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Definitions of care vary. According to the World Health Organization defines self-care as activities individuals, families, and communities undertake with the intention of enhancing health, preventing disease, limiting illness, and restoring health. These activities are derived from knowledge and skills from the pool of both professional and lay experience. They are undertaken by lay people on their own behalf, either separately or in participative collaboration with professionals".
Meanings of care
Noun care - the work of providing treatment for or attending to someone or something;
Verb care - feel concern or interest; "
Definition by Mayerroffs: -In Mayeroff's work, he speaks about caring as "Caring is the antithesis of simply using the other person to satisfy ones needs, also it is not an isolated feeling or a momentary relationship, nor is it simply a matter of wanting to care for some person".
Definition of Roll & May: - According to him" In care one must by involvement with the objective fact, do something about the situation; one must make some discussion. This is where care brings love & will together."
According to me the definition of Care is "looking after an individual so as to bring a difference in an individual's life in a positive way and making one feel important".
Care in a School is essential to enhance growth, performance, concentration, dedication to subject and an overall development of a child for a bright and prosperous future with the participation of dedicated teachers."
Implementation of Care in various spheres of life
Childcare- the act of caring for and supervising minor children
Day care- the care of a child during the day by a person other than the child's parents or legal guardians
Duty of care- a legal obligation in tort law
Elderly care- the fulfillment of the special needs and requirements that are unique to senior citizens
Ethics of care- a normative ethical theory
Foster care- a system by which a certified, stand-in "parent(s)" cares for minor children or young people
Health care- the treatment and management of illness, and the preservation of health through services offered
Care of residents- care given to adults or children outside of the patient's home
Home care- health care or supportive care provided in the patient's home by healthcare professionals
Intensive-care medicine- provision of life support or organ support systems in patients who are critically ill
Managed care- a variety of techniques intended to reduce the cost of providing health benefits and improve the quality of care
Theology of relational care- a theology of understanding how contemporary followers of Jesus can relate to others.
Scope & Linkage with an individual or group
In this systematic study care of one group behavior, has a great impact on the lives of an individual & a group.
In this piece of work, I have tried to study the impact of care provided by the faculty of school on the students.
As the student spends almost 13 years of their life in the school, it works a pivotal role in overall development of the student.
In this (tooth & nail) worlds, where everyone is trying to pull down the other the caring behavior brings in a drastic development in the student's life.
The caring behavior of the teacher helps in the development of the child.
The student feels cared for in school and hence tries to keep up his study work, which includes the weekly, mid-term test & the homework.
Owing to the caring attitude of the teacher towards the student makes the student important and hence less of absenteeism is seen.
The caring nature of the faculty make the student thrive off the fear of the subject, as the student can discuss the difficulties in the subject and work-hard in the area, where the student is weak.
In this stressed out world, where the suicidal rates by young students have increased as they are unable to cope up with the stress. The caring and helping hand given by the teacher in a school helps the student share their problems with the teacher and can have a proper guidance.
The students who are ignored at home or their parents are working, and not able to give time to them, a caring nature of a teacher brings in a boom in their lives.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Mayeroff describes caring as helping someone else grow towards self actualization. Caring is grounded in the worth the one caring experiences in the other and also promotes the self actualization of the one caring by securing to ground the person in the world.
Thus, although the purpose of caring is to help someone else grow, caring serves to ground the one. Caring in what Mayeroff calls basic certainty. The one caring determines the â€¦â€¦ of growth for the one cared for:-
I must know many thingsâ€¦â€¦ what his powers and limits are, what his needs are and what is conclusive to his growthâ€¦.. (1972)
Gadow describes care as an end in itself and the highest form of commitment to students.
For Noddings (1984) caring is based on receptivity. The one caring "feels with" the other and "receives the other" completely (1984 pp30-35). The nature of caring relationships varies in intensity and may be enduring / episodic depending on the strength of felt obligation. Caring is a way of being and may/ may not involve acts / verbal communication. Caring is an end in itself complete and is not a means to an end (1984).
In Buber's work, caring is a form of dialogue with emerges from a neediness to be addressed by another. This dialogue may be spoken or silent, but is a state where each of the participants really has in mind the other / others in their present and particular being and turns to them with the intention of establishing and living mutual relation (1965).
Jonas a philosopher, all life is relatedness for encounter is all (1966). Caring arise out of the freedom to relate, the necessity to relate in future. The concept of metabolism is metaphor for life: the organism takes in energy and release energy continually from the environment in order to survive.
EMPERICAL STUDY & GENERALIZATION
The concept of care has been studied through interview in the course of this study. The interviews taken included students and teachers of well renowned schools of Jamshedpur. A set of questions were prepared just to create a base to get in-depth knowledge about what the interviewees felt about care. The questions listed in the enclosures below were used to initiate and carry the discussion forward with the interviewees. The conducted interviews were completely dynamic in nature and varied from respondent to respondent. The sole purpose of including both students and teachers was to get an insight from both sides i.e. ones those who were on the receiving end (students) and ones those were on the giving end (teachers).
A total of 10 students and 10 teachers were interviewed in the course of this study.
Out of the 10 students, 5 had both their parents working and the other 5 had their mothers as home makers. 4 students were very good in studies maintaining a good academic record of 80% throughout, out of which 1 had both working parents and 3 whose mothers were home makers , 3 were average students who had overall 60% marks throughout and 1 had working parents while 2 had their mothers as homemakers. 3 had 40% marks overall and 1 had their mothers as home maker and 2 had working parents.
Such a mix of students were chosen to study the pattern of care provided to the children of working parents and the ones whose mothers were homemakers and what they felt about it. It was also to study the effect of the caring behavior shown by the teachers on their performance in this setup.
The teachers were all associated with the schools since a very long time and were very experienced. They were teaching the same subjects to these classes since a very long time due to which they were well aware about the behavior pattern of the students.
The base questions asked to the students as well as the teachers can be found in the Enclosure A and Enclosure B respectively.
The overview of the study is as follows:-
The teachers agreed that about 30-50% of the students in their class were not getting enough care at home.
The study revealed that the working parents had an impact on the children performance. This was supported by the students.
According to the teachers even if care was given to students at home the education of parents played a vital role in the performance of the students. They pointed out the lack of communication amongst uneducated parents which lead to the fall in performance of the student even though enough care was provided to them at home.
Students of working parents complained of lack of care at home and expected a caring attitude from their teacher & they liked spending more time in school.
The teachers pointed out that the students who faced lack of care at home did actions in class to seek attention of the teachers and their classmates which was termed as (Attention Deficit Disorder).
The teachers could understand that the student was facing lack of care at home by factors such as:
The student was coming shabbily dressed to school.
The student was not completing the homework on time.
The student was not getting tiffin from home and was given money to have food in the canteen.
The students were not getting books according to the timetable.
The teachers pointed out a new trend in which the parents shirk their responsibility by sending their children to tuition centers and not caring about the development of their children.
The teachers agreed that scolding /using harsh punishment for students who had not done home work was less effective than showing a caring attitude towards them which had a long lasting impact.
Even the students agreed that they would show more inclination towards completing homework if teachers maintained a caring attitude towards them.
Study showed that the lack of care made the children more mischievous though it was not proportional to the performance of the students in certain cases.
The teachers pointed out that care was directly proportional to absenteeism.
It was even found that the student turned to people for advice, sharing problems & secrets who showed more care towards them. It was found to be the teachers in case of working parents & their mothers in case where mothers were homemakers.
It was found that group activities were not being encouraged at school level which was due to the lack of support to the teachers from administration and both the teachers & students agreed that working in groups would enhance caring behavior towards each other & most of the students agreed that they would reason out with the fellow group members who failed to complete their group task.
There had been very interesting stories narrated to me by the teachers during the interviews taken in the course of the study where the caring attitudes of one of the teachers transformed the life of the students. One such instance was where the student's parents were working & the student was very keen in art work, she had great inclination towards the art teacher, the art teacher motivated her and the teacher's motivation and caring attitude made her excel in the field of art. The student took part in various art competitions, one such competition was where her art work was selected for the Olympics. This student got a chance to visit Atlanta, along with any one person who could accompany her, this student chose the art teacher to accompany her and not her parents.
This Instance throws light on how caring attitude shown by teachers transforms the student's life.
FINDINGS OF STUDY AND GENRALIZATION
In the study it was found that the caring attitude shown by the teacher toward the student, help in the overall development of the student "caring in what Mayeroff calls basic certainty. The one caring determines the growth for the one cared for."
The caring attitude enhances the performance of the student as Martin Buber describes caring as a form of dialogue emerges from a neediness to be addressed by another.
The student works hard to keep up, pace with the rest of the class."As Sally Gadow describes care as an end in itself & the highest form of commitment to student.
The student by the caring attitude of the faculty is able to face the difficulties without fear, as Mayeroff says "caring has a way of ordering his other values & acquisition around it... because of its inclusiveness of his caring there is a basic stability in his life."
IMPLICATIONS OF GROUP WORK
Caring behavior is show by the teacher to the student which brings about an overall development in the child.
In our country there are 60-90 students in each class, where the contribution of the faculty for these many students is 1:60-90. The teachers are not able to pay complete attention to these many students.
Research has also been done where the teachers are biased to few students who are bright & intelligent. This creates a drift between intelligent and the average & below average students. This drift has to be sorted out by decreasing the no. of students/class and also increasing the faculty.
In the West there are 20-30 students per class. The faculty is able to dedicate their caring attitude & attention to these many students.
They can bring about more development in a class of 20-30 than here in our country of 60-90/class.
There is very rarely a group work assigned to the students. The students are usually given individual work.
The group work by students will help the teacher know each of them better. In group work everybody will share their piece of knowledge with each other and feel cared for. Nobody will be felt left out. And we can instill team spirit in them.
During school days it is observed that students develop the maximum caring behavior towards their parents by introducing group work they would be able to extend their caring behavior towards their fellow group members as well.
CONTRIBUTION TO ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOR
The study has tried to cater to the caring behavior of the teacher towards students to enhance the performance of school students. Currently, there is hardly any research done to study the caring attitude of the teacher towards the student and its implications.
This caring attitude can also be applied in an industrial setting. Where the caring attitudes shown by the supervisors towards the subordinates enhance their performance & hence the work is done efficiently & output of work is more than satisfactory.
This caring behavior is a viscous circle where the "attitude of the senior towards the junior not only enhances the performance but also develops mutual respect for each other".
In a Health care set up various researches has been done where the caring attitude shown by the nurses and doctors towards the patient helps in a speedy recovery.
In our fast pace world where everyone is working with a selfish motive, this" Caring Attitude" can bring in a drastic change in our working environment.
According to the study the student's performance gained a peak by care shown by the teachers in school.
This caring attitude if adopted by any organization would enhance the output by the employees. It would not only bring a change in the work front but would help in developing mutual respect for each other.
The working environment in a caring atmosphere makes the employee comfortable and also increases the efficiency.