Although development is a lifelong process, these developments occur at different stages. The three key facets of human development are physical, cognitive and social-emotional developments. While these developments are completely different, they all influence each another, and link them to educational outcomes of learning and also to human development. The development changes as we grow from infancy to adulthood. In this essay we will discover how these domains are linked to education and human development through the improvement of motor skills. The physical development relates to the changes within our own bodies by size, shape and the functional changes inside our brain. Cognitive development connects to the way our way of thinking occurs as a result of our learning. Social-emotional is changes within our own interaction with others. Over time these changes affect children's approach of moving, thinking, feeling, and relating to others becomes more complex.
Through in the early childhood stage, children are developing the co-ordination of the body movement, functioning both gross motor skills and the fine motor skills. Thinking on our own experience why do we crawl, before we walk, then run or even being able to throw the ball. As we mature our larger muscles such as legs and arms, torso just to name a few, begin to develop therefore, our motor skills are adjusting gradually and over time making activities become easier to attempt. Looking at the scenario of children attempting to walk, they must concentrate on balance and being in a upright position, take small quick little steps, flex their knees as their feet touch the ground, but a few years along children are increasing their stride, making heel to toe contact, swinging arms, and are balanced, this is a sign of a maturing pattern of walking. (McDevitt & Ormrod, 2007) Gross motor skills are essential for children's future learning habits of co- ordination and a sense of balance, improve hand and eye co-ordination, but also intertwines with developing learners fine motor skills and cognitive developments.
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Secondly fine motor skills involve the smaller muscle movements, usually hands and fingers and many others. Some of these skills include grasping and fastening buttons tie up shoe laces, reaching and pushing. In early childhood years children will use large paint brushes, fatter crayons to accommodate their skills. Along with maturity the small muscles will begin to co-ordinate allowing children to manipulate different tools, such as using forks to eat with, starting to dress dolls with clothes. Some children's fine motor skills take a little longer to develop as some task require to be synchronized, like using scissors. When the developments gross motor and fine motor are actively used, children attempt new challenges by refining and recombine existing skills to perform new tasks.
The role of a teacher assists in expanding gross motor skills by encouraging learners to attempt some physical activities, for fun like climbing over obstacle courses, or rolling, throwing a ball allowing children to gain confidence and as well as strengthening the gross motor skills. But, teacher can develop fine motor skills also, by allowing the learners to engage with play dough making, drawing, attempting puzzles. All these skills will influence future academic skills such as reading, numeracy, handwriting and problem solving.
At this stage the physical, cognitive and social environment plays a large role as they are becoming more aware of the world around them. They are learning through playing with their peers and are interested with their environment around them. Through play the cognitive development is evolving further, thinking creatively, and recounting on what they have seen or heard before, since language is a powerful tool it enhances the cognitive development. Using language, allows the child to communicate with others and solve problems. Hence, allowing the child to gain a further insight to the learning skills.
This stage is also known as the preoperational stage by theorist Jean Piaget. He believed that at this stage is dominated by the perception to how a child thinks. (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010 ) as a result using their mental operations to distinguish between known objects such as planes and cars. The change of the social development has increased growth in social development skills include the formation of peer relationships, gender identification, and the development of a sense of right and wrong.
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In conclusion these different stages of maturity show how the three domains of development being cognitive, physical and social development impacts over the life span of each individual.
Eggen, P., & Kauchak, D. (2010 ). Educational Psychology (Eighth Edition ed.): Pearsons, Education,Inc.
McDevitt, T. M., & Ormrod, J. E. (2007). Children Development and Education. New Jersey: Pearson Education.