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In this article, the writer concentrates mainly on the island nation of Mauritius and puts more emphasis on how tourism has revived a sagging economy and how tourism has provided impetus for the developed of several other avenues of growth through exports. Mauritius traditionally depends on exports of sugar. It is categorised as a mono product export country and economy is dependent on exports of sugar. Relying on one product to fuel the economy is not viable at all. This has forced the government to think of other alternatives through which the economy can be sustained for a longer time.
Tourism acts s the saviour of the economy and has revived the economy to a great possible extent. Growth in tourism provides impetus to growth of other allied activities in the economy which have become the key driving force of the Mauritian economy. The writer says that tourism has given a boost to hospitality industry in the region and has also promoted growth of exports of non traditional and non agriculture based items and others like textile products, agricultural goods and promotion of the services sector. The writer arrives at the conclusion from his arguments that the basic reason for the growth of the economy is tourism and the allied activities that have flourished because of tourism. The writer also provides sound evidence of this growth due to tourism through the results of regression models undertaken by several economists. As part of evidence, the writer says that if we disintegrate the exports of the region into several economic categories of primary, secondary and tertiary sectors, we can observe the contribution of tourism first hand. Several export processing zone have been established by the government
As special economic zones which has immensely contributed to economic growth is also mentioned in the article. At the end, the writer finishes on a general note saying that though the results of tests undertaken in Mauritius cannot be generalised to other developing economies of the world, there is no question whatsoever that tourism can sustain the economy and offer tremendous growth where other exports of traditional products have taken a bad hit.
References from where ideas have been taken while writing the summary: Journal of Economics of Development, Vol 6, No 2, pp 161-190.
Export policy choices, and economic impetus in developing countries after the 1973 oil shock', Journal of Development Economics, Vol 19, No 3, pp 27-45.
Annotated Bibliography article 2.
Name of the article: Tourism: a catalyst of development in the island nations of the world.
Source of the article: International laws of tourism and geographies of contemporary issues, Michael Hill, World tourism organisation summit 2008, Tourism Sustainability for island nations.allHwlsdk;le
Summary of the article: The writer of this article featuring in the world tourism summit 2007, Mr Michael Hill focuses his attention on issues pertaining to sustaining tourism in what the writer calls SIDS (Small island developing states). This research article is basically focuses on the small islands in the Pacific Ocean. The depicts that there are almost 20000 islands forming part of nearly 29 odd countries in the region that are beautiful but not taken advantage of as a tourist destination. The writer is of the opinion that these small islands can be developed and will attract plenty of tourists and tourism can be developed as a mainstay industry in these unexplored islands. Till now, these islands are not at all developed and there is much to be done so that these areas can be monetarily cashed in. Opportunities abound to be exploited. The writer also makes up a list of activities that needs to be done in this region so that tourism can be developed and sustained in the economy. The writer also throws light on the development of infrastructure in the region so that the entire task becomes viable. The writer comments on the economic benefits the region will witness once that tourism gets well developed. The writer also gives a deep insight into the problems with the sustainability of tourism in this region because of the small geographical size of the islands. He gives a solution and addresses this problem by asking the island nations to draw up a strategy and ensure effective partnerships between the nations for the benefit of the entire region. The writer feels that only by creating partnerships will the small states be in a position to do something good on a huge scale. The writer through this article urges the nations in this region to make maximum utilisation of the resources that are available with them. The writer also asks the World Tourism Organisation to come up with a few concrete steps that will ensure the prosperity of the region and also requests World Tourism organisation to provide assistance of all sorts to these island states.
References from where ideas have been taken while writing the summary: Tourism and resource mobilisation: Local and Global networks, Mr Montgomery Griffin and Ms Merina Novelli, Centre for tourism studies, Carnegie Mellon University 2008.
Annotated Bibliography article 3.
Name of the article: Sustainable Tourism: A cultural perspective.
Source of the article: This article is released as part of the OECD (Organisation for economic cooperation and development) press release on tourism studies and development.
Summary of the article: In this article prepared and documented by the OECD tourism committee, it highlights the extensive research carried out by the members of the committee with a view to identify the role and the relation between culture and tourism if any exists and how both affect the sustainability of tourism of any particular region. Also the research paper provides key steps to enhance the destination attractiveness of the member nations. In other words, the article observes and studies the relations that exist between culture, attractiveness and competitiveness of the destinations where the tourism is present because of cultural diversity. The research paper also looks into the impact of tourism productivity and distribution processes on the overall attractiveness and sustainability of the tourism industry in any particular destination. It identifies the major factors and the policies of the government which will further increase the attractiveness of any international tourist destination. The basis on which these investigations take place are several case studies provided by the member nations like Australia, France, USA, Greece and so on. In fact there are almost 55 member countries and the end research paper has been formulated after taking into consideration all the major issues pertaining to the member states. The case study focuses on the several issues of relationships between culture, tourism and destination attractiveness. It also suggests steps to further improve the tourism in the region
In the end, the writer also mentions that culture is a major factor that helps in determining the attractiveness of any region by promoting the region as unique. This in turn makes the region a better place to live, work in, visit and invest in. The writer concludes by stating that culture of a region and the development of tourism supplement each other and in fact has a beneficial relation with each other and will help in determining how sustainable the region is in positioning itself as a competitive destination.
References from where ideas have been taken to write the summary: OECD publishing. www.oecd.org/sustsinsble tourism/2009. Impacts of culture on tourism, OECD research department, copyright 2009 OECD.
Annotated Bibliography Article 4.
Name of the article: Role of small business in promoting sustainable tourism.
Source of this article: This article features as part of research paper of Leeds Metropolitan University research article by Ms Helen Horobin and Jonathan Long. This article is part of the resource database of the university.
Summary of the article: This research article critically analysis the underlying relation between the issues of sustainable development of a destination and the small business units in a particular region. In other words, the writers of this article wanted to study the impact that the small and local businesses have on the sustainable growth of a region as a competitive destination. As part of this, the writers prepared a detailed questionnaire and asked several firms that depend on tourists for their business in the Yorkshire National Park region. The article also mentions that the main purpose of the research is to identify the attitudes towards the sustainability issues and protection of the environment and actions taken by the businesses to make the region a competitive destination in all respects. The research also reveals that there is a lot of sympathy for sustainability but there is a general confusion about the meaning of the term sustainability and lot of businesses understand sustainability in a manner that is different to the general meaning of the term. Not only sustainability but also there is confusion with the idea of environment protection for sustainable growth. The research paper also mentions that though all the possible steps are taken, there is no linking of these strategies and above all sustainability is not part of the coherent business plans. The writers feel that this issue must be addressed and the businesses must be informed about the activities they do and how they can relate these activities with the sustainability issues. In this regard, what the writers suggest is to identify the businesses that are in favour of addressing sustainability issues in their business plan.
References from where ideas have been taken for this summary: International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality management. Volume 8, article 5, Library resource of Leeds Metropolitan University.
Annotated Bibliography: Article 5.
Name of the article: Ecotourism: Implementation of sustainable tourism.
Source of the article:
Summary of the article: The writers of the article clearly draw a line of distinction between ecotourism and sustainable tourism. The writer mentions that there is a huge difference between the both though both appears to be the same. The writer emphasises that people often confuse ecotourism and sustainable tourism and use these terms interchangeably everywhere. The writer is of the opinion that all ecotourism is sustainable but all sustainable tourism is not ecotourism. In this research paper, the writer argues that no form of tourism has achieved sustainability in any form and in other words, he author raises question of sustainability in the first place and achieving sustainability should be the primary goal of any business. The writer says that the tourism industry as a whole is highly fragmented into small pieces in nature and it incorporates large, medium and small scale organisations and enterprises. The writer also says that the nature of this is the diverse characteristics of this industry along with very high stakeholder interest has given rise to a several initiatives that are sustainable. The writer also says that the major steps include environmental management systems, eco labels, award schemes, detailed code of conduct to name a few. The writer is of the opinion that the conflict of interest between the small and large enterprises have resulted in different interpretations of the meaning of tourism sustainability. The writer says that the issues pertaining to the importance should be debated and enterprise should involve in self regulation as this will help in keeping a check on itself. The article also mentions of creating effective public private partnerships to encourage sustainability and the role that marketing can play in promoting sustainable tourism development. The writer says that adequate steps should be undertaken on a war footing if the global tourism industry wants to witness a healthy growth.
Reference from where ideas have been taken to write summary: Harvard Business Review, 2008, June, Sustainable ecotourism, William Morkel.
Annotated Bibliography: Article 6.
Name of the article: Sustainable tourism: Water crisis affects Spain.
Source of the article: This article is part a academic journal of the library resources of IITM (International Institute of Tourism Management.) This research paper is part of the course of tourism management and is compiled by one Mr Daniel D'Cruz.
Summary of the article: This article is part of a series of research journals which looks into the problems in maintaining sustainability in Spain due to climate change. Also this analysis the problem of acute water shortage in the Mediterranean region of Mallorca, in the Belearic islands forming a part of Spain. Right since 1990s, the region has faced a severe stagnation in the growth of tourism. This stagnation in tourism is because of acute water shortage in the region which has escalated in the recent times as the government is turning a blind eye to this critical issue and no feasible solutions are drawn up. Despite several steps taken by the government in this regard, nothing has changed and the scenario is still the same. There are no strong steps taken towards a sustainable solution. This is not the problem faced only by the people of this region in the Mediterranean but in all the resorts and other islands that can be seen dotting the seas in this region. The writer mentions that it is this issue that is an evidence and a proof of climate and other environmental issues that are foci point to the overall management of tourist activities. This issue can be perfectly fitted in the Butlers tourism lifecycle model which analysis the growth, peak and fall of tourist destinations. The author feels that though this might sound a trivial issue, but it has virtually blocked the cash flows form tourism in this region of Spain. The writer also sends across a strong message that if the issue of climate change is not addressed immediately, the entire tourism industry will collapse on its own self and revival will be an arduous task. In the end the writer mentions that it is these trivial issues that will get accumulated due to years of negligence and will one day evolve into a crisis that will be extremely difficult to stop and solve.
References from where ideas have been taken to write the summary: State library of queensland, Tourism journals. 2008, Daniel D'Cruz.
Annotated Bibliography: Article 7.
Name of the article: Tourism in Indonesian archipelagos: Problems in an Emerging Democratic Society.
Source of this article: This is an academic thesis paper in the book Civilisations and Human Rights from perspective of Tourism. This book is published by Springer publications and is written by Mr Christopher O Neal.
Summary of the article: In this article which constitutes a vital chapter in the above mentioned book, the writer Mr Christopher mentions that between 1999 and 2005, the island nation of Indonesia faced severe crises issues that had a profound impact on the mainstream economic asset of the nation: Tourism. Several unregulated and uncontrolled wild fires in the tropical mountain regions had resulted in smoke and haze over several tourist destinations and had resulted in closing down of airports in central Sumatra and Kalimantan due to poor visibility and this had severely disrupted air and sea traffic from central Java to these destinations for several months which in turn affected the flow of tourists and ultimately the tourism industry suffered. This problem started in middle of 1999 and spiralled out of hand in early 2000. Along with this, the island nation was also faced with the Asian financial crisis which had wiped out banks, airlines and severely affected real estate business in Asia. Real estates in Indonesia were crippled because of this and the outcome was that construction activity in several hotels, shopping complex and resorts was stopped for a long duration of time. The dome of the Westin hotel near the famous Hotel Indonesia is a grim reminder of how the collapse of the capital markets can ferociously affect the tourism industry as a whole. The national air carrier of Indonesia, Garuda Indonesia had recorded a loss of 90 percent during that year with very less passenger turnouts in the region. Apart from this natural and financial crisis, at the same time, Indonesia also embroiled in a political crisis when the Suharto government regime fell. The complicated political situation had pushed the nation into a turmoil that lasted for another six years and this severely affected the investments that were meant originally to boost the tourism of the region. The media projected the nation as politically unstable, dangerous and unsafe for tourists. This had serious consequences for the nation. Only in the recent times when the nation had sorted its problems, tourism is growing but at a sluggish pace.
References from where ideas have been taken to write the summary: Cultural heritage and human rights, An Indonesian case study, Springer Books, 2008.
Annotated Bibliography: Article 8.
Name of the article: Sustainability of Whale watching industry in Scotland.
Source of the article: This is an academic article written by a group of students in the University of Edinburgh as part of their academic requirements and was published by the university.
This article basically focuses on the sustainability of whale watching industry in Scotland which a major tourist attraction. The writers mention that in Scotland, the annual income from tourism grosses 3 million Euros and employ more than 150000 people. It is a well established fact backed by statistics that whale watching is an important contributor to these figures. According to the writers, whales and dolphins are the number one wild life attraction in Scotland. The topography of the region is favourable for this activity as Scotland has a coastline of nearly 12000 km. With this in mind, the writers say that the potential for this form of activity to sustain ably grow is very huge. The statistics in the article reveal that whale watching contributes to more than 12 percent to the income. The writers took a survey using questionaries and did a through analysis to get a deep insight into the entire activity of whale watching and it has revealed some interesting statistics. The statistics reveals that nearly 75 percent of the operators were locals of the region and operated it as part of their family run businesses but out the people interviewed, more than 65 percent people had no formal training in wild life tourism and had alternate sources of income as well apart from the income from whale watching. Almost 90 percent of the operators said that they had formed their own set of code of conduct which are highly personalised and adhered to the same. The writers in the end conclude by mentioning that the East coast and the Western isles has huge potential for growth but needs a regulatory authority that can train the people and provide expert device which will help the activity to grow in a sustainable manner and thus also provide sound expertise to fine tune the hospitality skills of the local population.
References from where ideas have been taken to prepare the summary: Tourism Scotland website, University of Edinburgh archives, whale watching in Scotland, 2007.
Annotated Bibliography: article 9.
Name of the article: Tourism after Tsunami: A Thai case study.
Source of the article: This article features in the research archives of the Nanyang Business school of the Nanyang University of technology. This article is written by ms Ruimin Song and this article studies the impact of Tsunami on the tourism of Thailand.
Summary of the article: The article mentions the impact of natural disasters on tourism industry and gives a special attention to the effect of Tsunami on the tourism in Thailand. The tourism in the region was shattered after nature unleashed her fury through the devastating impact of tsunami. The economy was under pressure after the natural calamity. Several of the resorts and other establishments that supported tourism were indefinitely shut down. Not only this, the number of tourists visiting had gone down all of a sudden drastically. The statistics revealed that the number of tourists had dropped by more than 80 percent. The aviation industry in Thailand had gone broke due to lack of passengers. Even the employees working in these places had to go to other places in search of a decent livelihood. The cost of resurrecting the industry was beyond human imagination but the favourable government policies and huge international monetary and non monetary aid saw to it that the cost of redeveloping the tourism industry dws not faced by the local Thai government but borne by the international community as well. Timely help from the World Bank, ADB, and other international organisations had supported the revival to a great extent. The article also mentions that despite all the turn of events, the nation once again became an international tourist hub within a relatively short period of time. This was mainly possible because of the very strong political will and the international goodwill it enjoyed.
References from where ideas have been taken while writing summary: Nan Yang School of business, Library services and archives, natural disasters and tourism, 2008.
Annotated Bibliography: Article 10.
Name of the article: Facilitating learning networks in the Irish tourism sector among small firms.
Source of the article: This research article is written by Mr John Kelly.,Mr Foley Richardson, MrFrampton and Ms Anne-Marie. This article features in the Volume 8: Tourism and Hospitality Research,Number 1, 80-95(16), Palgrave Macmillan Publications.
Document Type: Research article.
Summary of the article: In this research article, the writer examines the role played by technology within the tourism industry and also analysis the manner in which a small firm learning network model fits within the Fáilte Ireland (Irish tourism development agency) Tourism Learning Network (TLN) program. Emerging from multiple calls for small firm training interventions to be based on helping entrepreneurs to learn, this model is based on an action learning ethos, involving small tourism operators and relevant support agencies and incorporating local learning sets, a web community, and a series of learning interventions. The applied action research method offers insights into the workings of the TLN, and findings suggest that this approach facilitates the development of organizational capabilities and has resulted in active and substantial TLN involvement among participating tourism enterprises.
References from where ideas are taken to write the summary: Tourism and Hospitality Research (2009) 9, 80-95. doi:10.1057/thr.2008.36
OVERALL GENERAL SUMMARY.
From these articles and their summary, we can come to one particular conclusion
i.e. sustainability is the need of the hour especially in the tourism industry especially when a region is faced with several problems and the industry is not able to sustain its activities and also wherein a region has to face multitude of problems and yet has to be a competitive destination. From these articles, we can say that the problems are created by man made activities and gross negligence and at the same time by natural elements and natural calamities (the case of tsunami in Thailand) and man made (political mayhem and financial crisis). The primary reason of man made crisis is lack of awareness of the sustainable practices that needs to be undertaken to ensure the sustainable growth of the tourism industry. Also there is lack of adequate training and expertise as to how the activities can be undertaken to make the business highly sustainable in the long run. We can observe many activities that help in promoting tourism, but the main thing that one need to keep in mind is that these activities need to be viable and sustainable. These activities should be interlinked with each other and should be integrated at all the stages in the overall business plans. Some of the problems that plague sustainability issues arise due to many factors like unavailability of resources, not optimal utilization of natural resources and lack of awareness of potential and solutions and irrational human decision making.
In some reports one could figure out that the basic flaw in not being able to sustain the growth lies with the Stakeholders of the Enterprise as the stakeholders need to maintain a fine balance between profits and morality. They fail to communicate the actual essence of the sustainability of the enterprise and they focus on short term profit and neglect the long term goals.
People who are involved in Tourism industry should take extra precaution about issues pertaining to sustainability. WTO has many indicators to identify the growth of the industry and they vary from one nation to another. We can work on the basis of same indicators for all the nations as the ground reality varies significantly from one nation to another. More over there are some internal resources that the nations have to work upon in order to get full benefits. If the nations can take care of their cultural heritage properly then it will lead to a better environment and hence a more sustainable Tourism Industry. Also one note that even if the regions face problems, there should be strong political will to help the region to overcome these problems. The international community should extend all possible help that will help in maintaining the growth of tourism industry.
World Tourism Organization o the United Nations defines sustainable tourism as tourism that leads to the management of all resources in such a way that economic, social and aesthetic needs can be fulfilled while maintaining cultural integrity, essential ecological processes, and biological diversity and life support systems. In conclusion I would like to mention that tourism is certainly a major and one of the driving forces of several economies around the globe and even if it is not the driving force, efforts must be made to ensure that it the contribution is maximised and it is a positive contributor to the activities of the economy.
I feel that stronger regulatory bodies must be set up to train the operators in this industry and to formulate laws that will ensure sustainable growth of tourism and this will also ensure that a control mechanism is in place for constant monitoring of ise operators should look at short term benefits but should focus on long term. This corporate short sightedness should come to an end and should direct our activities in such a way that it ensures a sustainable growth of the entire tourism industry. Sustainable tourism in its purest meaning reflects an industry which attempts to make a low and a positive impact on the environment and local culture, while helping to generate income, employment, and Conservation of local ecosystems. It is responsible tourism that is both ecologically and culturally sensitive and it should be in this manner
In order to sustain the tourism industry many elements of the industry, economy and sectors have to interact with one another on several dimensions. There should be integration between the various strata and levels of the Tourism Industry taken together. Following characteristics can be observed if there is a sustainable growth of the tourism industry;
- minimizes negative economic, environmental, and social impacts
- generates greater economic benefits for local people and enhances the well-being of host communities
- involves local people in decisions that affect their lives and life chances
- makes positive contributions to the conservation of natural and cultural heritage
- provides more enjoyable experiences for tourists through more meaningful connections with local people.
Thus we can conclude that we should ignore the short term benefits and look at developing tourism from a long term perspective so that we can ensure a sustainable growth of the entire industry.