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The learning process of the individual begins with his birth. It begins at home by copying the habits of elders and observing their actions. Though the child acquires many basic skills at home, but he has to learn more to face the realities of life. In this regard, educational institutions play a vital role in his further development. First institutions for socialization of individuals, is school as it helps in developing certain skills to adjust in the society. Iqbal, Pervaiz (2011, p. 2) describes that "Education is the development of all those capabilities in the individual which will enable him to control his environment and fulfill his responsibilities". After entering the school, a child of individual intelligence, social and emotional traits, has to face various teachers of different intellect, professional abilities and skills, which communicate with each other in teaching learning process.
Education is a social process, which prepares the young ones of a society for life. It is the mean for transferring the norms and assembled knowledge of a society to its generation. It prepares them to face the different complexities of life. It is designed to communicate them culture, modify their behavior and enable them to play their role in the society.
According to Nagel, T. (2003, p.1) "The core essence of formal education lies in classroom activities. It is in the meeting between the learner and the teacher over meaningful activities and content matter that quality is created." Quality can be produced by conducting positive and constructive activities by teacher in classroom situation for improving the achievement of students.
Quality is a dynamic idea and exact definitions are not particularly helpful. However, its range of meanings does cause confusions and important practical consequences come from these different meanings. Quality in every day conversation is mainly used as an absolute concept. Quality is all about performing to the highest standards. It may also be employed as a relative concept. The relative concept of quality has two aspects. The first is measuring up to specifications the second is meeting learner's requirements. Harvey, L. (1995, pp. 5-12) described the five categories of quality.
The 'exceptional' view of quality describes quality as something exceptional. Traditionally, quality refers to something distinctive and discriminatory, and, in educational terms is linked to concepts of 'excellence', of 'high quality' unachievable by most.
Quality as 'completeness 'states quality as a consistent or perfect outcome. In a sense it 'democratizes' the concept of quality and if reliability can be achieved then quality can be attained by all.
Quality as 'appropriateness for purpose' describes quality in terms of satisfying a customer's requirements, needs or desires. Hypothetically, the customer specifies requirements. In education, appropriateness for purpose is usually based on the ability of an institution to fulfil its task or a programme of study to achieve its aims.
Quality as 'cost effectiveness' sees quality in terms of return on investment. The growing tendency for governments to require accountability from higher education reflects a value-for-money approach. Increasingly students require value-for-money for the increasing cost to them of higher education.
Quality as 'change' is a classic notion of quality that sees it in terms of change from one state to another. In educational terms, transformation refers to the enhancement and empowerment of students or the development of new knowledge."
Education is essential for the societies to flourish and maintenance. Education revamps and recognizes the culture of society along with transmitting it and continuously updating it. The school assigns this responsibility to teacher. Teacher is no more a communicator rather a facilitator to the knowledge. He develops and establishes reach to the sources of knowledge to remove the gaps in students' achievement. The teachers' conception about child development and learning is remarkable for improving the educational quality. Inquisitive Child learns more even if this varies with traditional cultural beliefs about well-mannered children.
Nagel, T. (2003, p.13) describes the quality education as "a learning situation which vibrates with positive energy and where the learner and the learned both are eagerly absorbed in understanding and communicating through a knowledge construction process. The emphasis lies with the learner." Quality education demands suitable learning environemnt where the student is actively involved. Teachers play a vital role in shaping the future of individual as well as of entire generation.
According to Nagel, T. (2003, p.1) as for as quality improvement is concerned, teachers are on the front line in development work. It is therefore of paramount importance that they are not missing in the work to improve the quality of education.
The accessibility of experienced teachers is challenging problem involved in restructuring any educational system. National Education Policy (1998-2010, p.47) has accredited the importance of teacher as "quality of education is in direct relation with quality of instruction in the classroom. At gross root level, the teacher is considered the key factor in implementation of the educational reforms. It is a fact that the academic credentials, knowledge of the content, competence, and skills of teaching and the commitment of the teacher have deep influence on learning process."
Quality of education is directly related to quality of teachers. As Qureshi (1975,p.38) while discussing the report of commission on National Education (1959) said,
"The key stone of the arch of national education is the efficient,hardworking and honest teacher who is fully conscious of the fact that he is the trusty of his nation's stability,progress and reputation,because the training and upbridging of the nation's youth have been placed in his hands.It is quite abvious that the education of a country cannot be better than its teachers"
Most education reformers are of the same opinion that improvement in student learning is related to effective teaching.The best way for improving teacher effectiveness is to provide teachers with support and guidance that are grounded in effectiveness i.e which uses effective data to improve professional development of teachers, strengthen evaluations and career development and revamping accountibility policies for encouragement of students.It means that student achievement is dependent on the quality of teachers.
Achievement has been defined by Spence, J.T. (1983,p.569) as "a task oriented behaviour that allows the individual's performance to be evaluated according to some internally or externally imposed criterion, that involves the individual in competing with others, or that otherwise involves some standard of excellence".
Student achievement is the process of comparing the performance with some already set standard. Teachers play a significant role to increase the efficiency of their pupils and help them to meet the required criteria. Shah, A.S. (2009, p.1) in his study writes:
"The way in which the teacher allocates time to spend on academic content affects student achievement. Good classroom management is a skill that can lead to high student achievement. It involves planning effectively, establishing rules that are reasonable and not excessive in number, and arranging the classroom so that instruction goes smoothly. Skills that are necessary for maintaining a well-managed classroom include group alerting, wittiness, overlapping, using the principle of least intervention, and creating smooth transitions."
Effective classroom management is a key element of educational process. Teacher well trained in classroom management can lead the learner to high achievements.
Gupta, S.M. (1996, p.48) describes that the teacher holds central position in education. The cultural heritage of society, knowledge, skills, customs, and attitudes acquired over the years, must be transmitted to the next generation by the teachers. They must also try to develop in their students the ability to adjust to a fast changing world.
Quality of teachers can be judged by different indicators like teacher qualification, teacher characteristics, teacher practices and teacher effectiveness. The competencies of teachers have deep impact on students' learning as when teachers are highly qualified and professionally skilled then automatically the students' achievement level is increased, this is the reason the researcher has decided to work on this topic of studying the relationship of quality of teachers with students' achievement.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Since the independence of Pakistan all governments in their education policies and plans stressed for enhancing the quality of education and especially in 1992 some revolutionary steps i.e. denationalization, contribution of NGO's for enhancing the quality improvement has been taken. Quality of education is the most important aspect of teaching learning process. The researcher intends to carry out the research on relationship of quality of teachers and students' achievement in public schools at secondary level in Sargodha Division.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
Following are the main objectives of study:
To measure the quality of teachers.
To examine the academic achievement of students in public sector schools at secondary level.
To find out the relationship between the quality of teachers and students' achievement.
To recommend strategies for improvement of quality of teachers.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Education is the basic ingredient of social life, without which a nation cannot progress and move towards prosperity. The ultimate goal of education is to improve the students' abilities, attitudes and behaviour. Though a number of factors are linked with the quality of education but perhaps it has more close association with teacher's quality regarding his competencies in the subject matter, teaching methodologies, professional experience and commitment to his profession.
The results of the present research study may help policy makers to have a better planning for improving the quality of education and designing sound and appropriate programmes for the professional growth of teachers. It might also be helpful to recruiting authorities in the selection of competent and professionally highly qualified teachers. Head teachers of public secondary schools may have to make equal provision of training and refresher courses to all teachers and the present study might be helpful to them in the selection of appropriate disciplines to enhance the quality of their teachers. Similarly the teachers will be motivated to enhance their competencies and skills by upgrading their qualification and developing self study habits. Finally this research study may contribute its part for future researches in this field at others level of education and conducting research in other provinces of the countries.
1.5 HYPOTHESIS OF THE STUDY
Following is the null hypothesis of this study:
Ho1: There is no significant relationship between students' achievement and quality of teacher.
1.6. DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The study will be delimited to two tehsils of each district of Sargodha division. The names of tehsils are:
Aggregate marks of students in the Annual SSC examination 2012 at secondary level will be taken as academic achievement scores.
1.7 METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY
The research will be descriptive in nature.
All the secondary schools of public sector in Sargodha division, all teachers of secondary classes and the students of secondary level will comprise the population.
Random sampling technique will be used for selection of students and teachers whereas, for selecting the schools cluster sampling technique will be used.
No. of Distts.
No. of Tehsils
No. of Schools
No. of teachers
from each tehsil
No. of students from each school
Total teachers = 480
Total students = 960
Total sample = 1440
TOOL OF RESEARCH
As the study is descriptive in nature therefore the researcher will develop two questionnaires to collect data, one questionnaire for teachers and the other for students. Researcher will develop these questionnaires by using five-point Likert scale on the basis of literature, related studies and under the guidance of supervisor.
The questionnaire will be administered to secondary school teachers and students from the defined population not included in the sample.
1.7.5 DATA COLLECTION
The questionnaire will be administered personally to concerned persons.
Information relevant to teacher quality will be gathered through questionnaire. The students' achievement scores will be obtained from the concerned schools. The students and teachers will be informed about objectives of the study and the procedure of filling in the questionnaire.
1.7.6 DATA ANALYSIS
To summarize the results of study mean and standard deviation will be used. To find out the relationship between teacher quality and student achievement Pearson 'r' will be used.
DEFINITION OF KEY TERMS
"The level of satisfaction with and effectiveness of vocational education and training organizations, their products and services, established through conformity with the requirements set by clients and stakeholders." (Chopra, R.2005, p.290)
Quality of teacher
Quality of teachers is described by the Centre of public education USA as,
"A teacher is of quality if he consistently assists his students in making academic progress, has a command of subject matter, understands how students learn, and has a broad repertoire of teaching methods to meet diverse needs of learners."
(http//www.center for publiceducation.org/main-manu/staffingstudents.)
Following are the indicators of quality of teacher:
Teacher qualification (Credentials, knowledge and experiences that teachers bring with them when they enter the class room.)
Teacher characteristics (attitudes and attributes that teachers bring with them when they enter the classroom.)
Teacher practices (classroom practices employ- that is, the way in which the teachers interact with students and teaching strategies they use to accomplish specific teaching tasks.)
Teacher effectiveness (a value added assessment of degree to which teachers who are already in the classroom contribute to their students' learning. (Goe, Laura, 2008, p.2)
In service training and professional development.
"Accomplishment or proficiency of performance in a given skill of body of knowledge". (Phye, G.D. 1995, p.4
"Knowledge gained or skill developed in the school subjects, usually designated by test scores or by marks assigned by teachers or by both" (Good, C.V. 1973, p.7)
1.8.5 Student Achievement
Student achievement is the outcome of student. It is the extent to which a student has achieved their educational goals. Student achievement is commonly measured by examination or continuous assessment but there is no general agreement on how it is bested or which aspects are most important, procedural knowledge such as skill or declarative knowledge such as facts.
"Transferring or conveying knowledge, attitudes and skills. Teaching usually refers to instruction provided through classroom activities and is often associated with pre-service education programmes."(Chopra, R. 2005, p.320)
"Learning is the acquisition of habits, knowledge and attitudes. It involves new ways of doing things and it operates in an individual's attempts to overcome obstacles or to adjust to new situations. It represents progressive changes in behaviorâ€¦it enables him to satisfy interests to attain goals" (Mangal, S.K. 2006, p.171)
9th and 10th classes having age group 14.