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Intrinsic and extrinsic are a type of motivation that can be used at work, in life and in school. Ones behavior and age are some other factors, to understanding the use of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. This paper will explain what intrinsic and extrinsic is, how it is used, advantages and disadvantages and which is most benefitting amid the youths in school. Among the students and the theories it will show intrinsic vs. extrinsic and the motivational tools developed to help children achieve.
In the book, "Development of Acheivement Motivation," by (Wigfield, 2002) states there are three questions that you must ask to determine a persons' motivational mind set is; "Can I do the activity? Do I want to do the task and why? What do I need to succeed at this activity?" The two motivational tools are intrinsic and extrinsic." (p16).What is intrinsic? Intrinsic is the yearning to participate in behaviors for no reason, but sheer gratification, pleasure, challenge or curiosity (Lepper, 2005).
How is this motivation tool used among youth is school? Several instructors have used this method in focusing on the challenge and conceptual thinking. In Development of Acheivement Motivation (Wigfield, 2002) states "This is where the instructor motivates the students' challenges, the conceptual and analytical thinking. It helps to promote the student by fostering greater feeling of competence and isolating the skill part because the more challenging of the work would result in apparent progresses of understanding", (p312).
Conquering the challenge concepts should also in engender positive emotions such as pride and fulfillment (Wigfield, 2002). These feelings of pride and competence should in turn, prompt intrinsic interest amusement. Many studies are done with in school to show the development among the motivational tools. In reference to Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivational Orientations in the Classroom: Age Differences and Acedimic Correlates, questionnaire studies support the assumption that students enjoy work that is challenging, conceptual and framed around big ideas, rather than an isolated skill. Studies have also shown that age factors do affect a student's motivational mind set. Many children may participate in academic tasks both because it interests them and because it will please their teacher or help those to earn a good grade (Lepper, 2005).
Many teachers use activities to determine the response of the student. Is there a focus, understanding and enjoyment of the activity or are the students lacking and looking for a reason to complete the activity. A child's behavior depending on the age is also factor in, in determining if intrinsic will work on a student. For example a child in elementary school in 2nd grade between 7 and 8 years of age is curious and eager to learn. There is an enjoyment of learning more and getting better at an activity. Now take a student in 8th grader between 13 and 14 years of age, where things are more hectic it is more of what will I get if I do well on this activity. To get a good grade for self is not as important to get a good grade because for every "A" you get is $10.00.
In many school intrinsic is used among younger student because at this point is where their curious about everything and ask why a lot more. Older students are harder to use intrinsic motivation, because of the lack of self-gain and time constraints. In elementary schools and child with learning disabilities intrinsic motivation is used more frequently. It is easier to develop a child into a stronger reader, better speller and a faster math student, by challenging them in different activities. Because of the child learning development it is easier to mold a child at a younger age than a child much older and has developed a learning style or many more different focuses.
In today's society intrinsic is used more often at an earlier age. Students have one main teacher and more hands on with activities to encourage more of intrinsic use of motivation. Teachers try to make the student more independent rather dependent, to let the students push for a challenge and desire of the activity over an easy task, and focus on personal curiosity and interests rather focusing on pleasing the teacher to get a good grade
In reference to a website "higered.mcgraw-hill.com from a document Module 15 Behavioral Theory":
Most early research on motivation was rooted in the study of behavioral learning theory, specifically the theory of operant conditioning. According to operant conditioning, an individual who receives reinforcement, a positive consequence for a behavior, would be likely to perform the behavior again under similar circumstances, reinforcement, in other words, can motivate behavior (267).
What is extrinsic? It is "exterior" to the behavior and defined as the type of motivation as engaging in an activity to obtain an outcome that is distinct from the activity itself (Lepper, 2005). The student thought process is more of what will be received rather than having an understanding of what was learned.
In middle school and high school extrinsic motivation is more frequently used, such as competition, extrinsic motivation. For example in Module 15 Behavioral Theory:
A boy looking up his semester grade point average illustrates the increased academic competition in middle school and high school that can lead to greater extrinsic motivation. The structure and climate of classrooms and schools in middle and high school may help explain the developmental trend toward extrinsically motivated learning (268).
The Module 15 Behavioral Theory explains that in middle and high schools, students have multiple teachers, switch classes, and often have schedules with academic subjects organized into short periods. Teachers in middle and high schools have many students to teach and tend to use more lecture and fewer hands-on activities. Middle and high schools also have stricter academic and behavioral policies than elementary schools and emphasize competition among students to a greater extent, as evidenced by honor rolls, class rankings, and standardized testing for reporting mastery levels to the states as well as for college admissions (Module 15 Behavioral Theory).
In (Module 15 Behavioral Theory) also explains that therefore adolescents in middle and high school increasingly encounter in:
decontextualized learning where students do not see the relevance of academic material (p268)
few opportunities to make decisions, more rules and discipline, and poorer teacher-student relationships (p268) and;
competition among students and more evaluation of student performance (p268)
All these understandings lead students to become more extrinsically motivated. Extrinsic motivators can be an important part of teachers' motivational practices when used fittingly. With the schedules of a student and teacher, the time for each period and the amount of students in each period reflects on how the teachers teach. In today's society with all the time constraints and the school curriculum teachers do not have the time to be more of a one on one. Teachers tend to give a lot of lectures; there may also be a lot of reading materials, quizzes and tests and a lot of taking notes. To get a student involved rather than fall behind teacher have competitions.
Examining Motivational Strategies - What Makes Your Students Care? (Shindler, 2008) explains the advatages and disadvantages of intrnsic and extrinsic motivation as follows:
The advantages of intrinsic in self- improvement, increased responsibility, problem-solving and inquiry-based Learning and are: Promotes intrinsic motivation and helps students clarify their own goals and desires and more long-lasting sense of satisfaction; can create the cause-and-effect between responsibility and freedom and can increase responsible behavior; can promote greater resourcefulness, can promote an emphasis on process and motivational to students when they solve the problem and reach the goal and; allows students to experience inner sources of satisfaction, activities feel inherently meaningful and as though they are "going somewhere" psychologically; as a result there is little experience of boredom, and promotes student creativity and sets the stage for communal bonds among students" (7.2 Gp C).
The advantages of extrinsic in grades and rewards, incentives, personal praise, punishments, shaming and threats, public recognition, phone calls home are: Tangible, familiar, motivating to students who value them and similar to monetary motivators in that they work as rewards; Can be useful to define valued outcomes or processes and help clarify the focus of the effort; Feels good, works to make student work harder and works in short-term; Works in the short-term, motivates students who are used to that technique and can help clarify the boundaries in a class; Can reward behavior and effort that may not be rewarded by peers and feels good to recipient and; Can alert parents to patterns of which they may not have been aware, demonstrates a commitment to the student's success and positive calls can have a profoundly positive outcome" (7.2 Gp A).
The disadvantages of intrinsic in self- improvement, increased responsibility, problem-solving and inquiry-based Learning and are: Takes a lot of time to stimulate, and students who are used to more outward motivation may not trust its worth; Have to give away power to students, and creates more randomness in many outcomes; Can be messy, perhaps less teacher control of outcome and requires a great deal of intention and planning; Requires the teacher to be aware of students' needs, requires teacher to be purposeful and skilled at instructional design and classroom management, and teacher cannot entirely control other students who may undermine the quality of the environment" (7.2 Gp C).
The disadvantages of extrinsic in grades and rewards, incentives, personal praise, punishments, shaming and threats, public recognition, phone calls home are: Shift focus away from learning goals, increased levels of the reinforcement may be necessary to maintain effect and can rob students of intrinsic sources of motivation; Can lose their value over time if used repeatedly and students may expect them after a while; Can be addictive, can reduce student's internal locus of control and can be manipulative; Can promote students merely avoiding getting caught, does not inspire high quality behavior and can create hostility and resentment; Can reinforce pre-existing "haves" and "have-nots," requires consistency and thought and; Sends the message that the teacher may not be able to handle the student alone, parents may not be helpful, may be the cause of the problem, or be enablers of the problem, acts as public shaming and can appear as a sign of weakness" (7.2 Gp A).
With years of training teachers learn how to access a student's motivational gratification. As stated by the Gale Group:
Teachers can often readily identify students who demonstrate high or low motivation in a certain task. Motivated students engage in the task with intensity and feeling, whereas unmotivated students procrastinate and indicate in other ways that they would rather do something else (Kaplan).
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation (Kaplan, 2003) states:
These differences exemplify the quantitative dimension of motivation, ranging from high to low. Teachers can often also identify highly motivated students who engage in tasks in different ways. Some may attempt to finish the task quickly, while others may seek more information. Some may persist, while others may begin enthusiastically but give-up when they encounter difficulty (Kaplan).
These differences reflect the qualitative dimension of motivation. The distinction between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation has been one of the important theoretical conceptualizations of qualitative differences in engagement (Kaplan).
Depending on the grave level, age, and behavior of the student will determine if motivational tool is benefitting the student. Over assumption is not an easy decision to make. Studies, tests and surveys must been done to determine a solid answer. From the information that has been gathered, explains that intrinsic is much more beneficial in elementary school and extrinsic in middle and high school.
There are two types of motivation that has been used by teachers, in the workforce and in everyday life to improve the motivation of their students, workers and self. Which type of motivational tool that works depends on the person. Understanding the difference between intrinsic and extrinsic can determine which will work on an individual youth in school. After researching the two types of motivation, intrinsic is for one's personal self-gain and enjoyment and student look at the interest of it, while extrinsic is to know what outside source can be used as personal self-gain for achievement and students are looking more at the outcome. A student's age, schedule and behavior determines the use of intrinsic and extrinsic motivational tools throughout the school years.