A visual model is used as an effective tool in explaining variables by allowing the reader to visualize the interconnections between the variables (Creswell, 2009). The variables are typically conceptualized as having a cause-and-effect relationship where one variable is considered the "cause" (independent variable) and the other variable the "effect" (dependent variable) (Cozby, 2009).
The above diagram is a visual model wherein two independent variables (X) such as control and experimental groups are compared on one independent variable in terms of an outcome (dependent variable). The two groups on variable X are represented by an experimental group (students who will participate in the Remedial Mathematics and Phonics programs during the after-school hours) and a control group (students who will not participate in the Remedial Mathematics and Phonics programs during the after-school hours). The two groups on variable X are compared in terms of their influence on Y, the dependent variable.
The research study is about determining the effectiveness of computer-assisted programs used as a remediation tool and to give at- risk student's additional learning strategies to assist them in increasing their ability to succeed on state or federally mandated tests. The researcher creates a situation in which participants are exposed to conditions such as Remedial Math and Phonics programs versus lack of it. This situation is the manipulated or independent variable because the participant has nothing to do with its occurrence. The second phase of the experiment includes measuring the participants' responses towards the manipulated variable such as increased or decreased SAT results after participating in the Remedial Math and Phonics programs. When the participant is responding to the manipulated variable, the researcher considers that what the individual does is caused by the, or is dependent on, the effect of the independent variable.
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A study done by Huesman, R., Brown, A., Giljae, L., Kellogg, J., and Radcliffe, P. (2007) regarding the relationship of student use of campus recreation facilities (CRF) on grade point average (GPA) and graduation rates at a large, public Midwestern Carnegie-Doctoral extensive university utilized Tinto's theory of student retention. The priori theory hypothesized that increased assimilation into the social and scholastic life of an institution give way to a superior dedication to an institution that leads to an even bigger probability that the student will retain (Guiffrida, 2006). There is a possibility that overlooked features may the results of those who utilized CRF as opposed to the ones who did not may have influenced the results. Such an example might be the distance from a student's residence to a CRF. Modification such as the decision to concentrate on inexperienced freshmen, who are the major on-campus residents during the first semester, may have influenced the issue.
At the end of the study, after comparing the results of the participants with the results from other studies, including theoretical speculations in the literature, a theory is suggested that there is a social dynamic connected with utilizing CRF that encourages social assimilation of the participant with campus community. Evidence of positive connection with the utilization of CRF and potential academic success is a compelling confirmation to extend this study. It is a clever move for many colleges and universities to instigate ways and means to increase awareness among students, staff, and faulty of the connection between social integration and student scholastic achievement. In addition, the study showed an increased usage of CRF, which in turn raised the percentage of student academic success in connection to the close distance of student housing (Huesman, 2007).
As for representing descriptive research, the data were collected by an electronic scanner and the data sample included 5,344 students at the institution entering as full time students for the first time. There were three scholastic victory results namely, first term GPA, first-year retention, and graduation by the fifth-year. For scholastic background, the average SAT converted score was 24.6. The sample included 49% male students, 0.7% American Indian, 4.0% black, 1.9% Hispanic, 10.1% Asian, and 1.2 % international students. The reference group included white and unknown ethnicity students (82.1%). In terms of social fit measures, about three-quarters of the students lived-on campus during their first year. Approximately 31% of the cohort did not participate in any of the CRF activities during their first-semester and the average number of visits was 9.9. Of the 5,211 participants in the analysis group, the average GPA was 3.02, 85% came back in the fall of the second year and 57.9% had graduated within the 5-years since their admission in the university. For the initial data sample, first-term GPA was 3.02 and the percentage of the students who graduated in the similar amount of time was 84.5% and 57.9% (Huesman, 2007).
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Leaders in various industries make decisions that influence not only the world of commerce but also the global dilemma of poverty, national security, and the environment (Rowley, 2010). It is only appropriate that an exhaustive understanding of how leadership works as well as what makes a successful leader be in clarity to all organizations. Progressively, more women are placed in leadership positions today and it is vital to gather many leadership theories and analyze them from a gender perspective as well as their applicability. Gender discrimination still exist today in many organizations and as some research studies have reported, there is an occurrence of social contract that is carried out for male workers advantage only (Doherty & Manfedi, 2006). Investigating and analyzing how this disparity transpire using gender lens will allow for appropriate and effective recommendations on how to address the issue.
Transformational theory was suggested as a group of characteristics suitable when an institution was going through some changes by encouraging the leaders to demonstrate certain behavioral traits. Transformational leadership focuses on change and on the significance of developing a sense of direction and commitment and those individuals who display a transformational instead of the transactional, task-oriented leadership approach (Rowley, 2010, p. 83). By utilizing motivational skills coupled with professional relationships established on trust and character consideration, a transformational leader can empower their subordinates to work to their highest potential. Ryan & Haslam (2007) research study revealed that many women leaders portray this leadership approach thus confirming the study done by Palmer (1991) who reported that emotional intelligence, a typecast female trait, is a crucial concept in effective leadership. This is excellent news for future female leaders since transformational style of leadership is the preferred style by many organizations (Kirk, 2004).
Another theory that promotes a set of behaviors that can be applied in numerous situations is Contingency theory. Examples of the behavioral traits include confidence, awareness, adaptability, and determination. To subjugate gender inequalities, to enjoy success and to earn subordinate respect, it is imperative that these characteristics are displayed by women leaders. Today more than ever more and more organizations are looking for leaders that are willing to take risk and determine to motivate their followers. The institutions that can advance and move away from the notion that "women need to be fix" (Laff, 2007) and establish genuine gender equality will thrive.
Creswell, J. (2009). Research design (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.
Cozby, P. (2009). Methods in behavioral research (10th ed.) New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, Inc.
Doherty, L., & Manfedi, S. (2006). Women's progression to senior positions in English universities. Employee Relations, 28 (6), 553-572
Guiffrida, D. (2006). Toward a cultural advancement of Tinto's theory. Review of Higher Education, 29 (4), 451- 472. (ERIC Documentation Reproduction Service No. EJ774095)
Kirk, R. (2004). The transformational leader: Who is (s) he? A feminist perspective. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 17 (2), 160-176
Laff, M. (2007). The invisible wall. T+D, 61 (3), 32-28
Palmer, B., Walls, M., Zena, B., & Stouch, C. (2001). Emotional intelligence and effective leadership. Leadership and Organizational Development Journal, 22 (1), 5-10
Ryan, M. & Haslam, S. (2005). The glass cliff: Evidence that women are over-represented in precarious leadership positions. British Journal of Management, 16, 81-90
Rowley, S., Hossain, F., Barry, P. (2010). Leadership through a gender lens: How cultural environments and theoretical perspectives interact with gender. International Journal of Public Administration, 33 (2), 81-87