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There are various ways of teaching approaches used by the lecturers in all institutions of higher learning. One of the teaching approaches is known as the integrative teaching approach. In the integrative teaching approach, the lecturers may considered several factors that may include the strategies, methods or tools that used in the process of teaching and learning. Besides that, the lecturers also need to consider whether the quality of their integrated teaching approaches is indeed effective and acceptable by their students. Therefore, lecturers must measures their teaching approaches by ensuring on how they can deliver their material contents and transferring the knowledge to their students. According to Benner et al. (2010), integrative teaching explicitly connects knowledge acquisition, knowledge use, clinical imagination and ethical conduct. These authors come out with the ideas that integrative learning strategies may involve knowledge sharing, where students are allowed for discussion with their classmates by sharing their experiences which are related to the studies given.
Group discussions among the students are one of the integrative teaching approaches used by the lecturers upon after completing the chapter. In group discussion, students are divided into groups of four or five will be given and instructed to read a case study in their textbook. According to Lejk et al. (1999) in Maria et al. (2010), group learning is an established pedagogic tool in many universities. Through group discussion, students will discuss among themselves to answer all the questions required in the case study with the guidance from their lecturer. In these group discussions, each student will engage in brainstorming session and thus, will actively interact with each other and able to think of any critical parts in the case study. This is in line with Maria et al. (2010) who stated in their past research, where students took a deep approach will enhanced or developed their critical thinking and problem solving through group work skills. Shamma (2011) agreed that, brainstorming activities is one way of helping students to overcome some problems when they struggle in writing tasks. Harmer (2001) stated in Shamma (2011) explained that brainstorming is valuable in giving students the opportunity to see their ideas down on paper before they actually begin to write. Harmer (2001) also suggested that lecturers should come out with difference brainstorming techniques in order to activate students' thinking and creating ideas. For example, lecturers must make sure each of the students in the group were given an opportunity to think about the topic in question and to find out what information they already have and do not have before they start in writing.
There are several courses offered in the University to be learned in theory and some of the lessons also required skill-training approach where students need to learn the lesson by an application or practical. For example, in Event Management course, students are not only learning to write the event proposal but they also need the skills on how to conduct the event in the actual situation. Garavan and O'Cinneide (1994) cited in Bennet (2006) explained on active and passive pedagogical methods where both agreed that students must not only listening and taking notes in the classroom, but they also must get into the field on how the actual event to be conducted. This may require active pedagogy methods where lecturers need to facilitate the learning process through learning exercises such as role plays, management simulations, brainstorming, team projects and discussion session. Students should be given an opportunity to apply all lessons that been taught in the classroom and they need to applied it into the real situation. By having this way, students will be able to reflect on knowledge gained from their textbook with the experienced they gained by the time of conducting the event.
In order to make teaching and learning process become more effective, lecturers should come out with various pedagogical or instructional strategies. One of the strategies is known as reflective teaching techniques. Bennet (2006) explained the reflective teaching techniques are included lectures, handouts, reading textbook, program instruction and content-oriented examination which help students to acquire knowledge. These reflective teaching techniques are used to be a traditional way of teaching in many Universities. However, lecturers have the ability to create these teaching techniques become more creative and exciting to their students. For example, lecturers may provide several questions based on the case study and will instruct their students to present the answers by doing a role play or drama-based activity. A role play is a bit difference from a common presentation of PowerPoint slide. It could be done interestingly as today's students were exposed to the advancement of technology. Perhaps, they will make use of the technology to record their acting or performance based on the situational given. They are not only answering the questions but also be able to improve their understanding by reflecting on their previous lessons in the class. Dowling (2003) stated in Clay and Ash (2005) explained the use of information technology in teaching is very important in helping students to understand learning as a central and lifelong activity in which the authors suggest that reflection plays important role that lecturers need to develop the skill for its use. Dowling (2003) also added that creativity and innovation are needed to facilitate reflective activity because at the same time, it is not only benefits the students but it also helps lecturers to learn to integrate experiential and improve reflective teaching method in their courses.
Mind mapping is another teaching approaches that often used by the lecturers in their process of teaching and learning. Mind mapping was introduced by Buzan (1993) describes it as an instructional strategy where the learner "places supra-ordinate concepts on paper and subsequently links sub-ordinate concepts as appropriate". He also describes mind mapping as a representation of cognition and comprehension in the learner and as an excellent way to help learners to express themselves both verbally and visually (Buzzan, 1993). McGriff (2007) stated in Shamma (2011) agreed that mind maps are excellent way to help learners to organize knowledge, to empower themselves to better comprehend the key concepts and principles in lectures, readings or other instructional materials. McGriff (2007) found that relating images to concepts is a creative task which requires thinking instead of memorizing. Therefore, Adam and Mowers (2007) come out with their past research shows that students who could express their learning with visual skills had a 40 percent higher retention rate compare to the verbal learners. Lecturers must play their role by giving their students extra time to practice mind mapping strategy so that, students will be able to apply it in their exams. For example, students should be allowed to use mind mapping in their writing classes and using more colors to draw the graphic representation so that, students have an interest and easy to remember.
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