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In this paper, the authors discuss the study of teacher's academic qualification, morale and their teaching behaviour. The main objectives of the study were: to find out the extent of teachers' morale in Government Schools, to investigate about the teaching behavior of teachers in Government school and to investigate about the teaching behavior and teachers' morale in semi Government schools. To achieve these objectives following null hypotheses were tested in the study: There is no significant difference between the mean scores of teachers' morale of Government and semi Government school. There is no significant difference between the mean scores of teachers' behavior of Government and semi Government school. There is no significant difference between mean scores of teachers' morale of high qualified and low qualified teachers. There is no significant difference between the mean scores of teacher's behavior of high mean scores of teacher's behavior of high qualified and low qualified teachers' Mean scores of teacher behavior of high qualified low qualified teacher. All the teachers of Government and semi Government of N.W.F.P were considered as population of the study. A Government School (K.D.A Kohat) and semi Government School (P.A.F Kohat) were taken as a sample.
Two questionnaires were developed with the help of the advisor; one questionnaire of teacher's moral had 20 items while the second questionnaire of teacher's behavior had 25 items The teacher morale questionnaire had 20 items with four options. These options were "much more", "more", "less" and "nil". The scoring procedures were 3, 2, 1 and 0. Similarly the teachers' behavior questionnaire had 25 items with three options. These options were "usually" "Sometimes" and "never". The scoring procedure was 2, 1, and 0.
After the scoring of questionnaires, the mean score of every school regarding teachers' morale and the scores of highly qualified and low qualified teachers regarding morale were taken. A significant difference was found between the mean scores of teachers' morale of Government and semi Government school. A significant difference was also found between the mean scores of teachers' behavior of Government and semi Government school.
Keywords: Teacher's, Academic Qualification, Morale, Teaching behaviour, Government.
Teachers play vital role in the development of the personalities of the children. Teacher's attitude influences the personality of student. Their teaching style causes effect on the results of students. The best example of the best teacher is the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H). Teachers' function is to help the child construct his own knowledge by guiding his own experiences. Teacher has a pivotal role in society. Teacher is responsible to build the generation of future. The teacher's role is to convey effectively the prescribed content to the learner and he establishes the criteria for successful performance.
Chaudhry (1980) has discussed that the teacher has number of ancillary role in addition to that of teaching, an important one being that of guidance counselor. The teacher discovers that interest, needs strengths and weaknesses and the reaction of students to a wide variety of situations. The teacher varies the procedures for guidance the students with different mental abilities. An effective teacher creates a stimulating environment for intellectual, Social and emotional development of children. If there are good facilities, good environment in the school then teacher's performance will be better. The school job for teachers is source of attraction and satisfaction if the facilities are provided to the teachers. In case if there are lack of facilities then teacher role will not be better. The qualification of teachers is also related with teacher's morale and teaching behavior. Highly qualified teachers play a vital role in the school.
According to Rosehine (1993) for teaching of reading and writing in particular the attitude of teachers are most important. Another author Kerliger (1978) also indicates that learning is real sense needs conditioning by many influences. Students need co-operation for new learning tasks for which many of them have had little readiness. The successful teacher of reading will help the pupil learn rather than try to make him depressed through a particular method. A good reading teacher is flexible. Most successful teachers are honest in their approach to learner. They are critical when necessary, but they do not assault and damage the learner's confidence. They give prize whenever it should be given for they know that one successful step made the neat one easier. They are generally patient and kind, and most important show a personal interest in each learner.
Kumar (1992) the role of a teacher stated that a good teacher is not while discussing the transmitter of ready-made Knowledge to student. Teacher's function is to help the child construct his own knowledge by guiding his experiences. In the logic-mathematical realm, the role of a teacher is not to impose and to reinforce the "correct" answer but to strengthen the child's own process of reasoning.
Lock study (1986) indicates that teacher behavior which provided for the positive reinforcement of pupil responses and teacher behavior that adopted activities to pupils produced change in pupil creativity. If pupil creativity is a desired outcome, then teacher behavior that will produce the activities described above may be predictive of teacher effectiveness.
These findings are important in that they not only bear upon the immediate situation in the classroom, but also upon more persisting characteristics of pupil. Children like teachers who are kind, friendly, cheerful, patient, helpful, fairs have a sense of humor, show an understanding of children's problems, allow plenty of pupil activity and at the same time maintain order. They dislike teachers who use scrams and ridicule, are domineering and have favorites, who punish to secure discipline, fail to provide for the needs of individual pupils and have disagreeable personality peculiarities.
Statement of the Problem:
The problem under investigation was "A study of Teacher's Academic Qualifications their Morale and Teaching Behavior".
Objectives of The study
The main objectives of the study were as follows.
To find out the difference between teachers morale and teaching behavior.
To find out the extent of teacher's morale in Government Schools.
To investigate about the teaching behavior of teacher's in Government Schools.
To investigate about the teaching behavior and teacher's morale in Semi Govt. Schools.
Significance of The study
The study is significant from the following point view.
It will help the administrators to know about the causes of low morale.
It will help the teacher to improve their qualification and enhancing morale.
It will also help the administrators to know about the factors effecting School morale.
It will be helpful in modifying the teaching behavior of teachers positively.
It will become a baseline for further research.
Hypotheses of the study
Following null hypotheses were tested in the study:
There is no significant difference between the mean scores of teacher's morale of Government and Semi Government School.
There is no significant difference between the mean scores of teacher's behavior of Government and Semi Government School.
There is no significant difference between the mean scores of teacher's morale of high qualified and low qualified teachers.
There is no significant difference between the mean scores of teacher's behavior of high quailed and low qualified teachers.
Delimitations of the study
One Government and one Semi Government Schools were selected for the study.
Methods and Procedure
The research purpose is to investigate Teacher's qualification, their morale and teaching behavior, their interest and devotion towards their profession. For this, survey was conducted to get the opinions of the respondents. Hence the nature of study was descriptive.
The population of the study was constituted of all Government High school and semi government schools of District Kohat.
Out of the above-mentioned population following category-wise sample was taken:
1. One government school for girls at random was selected as the sample for the study.
2. One semi government school was selected
The researcher prepared two questionnaires using five-point Likert scale after going through the related literature, consisting of books, journals, articles, reports, magazines..
1. Questionnaires I for students of Government secondary schools.
2. Questionnaires II for teachers of Government secondary schools.
The questionnaires were administered to the respective respondents. The information from the respondents were collected and recorded by the researcher to avoid any kind of discrepancies. The researchers visited each institution himself for that purpose. Hundred percent data from sampled schools were collected properly.
The data collected through the above mentioned research instrument were tabulated, analyzed and interpreted in the light of the objectives of the study. The responses obtained through the above-mentioned research instruments were scored before statistical analysis and interpretation. The items were given by rating the responses on four point rating scale (i.e., Likert scale). The following scoring procedure was adopted:
Almost Does so 4
Frequently Does so 3
Rarely Does so 2
Never Does so 1
After scoring the items, the scores of the individual items were added to get the sum of overall scores.
The most suitable statistical tools like mean, standard deviation, standard error of mean, t, test and Pearson product- Moment Coefficient of Correlation (r) were applied and for his purpose following formulae were used to obtain the result.
Mean score was calculated o see the strength of responses of each item.
Mean of sample =
Where f = Frequency / no. of responses
N = Total number of responses
Standard deviation is the most stable in the variability.
Standard deviation. S.D. =
Where SS =
t - Test for Independent Samples
For the sake of inferential analysis, independent t -test for two independent sample groups was applied for measuring differences between two samples groups on the basis of comparison of different variables in male and female principals and teachers of government high schools in N.W.F.P in educational setting. The following formula was used for inferential analysis.
Mean of sample 1 =
Mean of sample 2=
Difference = -
t = (Garrett, 1997)
Where DF = degree of freedom = n1 + n2 -2
Since n1 and n2 are the number of cases in the sample. Probability level for acceptance and rejection of the hypothesis level was 0.05. (Garrett, 1997)
RESULTS AND DISCUSION
Table No 1: Showing the significant difference between mean score of teachers' morale of high qualified and low qualified teachers.
No of low qualified teachers
No of high qualified teachers.
Mean of low qualified teachers
Mean of high qualified teachers
t at 0.05=2.262
As calculated value is smaller than the table value 0.05 level, so the result is not significant and null hypothesis is accepted.
Table No 2: Showing the significant difference between mean scores of teachers' behavior of high qualified and low qualified teachers.
No of low qualified teachers
No of high qualified teachers
Mean of low qualified teachers
Mean of high qualified teachers
t at 0.05=2.262
As the calculated value is smaller than the table value 0.05 levels so the result is not significant and the null hypothesis is accepted.
Following conclusions were drawn from findings of the study:
There was no significant difference between the mean scores of the teachers' morale of Government and semi Government school.
There was no significant difference between the mean scores teachers' behavior of Government school and semi government school.
There was no significant difference between the mean scores of teacher morale of high qualified and low qualified teachers.
There was no significant difference the mean scores of teacher's behavior of high qualified and low qualified teachers.
Following are a few recommendations in light of the study:
As teachers school morale is of vital significance so the school morale scale may be used in the schools from time to time.
As there is significant relationship of teacher morale in all the two chool, therefore care must be taken about the positive morale in the school.
The psychological environment between students and teachers may be positive. Corporal punishment may be avoided and students self esteem may be enhanced.
The study may be replicated and relationship of other variables may also be investigated.
The findings of the study may be sent to difference schools, so that the teachers may get benefit of it in their teaching behavior.
The study may be conducted on comparatively large sample for credible findings.
Other techniques like interview, observations and socio-metric techniques may also be used for conducting such a study.
Mr.Muhammad Naeem Butt is working as Lecturer in Institute of Education and Research, Kohat University of Science and Technology, Kohat, Pakistan.. He did his M.Phil in Education from Sarhad University of Science and Technology, Peshawar - Pakistan [email protected]
Dr. Muhammad Iqbal is presently working as Professor of Education in Department of Education, Sarhad University of Science and Technology, Peshawar - Pakistan
Dr. Muhammad Naseer-Ud-Din is working as an Assistant Professor in Institute of Education and Research, Kohat University of Science and Technology, Kohat, Pakistan. He did his Ph.D. in Education from University Institute of Education and Research, UAAR, Pakistan.
E-mail: [email protected]
Dr. Ishtiaq Hussain is working as an Assistant Professor in Institute of Education and Research, Kohat University of Science and Technology, Kohat, Pakistan.
Miss. Safia Noor is presently working as principal Govt. Girls High School, Charsada, Pakistan. She did her M.Phil in education.