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This chapter explains the background of the study that describes the reason why the study is needed to be conducted. The research questions of this study were formulated based on the background of the study below. The significance of the study informs how the results will be useful both theoretically and practically.
Background of the Study
A test as an instrument of evaluation is an important thing in education in order to feedback whether learning objectives have been achieved or not as it is stated by Government regulation No.19/2005 which is about the Standard of National Education section 64 (1), "penilaian hasil belajar oleh guru dilakukan secara berkesinambungan untuk memantau proses, kemajuan, dan perbaikan hasil dalam bentuk ulangan harian, ulangan tengah semester, ulangan akhir semester, dan ulangan kenaikan kelas". It can be said that the need for a test as instrument of evaluation is aimed at measuring students' learning achievement. In relation to measuring students' learning achievement, there is one of the indicators of pedagogical competences in Teacher Competency Standards that must be mastered in developing a test is "menyelenggarakan penilaian dan evaluasi proses dan hasil belajar." This notion refers to the Ministry of National Education Regulation No. 16/2007 section 1 (2) which is about Teachers' Academic Qualification Standards and Competences. It means that as the teacher, they should have the competence to be responsible in developing assessment instruments, evaluating the process and learning outcomes. It is also supported by Zaenal Arifin (2009:92), a teacher has to do the analysis the syllabus, develop a test, set students' answers, make an answer key, and develop scoring rubric of assessments.
In the context of School Based Curriculum, the teachers are responsible to develop English test's content by reconsidering Standar Kompetensi and Kompetensi Dasar in curriculum that is regulation designed by the government. This regulation is made to manage a test and as a guidance. The teacher's ability in developing a test can determine a test is good or not. The purpose of a test that has a good quality is able to give the valid information on the students' abilities and knowledge. It means criteria of a good test should be able to distinguish the every single student's ability between student had already mastered the material and not yet. The higher students' ability in understanding the material, the higher students' chances in answering questions correctly or achieving the competencies. The lower students' ability in understanding the material, the less chance to answer question correctly. As stated by Verschoor (2007), a test is a set of equipment for measuring the examinee's ability.
In other words, a test is designed to measure the students' ability in mastering the knowledge during the learning process in order to measure students' ability, knowledge, or performance requires good quality of a test. In the process of developing a good test, it is crucial to consider the test content based on the curriculum and materials given in learning process. A good test is considered valid if the elements of a test in terms of content validity should be related to what has been taught and its content validity of a test is reflected in blue-print or table of specification and represents the curriculum. Hence, a test developer designing a test should not be out of the contents of the subjects in the curriculum. In short, a good test can help students to improve their learning and give them information appropriately about achievement of competencies that had been received.
As an English PPL from State University of Jakarta who had worked experience (PPL) in SMKN 26 Jakarta, the writer found a phenomenon related to an English achievement test. Based on the Minister of Education regulation No. 20/2007 explained the assessment standards of education that a test in end of semester is an activity conducted by teachers to measure student achievement of competence at the end of the semester. Tes Kendali Mutu is one of an achievement test that is a form of appliance evaluates administered in SMKN 26 Jakarta after teaching and learning process for measuring how far purpose of students' learning and teachers' teaching achievement reached. A test or examination was made by English teacher to measure the students' ability in mastering the knowledge during the learning process hadn't been analyzed yet so it is unknown whether those examinations have good quality or not in term of validity. Therefore, it is need to analyze the English items test of Tes Kendali Mutu in order to identify its deficiencies.
From the notion above, this study is conducted. This study is aimed at investigating how the quality items test of multiple choices English of Tes Kendali Mutu of first grade school year 2011/2012 at SMKN 26 Jakarta. Analyzing the quality a test in term of qualitative can use logical validity that is a way of reviewing in rational by using descriptive analysis method. Validity is the most important characteristic of a test or assessment technique. It is used to find extent to which a test measures what it is supposed to measure and nothing else. Analysis of logical validity towards English items test of Tes Kendali Mutu conducted to determine whether it has validity rational or not so it is need to reviewed test's validity by identifying the English items test of Tes Kendali Mutu in reference to the aspects of test validity. Measuring the validity of a test, the writer needs Standar Kompetensi and Kompetensi Dasar in the school based curriculum as reference. Then, to support the answer how quality English items test of Tes Kendali Mutu, the writer also analyzed the data in terms of quantitative by using classical items test analysis includes difficulty level, discrimination power, distracters function, and validity.
From the background of the study explained before, there are some the major problems which discussed:
How does the quality of English test of Tes Kendali Mutu of first grade school year 2011/2012 at SMKN 26 Jakarta in terms of qualitative analysis?
How does the quality of English test of Tes Kendali Mutu of first grade school year 2011/2012 at SMKN 26 Jakarta in terms of quantitative analysis? The detail of quantitative item test analysis are:
Item analysis: difficulty level, discrimination power, distractors function.
Purpose of Study
This study is aimed to investigate the quality of English items test of Tes Kendali Mutu of first grade school year 2011/2012 at SMKN 26 Jakarta in terms of qualitative and quantitative analysis.
Limitation of Study
Limitation of study is as followed:
The quality of English items test of Tes Kendali Mutu of first grade school year 2011/2012 at SMKN 26 Jakarta in term of qualitative analysis.
The quality of English items test of Tes Kendali Mutu of first grade school year 2011/2012 at SMKN 26 Jakarta in term of quantitative analysis. The detail of quantitative item test analysis are:
Item analysis: difficulty level, discrimination power, distractors function,
Significance of Study
This result of study is considered important to enrich research in language testing especially English evaluation research. Also, this study can be as a guideline and give input to the English Department students of UNJ who are interested in conducting further research of English evaluation.
This result of study is beneficial for enriching the writer's knowledge in analyzing test especially test item analysis and broader understanding towards language testing and government regulations. Then, it is hope that the teacher will get input procedures in arranging of a good test.
Definition of Term
The item analysis: systematic procedures in order to investigate the quality of test from students' answer, including difficulty level, discrimination power, distractors function, validity and reliability.
In this study, the item test analysis is divided into two term of:
Qualitative analysis: The analysis is used to know logical validity.
Quantitative analysis: The analysis is used to know empirical validity
Tes Kendali Mutu: achievement test that is a form of appliance evaluates administered in SMKN 26 Jakarta after teaching and learning process for one semester in order to measure students' competence achievement learning and teachers' teaching achievement reached.
Previous Related Studies
Besides that, previous study had been conducted by Hutama's skripsi (2012) entitled Content Validity and Construct Validity of Teacher Made-Test in Junior High School: Item Test Analysis. She analyzed the correspondence between items test and school based curriculum; the index difficulty; and the discrimination of power of the test. She collected the data by taking the teacher-made tests from two Junior High School in East Jakarta which made by different teachers. Based on the result of her research in findings and discussion, it can be concluded that the teacher made test for Junior High School who were made from different teachers; different school and different experience can make different result. Then, the items test have completed the criteria of good test for construct validity. In term of content validity, the teacher-made tests had been completed the criteria the test that needed of students in measuring their skill in English. It can be proved by appropriateness between the content of the test with curriculum itself.