performance (2005, p.104). Therefore, when assessing the learning for instruction it is imperative that the designers write excellent objectives. According to the authors "â€¦success of developing good assessment instructions heavily depends in the quality of the objectives written" (p.105). They also believed that when designers are designing assessment items for lesson that should use their guideline (p. 105).
According to Reigeluth, (1983, as cited in, Smith & Ragan, 2005) instructional strategies are classified into three categories. The organizational strategy refers to sequence instructions, the delivery strategy the type of instructional medium that will be used and the management strategy the scheduling and allocation of the resources to implement the instructions. The authors explained that these strategies can be used at course or unit (macro) level or at the lesson micro level (p.128).
Producing the instruction is delivered by the trainer after this segment is completed the intended learners are given a test. Smith and Ragan called this process formative assessment. Once the designers select the type of strategy use to implement the instruction then they will conduct a formative evaluation. From this evaluation they will be able to revise the instruction accordingly. Smith and Ragan believed that the material should be evaluated during and after implementation. They believed that the formative evaluation is the fundamental to the instructional design process (p. 327).
Dick and Carey Model
Gustafson and Branch (2002) mentioned that the Dick and Carey model is the most widely used model. In addition, it has become the standard comparison model to all other ID models. This model can be "considered product-oriented rather than system-oriented depending
on the size and scope of step-one activities (assess needs to identify instructional goals)" (p.81). The Dick and Carey model have nine components Figure 3 below illustrate the model:
dick and carey model
Adapted from Culatta (2013) Dick and Carey model
The Dick and Carey model starts with the assess needs to identify goals. The authors of this model recommend that designers establish instructional goals in order to decide what one is trying to accomplish before the development of ID process (Gustafson & Branch 2002, p.81). According to (Gustafson & Branch 2002) conducting instructional analysis and analyzing learners and contexts can be done simultaneously within the Dick and Carey model. They also stated that "the former is vintage hierarchical analysis as conceived by Gagne, with added procedures for constructing cluster analysis diagrams for verbal information. The latter step specifics collecting information about prospective learners' knowledge, skills, attitudes and the environment" (p.81).
The next step of this model is to write performance objectives. When writing these objectives they should be measurable of the skills that ought to be learned by the target audience. After the completion of this step the designers needs to develop assessment instruments. In this stage the performance objective must be consistent with the criteria-referenced. The following step is labeled developing instructional strategies, they proposed that the designers develop different strategies in order to assist the target audience accomplish the stated objectives (Gustafson & Branch 2002, p.81).
In the Dick and Carey model the next step is to develop and select instructional material. The author mentioned that Dick and Carey expressed "â€¦the desirability of selecting as well as developing materials, but the degree of emphasis devoted to development suggests they are far more interested in original development" (Gustafson & Branch 2002, p.81). Design and conduct formative evaluation is the next step in the Dick and Carey model. In this step data is collected in order to identify and measures how to improve the instruction ( p.81).
According to Gustafson and Branch (2002) revise instruction is the next step; this process is collecting, summarizing and analyzing data from the formative evaluation. The result from this period will facilitate decision concerning revision as necessary. Whereby in the design and conduct summative evaluation step it is used to verify the degree of instructional goals achieved throughout this process (p.81&82).