Assessment One: Annotation of Lesson Plans and Achievement of NSW Professional Teaching Standards
The following contextual statement, lesson plan annotations and Aspect of teaching have been referenced to relate to the NSW Institute of Teachers Professional Teaching Standards through the domains of professional knowledge, practice and commitment at the graduate teacher stage. All seven elements of the NSW Institute of Teachers Professional Teaching Standards have been addressed and can be found on pages 4-14.
EDGD808: Quality Teaching
Assessment One: Annotation of Lesson Plans and Achievement of NSW Professional Teaching Standards
"If you want to teach in ways that are consistent with the NSW Quality Teaching Model, ot any other systematic approach to helping students learn, you have to plan" (Killen, R: 2006, p66).
My two lesson plans have been designed for a Stage one, Year 2 class who are looking at the theme of celebration. Within this theme, literacy based activities are programmed for areas of reading, writing, and listening and speaking. The lessons are implemented as part of the literacy block and contain an integrated theme of Human Societies and its Environment. The students were introduced to this unit with their classroom teacher through talk of birthdays. My first lesson continues with the celebration of birthdays, concluding with an information report to show their understanding. The second lesson continues with the theme by introducing family celebrations.
The year 2 class of fifteen children was within a small school of only fifty eight students in total. Within the year 2 class, there is one boy with severe behavioural issues. He has been diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and distracts others from learning and completing their work. Providing controlled choices is a strategy used by the classroom teacher due to the boy's constant refusal to attempt planned activities. (2.1.5: Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of specific strategies for teaching- Students with challenging behaviours). For the more demanding student such as a child with ODD, higher levels of positive reinforcement may be required (Konza et al: 2001). (5.1.5 Demonstrate knowledge of practical approaches to managing student behaviour and their applications in the classroom). Using computers seemed to be an activity that the boy was interested in (2.1.4 Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of students' skills, interests and prior achievements and their impact on learning). Konza, Grainger and Bradshaw (2001) describe that many computer programs provide continuous reinforcement, novelty, colour and movement which all appeal to distractible students. However this needs to be managed with regular opportunities for students to complete similar tasks using pen and paper because children will become too dependent on computer technology (Konza et al: 2001). Each lesson has been planned for all children to complete written activities however, an additional choice has been planned for the student with ODD to eliminate disturbance to other students in the class in the possibility that the boy refuses to do the planned content (2.1.3 Demonstrate knowledge of students' different approaches to learning). According to the NSW Department of School Education (1995), teachers should provide daily opportunities for students to consider the context of culture and the context of situation when creating and interpreting written texts. Writing activities should focus on key elements of constructing meaning with written texts, developing writing processes and skills, conventions of texts and concepts about print (1.1.1 Demonstrate relevant knowledge of the central concepts, modes of enquiry and structure of the content/disciplines).
Explicit teaching strategies have been implemented in the lesson plans as part of a highly structured environment in order to produce the specific learning outcomes (4.1.5 Use a range of teaching strategies and resources including ICT and other technologies to foster interest and support learning). The outcomes for the lesson plans have been chosen according to the appropriate stage of the children (2.1.2 Demonstrate knowledge of the typical stages of students' physical, social and intellectual development as well as an awareness of exceptions to general patterns). Grade Two children are categorised under Stage One of the English K-6 Syllabus. With each lesson there is opportunity for several outcomes to be assessed, however there is focus on one main outcome per lesson plan; two outcomes in the case of Lesson One. Additional outcomes are labelled as incidental outcomes. At stage one focus is put on knowledge about language based on reading outcomes and indicators in the English K-6 Syllabus (BOS: 1998). (1.1.3 Design and implement lesson sequences using knowledge of the NSW syllabus documents or other curriculum requirements of the Education Act). The two lessons are structured as an example of explicit- language- for- content. This is a lesson that focuses on bridging students English language knowledge (Helman, L: 2009).
Lesson One Annotations:
Writing stage outcomes WS1.9 and WS1.10 are appropriate for the Information report task children are to complete in regards to their knowledge of birthdays in this lesson.
Children had planned for the task in the previous lesson when writing a personal recount of their last birthday. There was also reviews of the two texts read about birthdays. Children then were to produce an information report (3.1.2 Plan and implement coherent lessons and lesson sequences that are designed to engage students and address learning outcomes).
Writing an information report was also an opportunity to assess outcome WS1.10. The English K-6 Syllabus states that learning to write includes skills of using well structured sentences, accurate spelling ect (p9). WS1.10 allows the teacher to assess these skills
(3.1.5 Demonstrate knowledge and use of a range of strategies to assess student achievement of learning outcomes).
Indicators are appropriate for the writing outcomes of stage one (3.1.1 Demonstrate the capacity to identify and articulate clear and appropriate learning goals in lesson preparation).
Interaction with children during brainstorming and discussion will assist in the summative assessment of children's knowledge related to the text (4.1.3 Listen to students and engage them in classroom discussion).
Analyse children's written information reports to show common writing conventions, action verbs and adjectives (3.1.6 Demonstrate knowledge of the link between outcomes and assessment strategies).
Classroom resources need to include literary and factual texts within a large range of texts reflecting popular culture and the wider community (Harris et al: 2003, p166). The text 'Moira's Birthday' by Robert Munsch is considerate of backgrounds; reflecting cultural diversity. (2.1.1 Demonstrate knowledge, respect and understanding of the social, ethnic, cultural and religious backgrounds of students and how these factors may affect learning.)
The Pro-forma assists the children in categorising ideas about the topic of birthdays. It is used to assist the learning outcome WS1.10 and the assessment of basic grammatical features and punctuation conventions of an information report (3.1.4 Demonstrate knowledge of a range of appropriate and engaging resources and materials to support students' learning).
Informing children you are continuing on with the topic of birthdays (4.1.1 Communicate clear directions to students about learning goals).
During Demonstration/Modelling phase, narratives are read out loud to children to the students. Once read, the students are then asked to participate by reading the book again, a sentence at a time in order for each child to be involved. It is also during this time that any information spoken about in orientation discussion and brainstorming can be re assessed (3.1.2 Plan and implement coherent lessons and lesson sequences that are designed to engage students and address learning outcomes).
Journals allow students to write to learn. (Department of Education, Tasmania: 2007). When they write to learn, students can make personal sense of their experience as well as build connections between what they know and new ideas they encounter (4.1.5 Use a range of teaching strategies and resources including ICT and other technologies to foster interest and support learning).
Model Activities to show the children what they are to do with activities you have provided them with. Modelling activities to children through clear explanation and demonstration supports the learning process until independence is attained (3.1.1 Demonstrate the capacity to identify and articulate clear and appropriate learning goals in lesson preparation).
A warning time is given to children before time is up on activities they are completing. Children are not suddenly stopped; they are aware that transition into a new activity is approaching.
Lesson Two Annotation:
Reading stage outcome RS1.5 is appropriate for the story-board task involving the sequencing of images from the narrative. The English K-6 Work Samples for stage one states that "talking about texts should be integrated with other types of responses to texts."(p53). This could include children understanding connectives that sequence events in time. RS1.5 becomes an appropriate outcome for Lesson two for completing a story-board; children will understand and make connections to events within the text (3.1.3 Select and organise subject/content in logical, sequential and structured ways to address student learning outcomes).
Indicators are appropriate for the reading outcome of this stage. (3.1.1 Demonstrate the capacity to identify and articulate clear and appropriate learning goals in lesson preparation).
As a part of effective teaching, it is important to involve both formative and summative assessment measures and recognise that assessment is an ongoing process (Davis 2006). However, the three lesson plans are assessed on the criteria for formative assessment as the students are involved in the process of learning. A record of children's progress is kept for summative assessment (3.1.8 Demonstrate knowledge and a rationale for keeping accurate and reliable records to monitor students' progress).
Observing children during the story-board activity to show their connections between own knowledge and the event structure of the text. That is, if children can understand and explain how the pictures from the text reveal information about the storyline. A checklist could be involved during observations as a record of competency skills (Davis: 2006). (3.1.6 Demonstrate knowledge of the link between outcomes and assessment strategies).
Story-board images assist the students to sequence events from the text in order to meet the outcome of RS1.5 by making connections to the text and the ability to read through illustration (5.1.4 Provide clear directions for classroom activities and engage students in purposeful learning activities).
Allowing the children to predict what the text may be about is an effective reading strategy based on semantic and syntactic knowledge. (McKenzie: 2010).
Positive reinforcement given to children for efforts in the classroom on developing skills often provides high self esteem which will motivate children to challenge new tasks (Slee: 2002). (5.1.3 Demonstrate strategies to create a positive environment supporting student effort and learning).
Having the children re read the text is a mutual process (Harris, Turbill, Fizsimmons and McKenzie: 2001, p9) that allows the involvement in their own learning. Re reading the text reinforces ideas and events within the story. (5.1.2 Establish supportive learning environments where students feel safe to risk full participation).
Guided questions allow the teacher to direct children through their independent activity (4.1.2 Demonstrate a range of questioning techniques designed to support student learning).
Children work independently as well as in groups. Group work supports the idea that learning is a mutual process (Harris et al: 2001, p9). (4.1.4 Use student group structures as appropriate to address teaching and learning goals).
Reflects on the teacher's implementation of content and the teaching of content (6.1.1 Demonstrate a capacity to reflect critically on and improve teaching practice).
Where to from here suggests possible avenues to continue with the theme of study ot the area of study (3.1.10 Demonstrate an understanding of the principles and practices for using student assessment results to reflect on lesson sequences and inform further planning of teaching and learning).
Aspect of Teaching:
According to Harris et al, learning is a mutual process (Harris et al: 2001). Within a K-6 classroom, both independent and group work should be planned for. Group work supports the idea that learning is a mutual process
"Shared experiences enhances mutual understanding of what is to be recounted, and enables the teacher to ask pertinent questions by way of guiding the construction of recounts of these experiences." (Harris et al: 2001, p 141).
4.1.? Student Groups
(5.1.6 Demonstrate knowledge of principles and practices for managing classroom discipline).
5.1.7 Understand specific requirements for ensuring student safety in schools.