Achieve Goals And Work Objectives

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Self-study: The review and evaluation of the quality and effectiveness of an institution's own academic programs, staffing, and structure, based on standards set by an outside quality assurance body, carried out by the institution itself. Self-studies usually are undertaken in preparation for a quality assurance site visit by an outside team of specialists. Results in a self-study report.

With the scientific knowledge of self review and what it entails as it regards the objectives I have set for myself, I have been able to identify some of my strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats using the SWOT Analysis.

Though I have made mention of this in my task 1, however, I shall lay more emphasis on this chapter.


SWOT analysis is a simple frame work for generating strategic alternatives from situation analysis. It is applicable to either the corporate level or the business unit level and frequently appears in marketing plans. The SWOT framework was described in the late 1960's by Edmund P. Learned, C. Roland Christainsen, Kenneth Andrews, and William D Guth in Business Policy, Text and Cases (Homewood, IL: Irwin, 1969).


S - Strength

W - Weakness

O - Opportunities

T - Threat

However, it will be reasonable to enumerate those obstacles before the analysis. These obstacles include:

commencement strength of the PgDms course

Admission for the PgDms course by the school

Time table crash with other activities

Spirit of continuity

Ill health


Now I will use the table format to review these obstacles.





commencement strength of the PgDms course.

Very interested in taking the course.

None was found.

I have got an active and expectant mind and drive.

None is applicable.

Admission for the PgDms course by the school

It was given based on my 1stdegree result.

No problem from the school.

This was a chance for me to achieve my desire of becoming HR personel.

No threat found..

Time table crash with other


I have budget this time for the PgDms class.

No stress is expected.

Completion of this programme will enhance my chances of doing my Mba.

Ability to continue.

Spirit of continuity

Very strong.


Wide range of opportunities.

Lack and failures can pose threat.


School funds readily available.

Foreign exchange rate.

Immediately after the course, good employment which will bring in money.

Any increase in the school and exams fees.

The framework used above shows it is obvious that my short, medium and long term objectives are not without any obstacles, but a detailed SELF REVIEW would make me take corrective actions which would enhance my chances of accomplishing my personal and professional plans.


Self review is necessary to form a check and balance of decisions and actions or activities that follow a set of desired objectives.


The importance of self review cannot be over emphasised. It includes:

It enhances judgement of action plans.

It helps to measure standard set to achieve.

Self review helps in taking corrective measures when the need arises.

It reminds of the set objectives outlined for accomplishment.

Self review enables me to remaining focus on set goals.


Knowledge is not fixed in one person. The more research you make, the more support gathered from people around who are also in the same field of knowledge or outside one's field of knowledge the more vast one will be on issues of discuss.

Below is some of the importance of getting support from others:

It saves time and cost.

It gives room for success.

It spreads risk and stress that would have been required by one person.

A problem shared is half solved, and with good minds, accomplishment is close.

It saves energy.

It increases knowledge.

This broadens the scope and understanding of a subject matter


Noteworthy is the fact that self-review gives one the chance to make up for weaknesses in a plan.

Every plan in life requires an update and checks and balances to ensure they fall in place at the due and expected time.

The wealth of experience and the knowledge gathered in LondonSam with contributions from fellow course mates, it is obvious that self-review makes way for better result.


You have been asked by the Managing Director to look into this trivial issue. As part of this task, you will carry out the following:

Undertake research in the various personal and professional skills needed by the company's staff member. Your research should include an analysis of 3 organisations and how they ensure their staff personal and professional skills are developed.

Produce a presentation which you will deliver to the managing Director and staff of the company putting forward the outcomes of your research.

Write a concise and accurate report to the Managing Director of the company making valid recommendations on the approach that need to be taken to redress the situation at Finance for U.


Professional development includes the full range of intellectual discipline, from conceptual understanding to the practical application of knowledge.

The informal and ad-hoc nature of much professional development poses problems for us as educationalists. How do we evaluate and assess it? How can we recognise and reward it?

Delivering professional development on demand to practising materials technologists using a variety of learning modes will require new approaches to teaching and learning, and should make use of modern information technologies, adapted and adopted for teaching and learning.

We think the term 'training' is too restrictive, and we only use it because that is the context within which many organisations can understand what we do. But whether you call it people skills training, interpersonal skills training, soft skills training or professional personal development, what we're talking about is people changing what they do in order to be more effective, more able and quite simply, happier at their job and in their personal lives.

What we do know is that people take on new behaviours best when there is a parallel shift in their personal development. Interpersonal skills aren't just something you use at the workplace and then leave at the office when you go home. The whole person is what's important, and any programme Impact Factory creates has stuff in it that people can use in all aspects of their lives.

Individuals need to be skilled in what they can do to positively affect the outcome of any kind of communication. This is true if the communication is a presentation to 500 people, an annual review with a staff member, the initiation of new work practises - indeed anything that requires one person to be in communication with others.

In the simplest terms, being able to communicate effectively means relating well to other people. It means being able to listen and really hear what others are saying. Part of being a good listener is knowing how to respond without stonewalling or hijacking other people's ideas.

It also means being able to convey information, feedback and requests clearly and directly, give appropriate levels of praise and advice and take responsibility for making sure things are understood. This means that people must be able and willing to deal with conflict and confrontation. Conflict resolution can be effectively achieved by negotiating what is known as 'win/win' solutions.

There is not one 'right' way to communicate, but there are certainly many 'wrong' ones. Impact Factory's development work concentrates on what's already working about an individual's interpersonal skills and developing that. Gaining insight and awareness about the effect they have on others, coupled with developing specific tools and techniques for managing people, puts people more in charge of the communication process.


The objectives of this task include:

To carry out examination on the personal and professional skills needed by the staff members of Finance 4 U.

To analyse 3 organisations and how they ensure their staff personal and professional skills are developed.

To make valid recommendations on the approach that needs to be taken to redress the situation at Finance for U.

The three organisations in view are:

Sweet foods international limited.


Walkers international


TO: The Managing Director

FROM: Manager

DATE: 14th March, 2010



Professional development is the skills and knowledge an employee gains to optimize her personal development and job growth. It includes learning opportunities, such as college degrees and coursework, or attending conferences or training sessions. Professional development is an extensive and collaborative process; upon completion, an evaluation of progress is usually performed.

Professional development refers to skills and knowledge attained for both personal development and career advancement.

All departmental employees can access performance and professional development opportunities throughout various phases of their career - from aspiring through beginning, consolidation and growth, high achieving to transitions.

Extensive 'in-house' development programs enhance the capabilities and performance of individuals and teams. In addition, staff can engage in a vast variety of targeted state wide programs that:

promote quality practice

build leadership capability

support professional networks

Embrace new technologies.

Sweet foods limited, Xerox and Walkers international have all applied most of the following forms of skills development which have been of tremendous benefit to the whole organisations. These include:

Conversation and discussions with others

Courses and distance learning




Each of the afore-mentioned companies applied various systems to ensure the skills of their workforce are developed to ensure the full fledged exhibition of the personal and professional skills of their staff.


In this new world, it is impossible for us to know all that there is to know, yet access to the knowledge base is increasingly readily available. So what will make us good materials technologists, rather than poor ones, is that our knowledge is more relevant, and more current, and is applied more efficiently and effectively.

The work-place has also changed, with the result that materials scientists and engineers are expected to have a wider range of skills (see table 1). We increasingly work in teams on projects and much of what we do is virtual rather than tangible. As one project ends, another begins, and so we move from project to project, from team to team, and from one work-place to another. Indeed, for many, the increasingly itinerant nature of work leads us into several different careers during our working lives.

These are strong, compelling reasons for professional development skills, but there are many more!

A better informed and more sophisticated public is demanding a higher duty of care and level of service from professionals.

Linked to this is the increasing risk of claims for negligence from professionals deemed to have 'failed' in their duty or given poor advice.

Within organisations, modern quality management systems demand that qualified people are in place to make decisions.

If we do not respond to this challenge, we face the prospect of becoming irrelevant. If, as professionals, we assume that our old time-served competences will last a lifetime, we will find ourselves becoming candidates for redundancy. The organisations we work for equally run the risk of failing to provide the new products and services that the market requires, resulting in decline.

And so we need to learn continually as we work. This requires a skill set all of its own, a skill set we need to learn for ourselves as teachers and mentors, and a skill set we need to instil into our students for their future benefit.


The following are some of the problems faced by the afore-mentioned organisations which also are part of the problems faced by Finance 4 U.

When staffs are not well developed, they do not get the required motivation from their employers.

Development of personal and professional skills improves the quality of work done, efficiency and effectiveness of employees.

Communications break down when staff are not well trained.

Reduction in profitability ratio due to lack of improvement knowledge.

Where skills (personal and professional) are not developed, the organisation would not be able to face technological advancements in future.


The analysis carried out on the three organisations would help improve the state of being of Finance 4 U. Personal development has to do with the individual while professional skills have to do partly with organisation and partly with the individual. Therefore, the problems in Finance 4 U amongst which is the motivation issue and the non existence of proper channel for professional skills requirement and their development, personal skills development and methods available which could assist in developing the company's staff skills, would be overcome if the management applies the system outlined below which will help in improving the quality of staff.

Conversation and discussions with others

Courses and distance learning




The afore-mentioned will help in improving the individual and the organisation as a whole.


Conclusively, it is pertinent for the management of Finance 4 U to realise that training is the bedrock of any successful organisation. This could be continuous, on the job, monthly and lots more to the operatives, operational and supervisory level in the organisation. This will enhance the quality of work done and ensure the continuity of the organisation vis-a-vis the profitability of the organisation.


It is evident that if staff at Finance 4 U is to work alongside the goals set by the Managing Director, they need to improve their personal and professional skills. One way to achieve this is to look at the methods available for skills development.

In this task you are required to:

Look into the various methods which are currently being used by management in skills development. Refer to the 3 organisations you identified in task 3 and analyse methods used by these organisations.

Include examples of Continuous Professional Development (CPD) of professional bodies you are aware of. Explain how CPDs can contribute to skills development.


The need for development work does not presuppose a problem. When Impact Factory provides this kind of training for many companies we aren't there to 'fix' something that's wrong.

Given the added pressures in today's workplace, companies are not necessarily asking us to provide training to alleviate stress or correct a problem. Rather they are looking for excellence not competence. They are interested in gaining a competitive edge, offering their employees additional skills to develop their current capabilities and become both more accomplished and more confident.


It improves skills

It improves efficiency and effectiveness.

Training and development allows for shared knowledge which keeps one abreast of technological and new developments.

Training leads to exposure.

Training and development allows for smooth running of organisations and reduces irresponsibility in employees.

Training and development increases the strength and height of the organisations in the market.


The following are parts of the measures adopted by the afore-mentioned organisations in developing the skills of there members of staff:

Verbal instructions




Photo sequences

The theories below show some of the theories adopted to explain the learning styles adopted:

The Learning Phases - Fitts & Posner

Fitts and Posner (1967) suggested that the learning process is sequential and that we move through specific phases as we learn. There are three stages to learning a new skill:

Cognitive phase - Identification and development of the component parts of the skill - involves formation of a mental picture of the skill

Associative phase - Linking the component parts into a smooth action - involves practicing the skill and using feedback to perfect the skill

Autonomous phase - Developing the learned skill so that it becomes automatic - involves little or no conscious thought or attention whilst performing the skill - not all performers reach this stage

The leaning of physical skills requires the relevant movements to be assembled, component by component, using feedback to shape and polish them into a smooth action. Rehearsal of the skill must be done regularly and correctly.

Schmidt's Schema Theory

Schmidt's theory (1975) was based on the view that actions are not stored rather we refer to abstract relationships or rules about movement. Schmidt's schema is based on the theory that that every time a movement is conducted four pieces of information are gathered:

the initial conditions - starting point

certain aspects of the motor action - how fast, how high

the results of the action - success or failure

the sensory consequences of the action - how it felt

Relationships between these items of information are used to construct a recall schema and a recognition schema. The Recall schema is based on initial conditions and the results and is used to generate a motor program to address a new goal. The recognition schema is based on sensory actions and the outcome.

Adam's Closed Loop Theory

Adam's theory (1971) has two elements:

Perceptual trace - a reference model acquired through practice

Memory trace - responsible for initiating the movement

The key feature of this theory is the role of feedback.

Analyse the reference model actions, the result of those actions and the desired goals

Refine the reference model to produce the required actions to achieve the desired goals

Transfer of learning

Transfer of learning can take place in the following ways:

Skill to skill

this is where a skill developed in one sport has an influence on a skill in another sport. If the influence is on a new skill being developed then this is said to be proactive and if the influence is on a previously learned skill then this is said to be retroactive

Theory to practice

the transfer of theoretical skills into practice

Training to competition

the transfer of skills developed in training into the competition situation


A skill developed in one sport helps another sport more than the reverse

How do we assess skill performance?

Initially, compare visual feedback from the athlete's movement with the technical model to be achieved. Athletes should be encouraged to evaluate their own performance. In assessing the performance of an athlete, consider the following points:

Are the basics correct?

Is the direction of the movement correct?

Is the rhythm correct?

It is important to ask athletes to remember how it felt when correct examples of movement are demonstrated (kinaesthetic feedback).

Appropriate checklists/notes can be used to assist the coach in the assessment of an athlete's technique. The following are some examples:

Sprint Technique

Running Technique for the Middle Distance runner

The other management system adopted includes:

Conversation and discussions with others:

The management ensure that the staffs are given freedom to interact with each other at work. This will ensure knowledge is passed to others who lack the kind of expertise knowledge in others. This form of training helps the organisation to save cost as this will not cost them an money. It can be achieved during tea breaks, lunch breaks and other forms of breaks adopted by various organisations.

Courses and distance learning:

Attending courses surely will allow staffs to upgrade their knowledge in particular field or activity. Distant learning also allows for meeting more knowledgeable people and share ideas with each other.


Workshops combine training, development, team-building, communications, motivation and planning. Participation and involvement of staff increases the sense of ownership and empowerment, and facilitates the development of organisations and individuals. Workshops are effective in managing change and achieving improvement, and particularly the creation of initiatives, plans, process and actions to achieve particular business and organisational aims. Workshops are also great for breaking down barriers, improving communications inside and outside of departments, and integrating staff after acquisition or merger. Workshops are particularly effective for (CRM) customer relationship management development. The best and most constructive motivational team-building format is a workshop, or better still series of workshops, focusing on the people's key priorities and personal responsibilities/interest areas, which hopefully will strongly overlap with business and departmental aims too. Workshops can be integrated within regular monthly team meetings - an amazing amount of motivation progress and productivity can be accomplished with just a 90 mins workshop per month. Workshop facilitation by a team leader or manager develops leadership, and workshops achieve strong focus on business aims among team members. Workshops are very effective for training too - workshops encourage buy-in and involvement more than conventional training courses because they are necessarily participative, and the content and output are created by the delegates. Also, the relationship between workshop facilitator or workshop presenter and delegates is participative, whereas a 'trainer' is often perceived as detached, and the training material 'not invented here'.


Seminar is, generally, a form of academic instruction, either at an academic institution or offered by a commercial or professional organization. It has the function of bringing together small groups for recurring meetings, focusing each time on some particular subject, in which everyone present is requested to actively participate. This is often accomplished through an ongoing Socratic dialogue with a seminar leader or instructor, or through a more formal presentation of research. Normally, participants must not be beginners in the field under discussion (at US universities, seminar classes are generally reserved for upper-class students, although at UK and Australian universities seminars are often used for all years). The idea behind the seminar system is to familiarize students more extensively with the methodology of their chosen subject and also to allow them to interact with examples of the practical problems that always occur during research work. It is essentially a place where assigned readings are discussed, questions can be raised and debates can be conducted. It is relatively informal, at least compared to the lecture system of academic instruction.


The term training refers to the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and competencies as a result of the teaching of vocational or practical skills and knowledge that relate to specific useful competencies. It forms the core of apprenticeships and provides the backbone of content at institutes of technology (also known as technical colleges or polytechnics). In addition to the basic training required for a trade, occupation or profession, observers of the labor-market[who?] recognize today the need to continue training beyond initial qualifications: to maintain, upgrade and update skills throughout working life. People within many professions and occupations may refer to this sort of training as professional development


Continuing Professional Development is simply a method of ensuring that you achieve the right abilities to do your job and maintain/enhance your expertise.  It embraces everything that you do to improve your job performance and your 'lifelong employability'.

CPD is a combination of approaches, ideas and techniques that will help you manage your own learning and growth. The focus of CPD is firmly on results - the benefits that professional development can bring you in the real world. Perhaps the most important message is that one size doesn't fit all. Wherever you are in your career now, and whatever you want to achieve, your CPD should be exactly that: yours

Continuous Professional Development is the systematic maintenance, improvement and broadening of knowledge and skill, and the development of personal qualities necessary for the execution of professional and technical duties throughout your working life. Put more simply, it is a life-long learning approach to planning, managing and benefiting from your own development.

By undertaking CPD you can:

Maintain and enhance your competence in your current role

Ensure you are competitive in the job market

Demonstrate commitment to your own development

Find a new intellectual challenge

 CPD is not an adjunct to your work, and the need for it is not dependent on your life or career stage (although it is a requirement for Chartered status). CPD can be any activity -in fact, you are probably doing it already - as long as you take a systematic approach to planning, undertaking, recording and reviewing your development.


There have been changes in every sector where people are being asked to do more and take on more responsibility, often with less support than ever before. As a direct result of these kinds of pressures, dealing with difficult people or situations can be more problematic. Time constraints, deadline constraints and fewer people to do more work, means that communication may suffer, conflicts stay unresolved, dissatisfaction fester, tempers get frayed and inefficiency become more prevalent.

On top of that, there is an insidious assumption that if you are good at what you do - professionally - then you will be, ipso facto, a good manager, communicator, delegator, etc. That simply isn't true. We see this across all business sectors: people who are highly capable in their jobs but are far less adept at dealing with other people. Conflict arises because not only does the organisation assume that if you're good in one aspect of the job you'll be good in all, but you yourself may feel you already 'ought' - by dint of your position - to be able to handle difficult situations and therefore, won't ask for the support and training you need.

Modern personal development is more than skills training. It offers useful alternative methods compared to coaching and mentoring too. Effective modern personal development now involves various integrated techniques, theories and behavioural concepts, that extend options around traditional ideas. This article provides examples of modern methods of developing people - enabling real personal growth and change - for individuals and organizations.

Optimising individual performance through progressive personal development significantly improves business performance too.

This example of an integrated approach to personal development is based on the work of UK-based psychotherapist Pam Weight. Her contribution of this free article is gratefully acknowledged.

Pam Weight's modern approach to personal and professional development is born out of the study of these contemporary models, which are explained in more detail later in this article:

Human development

Humanistic theories

Neuro-Linguistic Programming, and

Energy Psychology.

The personal development process enables individuals to achieve critical personal changes, specifically to:

update personal identity, attitude, values and beliefs

increase congruency and satisfaction, and

release blocks which have been restricting the realisation of personal potential.

(In this context, 'congruency' means behaving and feeling naturally and comfortably - ie, true to oneself.)


modern personal development applications

The integrated personal development approach is highly beneficial for most people.

It is however particularly effective for people who have experienced little or no benefit from conventional training, especially where progress is blocked by issues raised in the training process.

Integrated personal development is also particularly helpful where one-to-one coaching or mentoring has had limited benefit, or has prompted surprising reactions.

Equally, those who want to develop themselves in some way, but cannot identify a particular direction, will also benefit from this sort of modern integrated personal development.


personal development essentials

Modern personal development differs from conventional training methods, most importantly:

by settling the past

by reducing the effort required to live in the present

by formulating a compelling future

These fundamentals are rarely found in traditional skills training or coaching. The principles underpin the process of effective personal development.


modern personal development - an alternative to traditional training methods

Modern personal development tends to achieve results because:

it creates balance in the system (the person as a whole)

it is realistic (and is perceived by the person as being achievable and relevant)

it reduces stress, and

it increases personal control

These factors are not commonly present in traditional skills training or one-to-one coaching, and as such provide a useful alternative if traditional methods have not been effective.


personal development outcomes

Many situations benefit from the improvements arising from effective personal development, for example:

within a corporate environment - producing better organizational performance and effectiveness

to improve self-awareness

to improve personal communication with others

to improve personal relationships with others

reducing and resolving conflict and stress

Traditional training can of course produce good results in these areas, however, some people require more focus on personal issues, which can be difficult for some types of traditional training to address.


modern personal development - component theory examples

human development

Human development includes the 'nature and nurture' elements that determine who we are and how we behave. Human development is a lifelong process beginning with 'nature'. Our 'nature' elements are everything we bring into this world: from our genetic make-up, our conception, up until our birth. After we are born, the 'nurture' process begins; namely every influence we encounter that affects us: our environmental influences and behavioural conditioning by others. We are each also subject to a slow continuous forming process; a sequence of stages through which we each pass in the same order, over a number of years.

Throughout these stages other developments occur: brain development; motor development; cognitive development; social development and development of self concept and basic trust. In addition, and importantly, our emotional development.

The influence of these human development factors on people, and their response to change, is considerable.


humanistic theories

Humanistic theories focus on our inner capacity for growth and self-fulfillment; with the emphasis on human potential. The early theorists referred to humans as being 'set up' or 'pre-programmed' for growth and fulfillment, unless thwarted by an environment that restricts growth.

From a humanistic perspective, a positive self-concept is the key to personal happiness and success in life. Moreover, acceptance and empathy help us to nurture positive feelings about ourselves, and that consequently we develop the capacity to extend and apply positive feelings to others. Overall, a humanistic perspective purports that people are basically good, and capable of self improvement.

(See also McGregor's XY Theory, which includes aspects of humanistic thinking, and usefully positions them in the context of corporate organizations, management, motivational development, etc.)


neuro-linguistic programming

Neuro-Linguistic Programming is a model of human experience and communication. It has also been referred to as a study of subjective experience and human excellence. Importance is placed on rapport: mutual trust and responsiveness. Rapport can be applied to your relationship with yourself and your relationship with others.

NLP states that the greater the mental, physical and emotional rapport with yourself, the greater your health, well-being and inner peace. As a result, the greater your ability to relate to and influence others. Other pivotal aspects are:

knowing what you want - setting your goal or outcome

using your senses - being aware of what is happening to you helps you regain the curiosity and acuity you had as a child - this increases behavioural flexibility, which improves your chances of success (see the first law of cybernetics).

See also the detailed free introductory guide to Neuro-Linguistic Programming.


energy psychology

Energy Psychology is the collective term for a range of approaches focusing on the interconnectedness of mind and body. A principle of Energy Psychology is that psychological and physical problems can be treated through the body's meridian system and other bodily systems. Some of the approaches have their roots in traditional Chinese medicine energy healing, such as acupuncture.

From an Energy Psychology perspective; if the energy or meridian system balance is upset and left unchecked, there will be a physical manifestation. If there is a disturbance in the system, there will be impairment in thinking, and physical health. Clear the disturbance, and the body can do what it is meant to do - repair and/or heal itself, creating harmony and balance.



By carefully integrating and applying the behavioural models explained above, Pam Weight has developed a truly progressive and effective system of personal development. The approach is in tune with the needs of people living and working in the modern age, and provides a useful alternative to traditional training, coaching and mentoring practices.

Effective personal development must value the person's individual journey; acknowledge the person's learning from experiences; offer the opportunity for the person to update their system; and free the individual to consider their current capabilities and how and where to apply them. Truly effective personal development must be tailored for the individual, and be flexible and realistic, producing real and sustainable results, the basis of which must always be improved balance, less stress and more control.

The contribution of this article is gratefully acknowledged. If you'd like to find out more about this modern and effective approach to personal and professional development contact Pam Weight at: pamweight at ntlworld dot com.

Alternatively call Pam on: +44 (0)24 7674 3139, or contact us, and we'll be pleased to put you in touch.

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