Acceptance and use of educational technology

Published:

This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.

Acceptance and use of educational technology innovation within the teaching and learning has a long history that began with the use of slate to that computer and Internet technology. Acceptance or rejection in almost all types of innovation continues to debate the historical development of educational technology in the education system in Malaysia. The history of the old instructional technology in the education system allows this study to review aspects of technology leadership, technology plan, the role of educational technology agencies in the Ministry of Education, access to technology infrastructure in schools, physical plant and equipment technology, management, process assessment and capability and competence of teachers to integrate and to use media and technology in teaching and learning process that hopefully can make a difference to student achievement. Many studies have been carried out to determine the effect or impact of instructional technology for teaching and learning process and the results give different results. In terms of student achievement, comparative media study shows two results: there is increasing student achievement and is also showing no significant changes in student achievement than traditional learning (Wilkinson, 1980). The results are not consistent probably due to study design , instructional design, learning objectives, prior knowledge, attributes and elements of the media that there is interference in the media itself. For example, there are several studies that show that media and technology if used in a systematic and planned to use the principles of instructional design will help students learn and teachers teach (Heinich, et al. 2002; Dick & Carey, 1996; Yusup & Razmah, 2006) . While Levin and Lesgold (1978) and Levin, Anglin & Carney (1987) also believe the design of visual elements can help the process of teaching and learning.  

     Several studies mentioned above shows that the media and technology impact on the P & P. In addition to media and technology factors, this study tried to explore the factors that teachers' own competence or competency of teachers to use media and technology to solve problems in the teaching and learning in schools. It means whether teachers have the competence or the efficiency of using technology and media in teaching and learning? As This study attempts to explore the indicators available to teachers to use media and technology in teaching and learning. This indicator can also be used to measure the level of competence of teachers to use instructional technology in schools. This factor can also be used as an indicator for determining Standard instructional technology use among teachers.  

     Another aspect that affects the use or integration of instructional technology in R & D leadership. School management also played a leadership role in the implementation of instructional technology in schools.  The study shows the affects administrative support for the management and implementation of media and technology program at the school (Schmidt, 1987; Yusup, 1991). The study also tried to see the competencies of principals, headmasters and technicians to manage and maintain media and technology to support teaching and learning .

1.2 Rationale of Study 

Every time presented the Annual Budget, the government has provided funding for the larger education sector. In 2005, a total of 21.5 billion has been allocated (Abdullah Badawi, 2005) that 25% of the total budget, while in 2007, a total of RM33.4 billion, representing 21% of the total budget has been prepared for the education sector. In Budget 2007, a total of RM288 million has been provided under the program pembestarian school (Abdullah Badawi, 2007). The Government has been providing equipment and facilities, infrastructure, media, computers, technology equipment and highly trained teachers, especially in the 88 smart schools. MOE has been providing training programs to upgrade teachers' skills and by the year 2005, a total of 200,000 teachers were trained in the field of ICT (MOE, 2006). The question whether the provision of human capital can produce efficient, productive and world-class? Use of advanced technology or the state of the art technology is expected to produce students who are creative, innovative and critical thinking that will ultimately produce a knowledgeable and productive people are able to compete in the era of globalization. 

      Technology and media facilities provided by the Ministry of Education is also expected to help teachers improve student achievement, particularly in science and mathematics as well as continue to help the teacher to teach Science and Mathematics in English. Science and Mathematics Teachers were provided with a computer laptop and a digital projection system using LCD projectors and document cameras to help teachers teach and students learn in the program Teaching Science and Mathematics Learning in English (PPSMI). The Education Development Master Plan (PIPP) RM1, 422 million was provided for PPSMI program (MOE, 2006) . The question now is whether the cost to help teachers improve student achievement? Do teachers and school management has efficiency or competence to perform the program and program PPSMI pembestarian school? In other words, what level of competency of teachers and managers of schools to use and manage technology, instructional or more specific ICT in R & D? Therefore it is desirable that the study was conducted to determine the level of competence or the efficiency of teachers, principals / headmasters and technicians to integrate, use and manage technology and media in teaching and learning based on instructional technology standards that have been modified instructional technology from American Standard or the National Educational Technology Standards America (NETS, 2000) and suggests that the NETS components are used to plan the use, management and integration of technology in P & P. This data can also be used by the Ministry of Education and Ministry of Higher Education to conduct in-service courses or revise curriculum instructional technology, especially ICT for Teacher Training at Teacher Education Division and the High School. 

     So far there has been no study to measure the competency of teachers in instructional technology and principals / headmasters in the management of instructional technology, based on a formal and clear standards. Several previous studies also suggested that a standard developed to measure the skills and knowledge of teachers using ICT in the P & P. (Norizan & Mohamed Amin, 2003; Mona & Azilah, 2007).  

 

 

Purpose of the Study

 

The purpose of this study was to determine the competency of teachers and school managers to manage and use instructional technology in teaching and learning. In addition, in particular the purpose of this study are:  

Measuring the level and standard of instructional technology among teachers using six standard proposed by the United National Educational Technology Standards (NETS, 2000) that (a) concepts and technology operations, (b) planning and design of learning environments and teaching experience, (c) learning and curriculum, (d) assessment and evaluation of learning, (e) productivity and professional practice and (f) social, ethical, legal and humanitarian. Each standard is divided into four levels or stages of competency that is a) Initial level ( Novice ), b) Basic Level ( Basic ), c) Skilled Level ( Proficient ), and d) Advanced Level ( Advanced ).

 

Measuring the level of support for principals, teachers and technicians in the management of instructional technology using the Technology Standards for School Administrators (TSSA, 2000), namely (a) leadership and vision of instructional technology, (b) learning and teaching, (c) productivity and professional practice, ( d) support, management and operations (e) assessment and evaluation, and (f) social, ethical, legal and humanitarian.

 

 

 

Research Objectives

 

Ojektif this study are as follows: 

   1. To observe the competency of teachers in the six following standard instructional technology:

Operational concepts and technology

Planning and design of learning environments and experiences

Teaching, learning and curriculum

Assessment and evaluation of learning

Productivity and professional practice

Social, ethical, legal and humanitarian

 

   2. Viewing the competency of teachers in the Draft Standards and Technology Operations.

3. Looking at the level of competency of teachers in Sub Standard Operating Concepts and Technology.  

4. Looking at the level of teacher competence in Standard Operating Concepts and Technology. 

5. Viewing the competency of teachers in Planning and Design Standards in Teaching and Learning Environment.  

6. Looking at the level of competency of teachers in Sub Standard Environmental Planning and Design of Teaching and Learning. 

7. Looking at the kecekepan teachers in Planning and Design Standards in Teaching and Learning Environment. 

8. Viewing the competency of teachers in the Standard Teaching, Learning and Curriculum.  

9. Looking at the level of competency of teachers in Sub Standard Teaching, Learning and Curriculum  

10. Looking at the level of competency of teachers in the Standard Teaching, Learning and Curriculum  

11. Viewing the competency of teachers in the Standard Assessment and Learning Assessment.  

12. Looking at the level of competency of teachers in Sub Standard Assessment and Learning Assessment. 

13. Looking at the level of competency of teachers in the Standard Assessment and Learning Assessment. 

14. Viewing the competency of teachers in the Productivity and Standards of Professional Practice.  

15. Looking at the level of competency of teachers in Sub Standards Productivity and Professional Practice.

 

16. Looking at the level of competency of teachers in the Productivity and Standards of Professional Practice.  

17. Viewing the competency of teachers in the Standard Social Issues, Ethics, Law and Humanities.  

18. Looking at the level of competency of teachers in Sub Social Standards, Ethics, Law and Humanities. 

19. Looking at the level of competency of teachers in the Social Standards, Ethics, Law and Humanities. 

20. Looking competencies of principals / headmasters in the Standard:

Leadership and vision of instructional technology

Learning and teaching

Productivity and professional practice

Support, management and operations

Assessment and evaluation

Social, legal and ethical

 

21. Looking technician competency in:

Leadership and vision of instructional technology

Learning and teaching

Productivity and professional practice

Support, management and operations

Operational concepts and technology

Social, legal and ethical

 

22. See whether the competency of teachers who have specialized in educational technology are higher than teachers who have specific information and communication technology in the six standards:

Operational concepts and technology?

Planning and design of learning environments and experiences?

Teaching, learning and curriculum?

Assessment and evaluation of learning?

Productivity and professional practice?

Social issues, ethics, law and humanities?

 

23. Looking at the Science and Mathematics teachers' competencies in:

Standard planning and design of learning environments and experiences

Standards of teaching, learning and curriculum

 

24. Looking at the relationship between schools that are planning instructional technology competencies of teachers in the six standards:

Operational concepts and technology?

Planning and design of learning environments and experiences?

Teaching, learning and curriculum?

Assessment and evaluation of learning?

Productivity and professional practice?

Social issues, ethics, law and humanities?

 

25. Looking at teachers in schools with instructional technology prancangan a higher competency of teachers in schools that do not have a plan of educational technology in the following standard:

Operational concepts and technology?

Planning and design of learning environments and experiences?

Teaching, learning and curriculum?

Assessment and evaluation of learning?

Productivity and professional practice?

Social issues, ethics, law and humanities?

 

 

 

Research questions

 

The following are the research questions: 

What are the competencies of teachers in the instructional technology standards?

 

What are the competencies of teachers in each of the following six standards:

Operational concepts and technology?

Planning and design of learning environments and experiences?

Teaching, learning and curriculum?

Assessment and evaluation of learning?

Productivity and professional practice?

Social issues, ethics, law and humanities?

 

3. What are the competencies of teachers in the following sub-standard instructional technology?

The concept and operation of instructional technology

Planning and design of learning environments and experiences?

Teaching, learning and curriculum?

Assessment and evaluation of learning?

Productivity and professional practice?

Social issues, ethics, law and humanities?

 

4. What level of competency of teachers in each of six instructional technology standards?

Operational concepts and technology

Planning and design of learning environments and experiences

Teaching, learning and curriculum

Assessment and evaluation of learning

Productivity and professional practice

Social, ethical, legal and humanitarian

 

5. Is the headmaster / principals have competency in the following six standards?

Leadership and vision of instructional technology

Learning and teaching

Productivity and professional practice

Support, management and operations

Assessment and evaluation

Social, legal and ethical

 

6. Do technicians have the competency of the following six standards?

Vision and plan instructional technology

Learning and teaching

Productivity and professional practice

Support, management and operations

Operational concepts and technology

Social, legal and ethical

 

7. Are teachers who have specialized in educational technology have a higher competence than teachers with a specialization in information and communication technology in the Standard?

Operational concepts and technology

Planning and design of learning environments and experiences

Teaching, learning and curriculum

Assessment and evaluation of learning

Productivity and professional practice

Social, ethical, legal and humanitarian

8. What are the competencies of teachers who teach Science and Mathematics in the Standard?:

Planning and design of learning environments and experiences

Teaching, learning, curriculum dabn

 

9. Is there a significant relationship between the schools with instructional technology planning with the teacher competency standards:

Operational concepts and technology

Planning and design of learning environments and experiences

Teaching, learning and curriculum

Assessment and evaluation of learning

Productivity and professional practice

Social, ethical, legal and humanitarian

 

10. Do teachers in schools with instructional technology prancangan have greater competence than teachers in schools that do not have a plan of educational technology in the Standard?

Operational concepts and technology

Planning and design of learning environments and experiences

Teaching, learning and curriculum

Assessment and evaluation of learning

Productivity and professional practice

Social, ethical, legal and humanitarian

 

 

 

Research Interests

 

This study hopes to identify the standards and level of competency among the teachers instructional technology. The standard to evaluate the level of knowledge and skills to use instructional technology. This standard can also be used as a guide the Ministry of Education to improve teachers' competencies, especially the use of instructional technology and computer technology. The findings can also be used to revise the teacher education curriculum for teacher training, teacher In-Service Training Program that is being served and the sort of intervention program for school teachers. 

 

 

Scope and Limitations of Study

 

This study is to see teachers' competency or efficiency of using new media and technology, especially computers and instructional design in teaching and learning based on the six standards set by the American Educational Technology Standards. This study did not see skills to use technology and media in the P & P. Old media such as blackboard, transparencies, models and non-print materials such as textbooks, posters, charts and so is not classified as instructional technology to measure the competency of teachers. The sample consisted of schools with outstanding achievement of the state or territory concerned, especially the smart schools. The feedback received is dependent on the sincerity or honesty respondents complete the questionnaires.  

 

 

Definition of Terms

 

Instructional technology

Instructional technology or educational technology means the processes and products used to improve student achievement. The process covers the strategies and methods used in teaching and learning while the product is a media and technology tools such as LCD projectors, video in particular computer system used to support teaching and learning  

Computers and Technology Competency

Computer competency and technological means of knowledge, skills and abilities of teachers to use computer and Internet technology as a tool and followed with the knowledge, skills and abilities of teachers using these tools in teaching and learning. 

Teacher Competencies

Teacher competence means the knowledge, skills, abilities and other characteristics of teachers that are associated with improved performance of teachers in the teaching and learning. It also covers the term competencies, beliefs and motives. Competencies can distinguish between high achievement of achievement of medium and low achievement.  

Standard

Standard means a reference guide containing examples of techniques that have been accepted or approved based on criteria that show how things should be done and the level and scope of competence. In the study, there are six standards of instructional technology. Each of these standards is divided into four stages: initial stage ( Novice ), basic ( Basic ), skilled ( Proficient ) and advanced ( Advanced ). 

Integration of instructional technology in teaching and learning

The use of instructional technology to improve teaching performance and facilitate the learning process. 

 

 

 

Excellent Schools

Excellent schools are schools that have the best performance on the SPM results for secondary schools and primary schools for the UPSR for the year under review.  

 

 

Conclusion

 

Chapter one has explained the rationale, objectives and importance of the study. A total of 25 questions related to competency studies have investigated teachers, principals and technicians to use and manage the instructional technology in schools. This study will help the Ministry of Education to determine the standard of instructional technology in schools and suggests the direction of teacher education curriculum in the field of instructional technology as a result of the influence and development of ICT in the education system. 

 

Writing Services

Essay Writing
Service

Find out how the very best essay writing service can help you accomplish more and achieve higher marks today.

Assignment Writing Service

From complicated assignments to tricky tasks, our experts can tackle virtually any question thrown at them.

Dissertation Writing Service

A dissertation (also known as a thesis or research project) is probably the most important piece of work for any student! From full dissertations to individual chapters, we’re on hand to support you.

Coursework Writing Service

Our expert qualified writers can help you get your coursework right first time, every time.

Dissertation Proposal Service

The first step to completing a dissertation is to create a proposal that talks about what you wish to do. Our experts can design suitable methodologies - perfect to help you get started with a dissertation.

Report Writing
Service

Reports for any audience. Perfectly structured, professionally written, and tailored to suit your exact requirements.

Essay Skeleton Answer Service

If you’re just looking for some help to get started on an essay, our outline service provides you with a perfect essay plan.

Marking & Proofreading Service

Not sure if your work is hitting the mark? Struggling to get feedback from your lecturer? Our premium marking service was created just for you - get the feedback you deserve now.

Exam Revision
Service

Exams can be one of the most stressful experiences you’ll ever have! Revision is key, and we’re here to help. With custom created revision notes and exam answers, you’ll never feel underprepared again.