Access To Ict By Students In Zambia Education Essay

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Having lived in Zambia for several years I have noticed that Zambia suffers from a high degree of ICT illiteracy which has lead to a digital divide. The government has for long acknowledged this predicament and had launched a program in 2004.

However signs of a digital divide still exist till today. So I decided to take a look at how the education sector had developed over these years and accordingly my research question is:

To what extent does a digital divide concerning the use of and access to ICT exist amongst students in local and international schools? And what effect does it have on them?

In order to undertake this research the ICT facilities available at the international schools and the local schools were investigated. The schools selected were lake road, AIS, ISL, kabulonga boys. Questionnaires were designed for completion by teachers and surveys were conducted among students. The questions asked were basically to ascertain access and use and impact of the knowledge and skill acquired by the students.

The research revealed a big discrepancy in terms of computer use, access and skills acquired between local and international schools. The main reasons for these discrepancies were the socio-economic inequalities that exist amongst these two categories. Students in local schools have one computer for 25 students. Furthermore the student's access to these computers were limited. The interest of the students to use these computers is also low. Local schools lacked support and financial resources to put in place rigorous ICT program that can benefit all students equally.

One way of addressing this digital divide is by introducing n- computing in school, this will improve the computer: student ratio. In addition it will be more students to participate in the use of ICT. Furthermore it does not require a huge budget.

Word count: 300

Contents

Presentation of Issue

Introduction

The current era is being denominated by information and communication technology (ICT). It is a period during which ICT is the infrastructure of choice for achieving durable and sustainable development. Due to ICT, many countries are now able to create much more efficient markets which enable them to create more jobs and improvements to the lifestyle of their people.

The use of ICT as a tool for development refines that people are trained on how to use it more confidently, creatively and competitively. It encompasses not only the mastery of technical knowledge but also the necessary understanding to apply them purposefully, safely and co responsibly in all walks of life.

ICT literacy and capability is fundamental to participate and integrate in modern society and subsequently in the global world. That being said more consideration is now being given to students to learn the basic technical knowledge for operating in an ICT based environment.

However with the attention given not all students will benefit in substantially the same way and can lead to a digital divide.

Significant signs of a digital divide can bring about inequality of opportunities for students as they leave school in search of high profile jobs.

Therefore it is of great importance to appraise the extent to which a digital divide concerning the use and access to ICT exists amongst students in local and international schools in Lusaka.

IT background of issue

Digital divide

Interest of the digital divide has risen amongst both ISP's and government in Zambia. Even the public has taken part in discussions of the issue. In Zambia as a whole, factors that are leading to the digital divide are computer availability and thus even internet access. The digital divide amongst households tends to depend primarily on two or more variables, income and education. Other well known variables such as age, gender, racial and linguistic backgrounds do play an important role as well.

Education as well creates a barrier to the use and access of ICT. Higher levels of educated individuals are more likely to have access to ICTs and have the adequate skills to manipulate the technology to their advantage.

The government has for long acknowledged this predicament and has launched a program with the assistance of the Japanese International Cooperation Agency, and Malaysian Consultant to help bridge this divide. (unknown) The project had several aims when first launched. One included transforming Zambia into an ICT hub where Zambia would excel in ICT. The other aims included creating an environment where foreign and domestic investment would be a major attraction. They hoped to achieve this by developing new and efficient communication lines and infrastructure. Thereafter, the country is planning to implement e-education, e-health, e-government and e-commerce, among others, to bridge the digital divide that exists between Zambia and the rest of the world .

In 2004, the Small Initiative Fund (SIF) was launched to boost the country programme. SIF enabled grass-root organizations in poor communities to understand and work with ICT in small projects. Most of these projects use ICT to generate income for community groups and deliver social services through an ICT access centre. Currently they are involved in three sectors in Zambia: education, health and livelihoods. (unknown)

Methodology

Each technology plays a substantially different role in a student's learning. Rather than investigate all the technology used and describe its impact the researcher chose to look at a more frequent technology implemented in the classroom, the computer.

Two general distinctions can be made as to how students learn. They can either learn "from" computers, where technology is use as a tutor to increase a student's basic skills and knowledge or "with" computers. This is where computers serve as a tool to develop higher order thinking, creativity and research skills. (Reeves, 1998; Ringstaff & Kelley, 2002)

I underwent research by examining 4 schools, two international schools and local schools. Having no clue as to what to expect, the researcher dissected the situation into three categories. Firstly the research examined the IT system that each school was running and had provided to the students. Secondly was to examine how the IT system was implemented in the student' agenda. And lastly the evaluate the impact the technology has on the students. Having dissected the problem into these categories allows the researcher to point out where the digital divide actually lies if any where to exist.

Impact of issue:

Access of technology

Computer access

Exploring the digital divide amongst schools requires that we examine the access the students have to technology. The placement of technology in a school can greatly influence access to it. If computers are connected to the internet but are in an inconvenient location, the availability of the equipment to students and teachers will be limited. Therefore this is an important issue for teachers and students.

From the survey conducted for the local school we find an unreasonable amount of computers provided to staff members rather than students. 30 computers were provided to staff members and 22 to students. Having looked at the student-teacher ratio we find that the ratios do not fit the number of computers being given.

From survey A we also find that computers in the local schools were solely provided in computer labs. In many schools we find this is a common approach since this setting ensures easier maintaince and most likely is easier for teachers to teach computer skills to students. However Students of today need regular access to computers and unfortunately computer labs are too conducive for the students of the 21 century. (Wolsey, 2009)

Local schools need to be acquainted with the fact that using technology in isolated classrooms is one thing and using technology as a potent force in transforming an entire education system is another.

A single IT class (computer lab) constitutes only a small portion of a student's educational experience.

In most cases we find that students become frustrated when they enter other classrooms without technological activities. Most, certainly do not find it worthy of, to invest the time to learn computer skills such as keyboarding and Internet searching only to have them fall into disuse in the following year. (Means)

Ideally, schools would want computers in classrooms so the technology becomes a ubiquitous part of the school environment. Allowing students to have access to computers throughout the day can help promote the use of technology becoming a seamless part of the learning process. Although access to computers in a classroom is beneficial, it is not always possible to provide computers to all students. Schools that are dealing with students between the hundreds and thousands cannot afford this high expenditure cost. Thus and ideal solution would be to facilitate a centralized area common to students.

Nevertheless students were granted access to computer labs anytime of the day. This is important as we have verified that availability is not a problem. Students are allowed to come and develop their skills when ever free.

The international schools had an adequate amount of computers available to students. Recently thin clients were deployed in one of the international schools allowing…….

Although the learning process of the technology benefits the students it can be vitally as important for the teachers. Teachers can and do have a profound effect on the students learning process. Therefore teachers having computers when they need them can be equally as important.

From survey A the researcher found that a reasonable amount of computers were issued to staff members in the local schools. As for the international schools, most teachers were equipped with their own computers.

Internet access

Zambia has the highest internet connectivity which costs as high as $6000 per megabit, prices which is double the cost of internet in other places in Africa. (Sinyangwe, 2009)

This creates a huge problem for schools to set-up a reasonable connection that can facilitate everyone. Although all schools were connected to the internet surveys show that many did not consider their internet connectivity reliable. One downfall of the unreliable internet is being unable to make use of online education.

Online education and distance learning have given a new dimension to the field of education and higher learning. Today, students do not necessarily need to be physically present in classrooms. Many educational institutes offer online courses to their students. Most of the schools and colleges offer online assignment submission facilities. Students can submit their homework and test assignments through the Internet. Many universities offer online education programs wherein the students can interact with their teachers over the web. (Oak)

However although the internet was unreliable the international schools had made us of an intranet as means of communication between student and teachers.

Use of technology

Computer use

Exploring the digital divide amongst schools requires not only requires examining the access the students have to technology but also the equality in the educational experiences the students have with the technology.

The usage of technology in a school plays an important role. It is said to be one of the factors that cause a digital divide amongst schools. Reasons are as followed; putting computers in the classroom does not automatically decrease the divide. The outcome of investing in computers should be for the benefit of the students. Students must be able to manipulate their skills on the technology thus improving the learning process. Doing so would mean analyzing how the students are making use of the computer technology provided to them.

From survey B done on the local and international schools students, we find that 47% of the sampled local students do not use the computers at school. This is a common case as we find from prior results that students are more acquainted with their computers at home. Although this then leads to a socioeconomic problem. As students from different socioeconomic groups have varying access to computers and the Internet. Therefore this has an effect on the equity of computer access.

However survey B shows that 57% of local students didn't have access to computers at home. Those who did have access, 77% of them did not use it.

This leads to a major problem as most students are unlikely to be using a computer at all. It is almost impossible to enjoy the benefits of ICTs without the use of ICT in education and indeed ICT education itself to improve skills.

Computers have brought about a revolution across all industries. They have changed the face of society. What was once known as a technology that required specially trained people has now become a daily utility. Computers have gained immense importance in day-to-day life. Their increasing utility has made computer education the need of the day. (Oak)

The ICT skills of students in the local school were poor. From the survey we see that on average 45% of students did not have the required skills to use simple tool-based applications (such as word processors) Where as students from international school all of them had some sort of idea about each of the simple tool-based applications.

Various technologies deliver different kinds of content and serve different purposes in the classroom. For example, word processing and e-mail promote communication skills; database and spreadsheet programs promote organizational skills; and modelling software promotes the understanding of science and math concepts. Therefore it is important to consider how these electronic technologies differ and what characteristics make them important as vehicles for education (Becker, 1994).

Computer's being implemented in education has made it not only easier for the teachers to render knowledge but also for students to grasp it much quicker. Computer technology allows a fun-element to education and it goes without saying that the Internet has endowed education with interactivity. The computer offers several advantages to a student's life, ranging from interactive audio-visual media to PowerPoint presentations to animation software. Each can be used to render information to students in an interactive and much more appealing manner. The visual effects provided by the animation and presentation software result in greater awareness of the students dues to greater interest rates. Furthermore, these applications serve as visual aids to the teachers. Overhead projectors and screens facilitate a simultaneous viewing of information by a large number of students. These audio-visual teaching aids have brought about marked improvements in student attendance and attentiveness. Interactive media have proven to be useful in enhancing the concentration levels of students. Therefore we can conclude that this underlines the importance of computer teaching against textbooks. (Oak)

Computers skills are more important than ever, required for nearly half of all jobs now compared to less than a third in 1997.

A technology savvy youth is playing an increasing influential role in employment and with a countries development. Education is crucial for students to be prepared to meet global needs so that well paying jobs are not outsourced. Lack of Education and employment slows down progress within a country (Koss, 2001).

The most severe consequences of the digital divide are the long term effects that it can have on students that do not have access to education. Lacking access and computer skills would mean that a whole generation will miss out on realizing their full potential in an information and communication technology world (Koss, 2001).

Therefore it is virtually impossible to ignore the need for technology in an education curriculum (Di Bello, 2005).

Studies have also shown that school students who are competent computer users tend to perform better in their other key school subjects than those with limited experience and confidence to perform basic computer necessities. According to OECD studies it has been found thata tech-savy youth could perform strikingly better due to the relationship that they hold with computers.

In short students with limited access to computers or only recent access to computers are at a higher risk of performing poorly at curriculum level.

Internet use

The internet has more or less become a fundamental medium of communication and information processing, permeating every domain of economy and society. The more it becomes the key medium for business, education, for social services, for personal development, and for social interaction, the more the capacity to use it becomes dependant on peoples educational level. In other words the real inequality starts when we are all dependent on the internet. The more we move into an internet society, the more education becomes the foundation for equal opportunity. Therefore in addition to the computer use, the level of internet use was examined as well.

The results also show that 64% of students did not have internet access as compared to all the students who had access from the international school.

Information and Communication Technology is playing an increasingly influential role in reshaping employment in large parts of the world. Information and Communication Technologies presents unprecedented opportunities to combat poverty by increasing income, opening markets and providing employment opportunities. Knowledge based economies have an advantage in today's global market. Countries with extensive knowledge assets are able to open employment opportunities which create rapid technological progress that benefits in economic growth and rising living standards.

A trend has formed with employees wanting workers with certified skills and educational levels to fill positions. Students in higher education are dealing with more than a digital divide, it has now become a degree divide. Students that are prevented from getting bachelor degrees are at a disadvantage in gaining employment (Garmon, 2003).

Solution to problem:

Solution

Government in Lusaka, Zambia has a lot of work on their hands, as they have to maintain and resolve many problems that are arising in the country. But education should be their primary concern. Without proper education given to children they would become handicapped as majority of the work fields of today require computer skills.

Resolving a socio economic problem is not a possibility for a school. Having a computer placed in all the students' houses is a difficult and almost unrealistic solution as the cost cannot be handheld either by the government.

However schools can facilitate students by implementing the n-computers. The n-computer will allow the local schools to create a 49-user computer lab that is accessible to all. With budget constraints and ongoing maintenance to take into consideration n-computers would be an ideal solution.

Several nations have deployed n-computing with success stories. Republic of Macedonia is one of them, Enrolling n-computers in 430 schools enabling seven users to access a single computer simultaneously. (Republic of Macedonia first nation to)

N-computers benefit in several ways, its costs are spread out through the use of shared computers. Schools are able to provide up to five times the number of seats for the same money allowing better opportunity for students to make use of computers to enhance their ICT skills.

However although n-computers can evidently reduce a digital divide it has several limitations just like other desktop virtualization. One major concern of desktop virtualizations is the potential security risk that it holds if the network is not properly managed. If downtime were to increase in the event of a network failure all computers would be left virtually inaccessible .

Conclusion

Without the appropriate ICT skills students will not be able to cope as the leave schools in search of high post jobs. Almost all jobs of today require some sort of ICT skills, whether it is word processing or emailing. A digital divide note only affects the student but the government as well. ICT is the need for the youths of today and the government has to take note of that.

Yet dealing with a digital divide amongst schools is just as complex as those amongst countries. As we have to take into consideration all the factors that cause the digital divide. Each inter relates with one another. To create balance amongst the schools, public schools are required to catch up with international schools in terms of access of technology and of course the learning output the students achieve.

However through the research undertaken the learning outcome of the students at most times depended on their socio economic background. This leads to one of our biggest challenges to face.

In addition schools were facing problems with internet reliability. Internet in Zambia over all is not at competition level with other countries. Therefore to address the problem, the researcher would have to resolve the problem at nation levels, which goes outside the scope of this paper.

RESULTS

LOCAL SCHOOL

How often do you use the computer at school and for what purpose?

Do not use

Occasionally

(≤1hr)

Per week

Fairly

(2-4hrs)

Per week%

Extensive

4+

Per week

Emailing

7%

86%

7%

0

Researching

7%

65%

28%

0

Word processing

57%

36%

7%

0

spreadsheets

71%

22%

7%

0

Desktop publishing

78%

22%

0%

0

Presentations

64%

29%

7%

0

Instant messaging

42%

29%

29%

0

Total

47%

41%

12%

0

INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL

How often do you use the computer at school and for what purpose?

Do not use

Occasionally

(≤1hr)

Per week

Fairly

(2-4hrs)

Per week

Extensive

4+

Per week

Emailing

43%

29%

14%

14%

Researching

14%

43%

29%

14%

Word processing

7%

50%

22%

21%

spreadsheets

50%

36%

0%

14%

Desktop publishing

86%

7%

0%

7%

Presentations

21%

43%

14%

22%

Instant messaging

86%

0%

0%

14%

Total

44%

30%

11%

15%

Have a computer at home

Local school

International school

yes

43%

100%

no

57%

0%

LOCAL SCHOOL

How often do you use the computer at Home and for what purpose?

Do not use

Occasionally

(≤1hr)

Per week

Fairly

(2-4hrs)

Per week

Extensive

4+

Per week

Word processing

57%

29%

7%

7%

spreadsheets

86%

14%

0%

0%

Desktop publishing

100%

0%

0%

0%

Presentations

86%

14%

0%

0%

Playing games

57%

14%

22%

7%

Total

77%

14%

6%

3%

INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL

How often do you use the computer at Home and for what purpose?

Do not use

Occasionally

(≤1hr)

Per week

Fairly

(2-4hrs)

Per week

Extensive

4+

Per week

Word processing

0%

29%

42%

29%

spreadsheets

36%

50%

7%

7%

Desktop publishing

57%

36

7%

0%

Presentations

28%

29%

29%

14%

Playing games

29%

21%

7%

43%

Total

30%

33%

18%

19%

Have internet at home

Local school

International school

Yes

36%

100%

No

64%

0%

Local School

How often do you use the internet at home and for what purpose?

Do not use

Occasionally

(≤1hr)

Per week

Fairly

(2-4hrs)

Per week

Extensive

4+

Per week

Emailing

64%

14%

22%

0%

Researching

57%

29%

7%

7%

Instant messaging

64%

22%

14%

0%

Playing games

57%

14%

29%

0%

Total

61%

19%

18%

2

Local School

Skills on computer programs

Cannot

Low

Reasonable

high

Operating system

7%

57%

29%

7%

Word processing

14%

29%

57%

0%

Spreadsheets

58%

21%

21%

0%

Desktop publishing

57%

36%

7%

0%

Presentations

72%

7%

21%

0%

Web search Engines

58%

21%

21%

0%

Web creating

72%

14%

14%

0%

Photo Editing

29%

21%

50%

0%

Total

45%

26%

28%

1%

INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL

Skills on computer programs

Cannot

Low

Reasonable

high

Operating system

0%

36%

43%

21%

Word processing

0%

0%

14%

86%

Spreadsheets

0%

0%

57%

43%

Desktop publishing

0%

36%

50%

14%

Presentations

0%

14%

29%

57%

Web search Engines

0%

14%

7%

79%

Web creating

7%

50%

29%

14%

Photo Editing

0%

29%

50%

21%

Total

1%

22%

35%

42%

To what extend do the following constrain the use and access of computer technology at your school?

Not at all

A little

Fairly

Very much

1)Students lack of skills towards computers?

7%

36%

14%

43%

2)Teachers lack of skills towards computers?

42%

29%

29%

0%

3)Teachers lack of interest in technology

29%

50%

7%

14%

4)Teachers lack of experience with technology?

36%

43%

14%

7%

5)Principal does not understand the potential contribution of computer technology

29%

14%

29%

28%

6)Ministry does not understand the potential contribution of computer technology

29%

7%

14%

50%

To what extend do the following constrain the use and access of computer technology at your school?

Not at all

A little

Fairly

Very much

1)Students lack of skills towards computers?

29%

50%

7%

14%

2)Teachers lack of skills towards computers?

36%

36%

7%

21%

3)Teachers lack of interest in technology

58%

14%

7%

21%

4)Teachers lack of experience with technology?

29%

36%

14%

21%

5)Principal does not understand the potential contribution of computer technology

50%

36%

14%

0%

Appendix

Sample survey

I am doing a survey to compare the use and access of computer technology amongst local and international students

How often do you use the computer at school Do Not use occasionally fairly extensive

and for what purpose? (≤ 1hr) (2-4hrs) 4+ per week per week per week

Emailing â-¡ â-¡ â-¡ â-¡

Researching â-¡ â-¡ â-¡ â-¡

Word processing (e.g. Microsoft word) â-¡ â-¡ â-¡ â-¡

Spreadsheets (e.g. Excel) â-¡ â-¡ â-¡ â-¡

Desktop Publishing â-¡ â-¡ â-¡ â-¡

Presentations (e.g. PowerPoint) â-¡ â-¡ â-¡ â-¡

Instant messaging (e.g. Msn messenger) â-¡ â-¡ â-¡ â-¡

Do you have a computer at home?

â-¡yes â-¡no

How often do you use the computer at Home Do Not use occasionally fairly extensive

and for what purpose? (≤ 1hr) (2-4hrs) 4+ per week per week per week

Word processing (e.g. Microsoft word) â-¡ â-¡ â-¡ â-¡

Spreadsheets (e.g. Excel) â-¡ â-¡ â-¡ â-¡

Desktop Publishing â-¡ â-¡ â-¡ â-¡

Presentations (e.g. PowerPoint) â-¡ â-¡ â-¡ â-¡

Playing games â-¡ â-¡ â-¡ â-¡

Do you have internet at home?

â-¡yes â-¡no

How often do you use the internet at Home Do Not use occasionally fairly extensive

and for what purpose? (≤ 1hr) (2-4hrs) 4+ per week per week per week

Emailing â-¡ â-¡ â-¡ â-¡

Researching â-¡ â-¡ â-¡ â-¡

Presentations (e.g. PowerPoint) â-¡ â-¡ â-¡ â-¡

Instant messaging (e.g. Msn messenger) â-¡ â-¡ â-¡ â-¡

Playing games â-¡ â-¡ â-¡

What is your Skill level on these cannot Low reasonable High

computer programs (check all that apply)

Operating systems â-¡ â-¡ â-¡ â-¡

Word processing (e.g. Microsoft word) â-¡ â-¡ â-¡ â-¡

Spreadsheets (e.g. Excel) â-¡ â-¡ â-¡ â-¡

Desktop Publishing â-¡ â-¡ â-¡ â-¡

Presentations (e.g. PowerPoint) â-¡ â-¡ â-¡ â-¡

Web Search Engines â-¡ â-¡ â-¡ â-¡

Web creating â-¡ â-¡ â-¡ â-¡

Photo editing â-¡ â-¡ â-¡ â-¡

Other (please specify):

To what extend do the following constrain the use and access of computer technology at your school?

(tick a box)

Not at all

A little

fairly

Very much

Students lack of skills towards computers?

Teachers lack of skills towards computers?

Teachers lack of interest in technology?

Teachers lack of experience in technology?

Principal does not understand the potential contribution of computer technology?

Ministry does not understand the potential contribution of computer technology?

Other (please specify):

Thank you 

Sample of questionnaire

In this questionnaire I will be comparing the access of technology (computers) to teachers and students in several local and international schools.

Name of school: ………………………………………………………………………………

Are computers provided to staff members and students:

â-¡ Students â-¡Staff â-¡students and staff

How make servers do you have running?

…………………………..

What types of computers are they?

â-¡laptops â-¡desktops

Please provide a little description: (e.g operating system)

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

Number of computers provided to staff (this includes administration):

……………………………………………………………………………

How are these computers used by staff members (do not include answers regarding the internet. This will be asked later):

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

How many computers are provided to student in the IT classes:

……………………………………………………………………………

Are computers provided in other subjects:

â-¡ Yes â-¡No

If so which:

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

Are students allowed to use computers any time of the day:

â-¡ Yes â-¡No

How are the computers implemented in the curriculum of the students (do not include answers regarding the internet in others):

purpose

Tick or cross

Doing homework and other school projects

Desktop publishing

Word processors

Spreadsheets

Databases

Playing computer games

If there are others please state:

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

Is there internet access provided to staff and students or just staff or just students:

â-¡ Students â-¡staff â-¡students and staff

Internet provider:

………………………………………………..

Bundle obtained e.g. Home light:

…………………………………………………………………

How reliable is the internet:

â-¡not at all â-¡satisfactory â-¡reliable â-¡very reliable

How is the internet used by staff members (if internet not provided to staff, skip this section):

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

How is the internet implemented in the curriculum of the students:

purpose

Tick or cross

Communicating with other students regarding school work

Download music, etc

Search for information on topics of

personal interest (e.g. soccer, programming etc.)

Search for information for school

assignments, projects, etc.

Communicate with family members e.g skype, Msn messenger

emailing

If there are others please state:

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

Thank you for your time 

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