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There is an important question to be asked, it is that what makes a good school and flourish education. Effective education is considered as a backbone of the society and worthwhile to talk about it. Good education is to produce good citizens. This essay examines and investigates factors that may have the great impact on the education outcomes and on making an outstanding school in particular, the leadership and management. Firstly, this paper discusses the concept of good education. Secondly, it is to examine the leadership, management, the relationship between them and their influence on creating effective school environment and flourishing education. Thirdly, this paper argues different aspects of fit educational environment; the internal and external environment. Fourthly, it is to discuss the effect of continuous professional development on the school progress. Finally, the concept of self-evaluation is to be tackled. Moreover, this paper illustrates the different issues according in compare with that of some Egyptian schools.
Firstly, it is important to understand the meaning of education .The concise oxford dictionary defines education as "the giving of intellectual, moral and social instructions". (Taylor & Ryan 2005, p.1). According To this concept education is the process of transferring knowledge and experience from the teacher to the pupils. On the other hand, personal experience proved that it is not only about transferring knowledge. The learners should be involved in this process. Furthermore, when G.K Chesterton defines education, as it is "simply the soul of society as it passes from one generation to another" (Taylor &Ryan 2005, p.1). He also limited education to transferring experiences from old generations to new ones.
The effective leadership and management are the cornerstones of a good school leadership are defined as "the ability to communicate with the others, share ideas and values, encourage them to make change because of the future vision of the leader". (Grace, 1997). It seems that the definition is more related to the personal characteristics of the leader. Although the experience has shown that the leader, may have some of these characteristics and lack others. For Example, he/she may have good communication with the staff, parents and local community but he/she has no vision.
Furthermore, "leadership is of the spirit compounded of personality and vision; its practice is an art". (Field Marshel Lord slim quoted in Maurik ( 2001) cited in Brighouse &wood p .1) . According to this concept, leadership is concerned with the emotional characteristics of the leader as well as having a good personality with a good vision.
It is argued that leadership is to make a change and difference through cooperative relationships with the staff, parents and surrounding society.
Management is defined as "the art of communication, mentoring, directing to lead by the hand ". The main purpose of it is to deal with and manage all the parts of organization through the deployment and tackling with different resources (human, financial and materials)". (Grace, 1997cited in http/books .Google.). It is thought that the leader has the skills of the leader and the manager. Leadership ensures the success of the school, and at the same time, it motivates and inspires the pupils to achieve effective education outcomes. In addition, providing effective and interesting environment for teaching and learning (National Standard, 2004, p.6-9). Nevertheless, the head teacher may not be able to carry all his responsibilities without cooperation of qualified staff. For instance, the head teacher may be very energetic person and he/ she wants to make a difference in the school but the school community and staff are not well motivated.
Management is concerned with rules, controlling school system, organising people, and accepting the current position in addition management is more attached to short time plans (Brighouse &Wood, 2008, p.2) but leadership focus on the people, motivation, and inspiration, making change and developing a vision for the school. (South worth, 1998, cited in DFES (2001), p.11). It is claimed that there are a wide difference between them but both support and complete each other. They are necessary to make difference within the school. The head teacher cannot achieve progress without the leader and vice versa. Therefore," Brighouse &Wood (2008, p5) state that "Management system support leadership".
There are different styles of leadership such as transformational, servant, transactional, democratic and situational leadership (www.mindtools.com) .The experience has shown that the most effective one is the situational leadership style as it allows the leader to use variety of strategies in different situations. Moreover, it shows the skills of the leader in tackling different circumstances. South worth (2004) quoted from Ofsted(2003,para11.p.7) claims" Successful leaders use a variety of strategies and styles depending on what it takes to create an environment for learning ....also adapt them to particular context".
According to National Standard (2004, p.7-8), head teacher is a good and effective leader. He has an essential role to "raise the quality of teaching and learning process. Besides, he has the ability to empower and give the opportunity for the others to make a change, motivate and inspire". Leadership is a branch of management. Nevertheless, management is more concerned with organizing, maintenance, and improvement. Management is more general. Brighouse &Wood (2008, p.4) argue, "The good management is the essential handmaiden of leadership".
According to South worth (2004) claims that the leaders have an impact on what happen in the classroom. They can influence directly or indirectly way by following three strategies are modelling, monitoring, and dialogue. Firstly, the modelling strategy means that the leader should be aware of his actions because he is a model for his staff. In addition, the teachers may observe the leader's actions. Secondly, monitoring strategy allows the leader to achieve analysis and evaluation of learning outcomes and the performance of the teachers. Moreover, it is provides feedback and diagnostic assessment development. It concentrates on the evaluation and assessment of the school. Very good monitoring produces very good teaching. Finally, dialogue strategy is a kind of self and peer assessment where teachers share ideas and discuss what happened in the classroom. (South Worth, 2004, p.3-5). It is thought that these strategies have essential roles for the leader but sometimes it may have some demerits. For Example, there are some kinds of teachers who cannot work well when they feel monitored .Consequently; monitoring may have a negative effect on teacher performance.
On the other hand, not only the leadership and management can achieve the success alone, but also by sharing staff, and pupils. BBC news reported that there is a school that was listed and placed on as a "serious weakness". In 2003, because of its outcomes of learning in terms of, academic and behavioural outcomes of the pupils. In 2004, the school became outstanding and removed from the list. That is Because of the effort done and effective relationships among pupils, staff, governors and new head teacher who said, "We are delighted that the hard work of the staff, pupils, governors and parents has paid dividends". In addition, she said, "Flourishing learning environment it should be taken into account, use this as a core value, and give the opportunity for pupils to flourish and develop as an individual. The improvement of the school is happened due to marvel leadership and management; school self-evaluation and professional development". (http//news.bbc.co 3-3-2010).
By contrast, in some Egyptian schools, there is a difference in leadership and management. This difference resulted from the existence of differences between the Western and the Eastern world, such as the different culture, customs and traditions, trends and history are all factors that affect the concept of Leadership, Management and application way in the Egyptian society. Leadership and management in Egyptian schools closely associated with politics and it has to be the application of laws. However, this does not mean that there is no chance of change this also depends on the leader and his personality. (El-said, 2007)
The leader in Egyptian schools plays an essential role to make the difference and achieve outstanding outcomes. The leader is the head teacher leads the school, and it depends on the style of the leadership. It is very difficult to define specific kind of the styles of leadership. The experience has shown that there are some types of leaders with no obvious style who may have a negative influence on the school. In particular, for teachers and they cannot solve the problems that face the leaders. Example of experience has shown that, the school was in urban area one of the problems was some of the children hoodlums from outside the school were throwing stones at the windows of school classrooms. These stones broke the window of teacher or students were injured. The head teacher tried to solve this problem but in vain. In addition, he has to change the broken window. On the other hand, there is a positive side to this director it is that he tries to satisfy all the school staff. This point contains merits and demerits because it is a good way of the leader to try serve and satisfy the members especially teachers but it allows some teachers to waver from work and dereliction of duty, may lead to inequality among teachers. As a result, the poor communication, relationships and negative trends can find fertile ground to grow. It is suggested that the solution of this problem the leader has to follow a policy of tensile strength and prosperity, achieve equality between teachers, and an effective learning environment for both teachers and learners. These situations require certain skills of the leader, which are good communication, monitoring and dialogue with teachers, and pupils to discuss with them the problems that encounter them and try to find solutions for that (South worth, 2004,p3-5).
The effective role of the leadership and management is to create a fit and effective environment for teaching and learning process. This point contains different aspects that ensure outstanding teaching and learning. These aspects are related to each other, however not all schools contain these aspects. Fit environment is related to physical appearance of the school, lavatories and the external environment surrounding the school. Brighouse &Woods (2008, p.100) suggest, "To have my perfect school, you need a perfect world, and if there were a perfect world, there would be no room for dreaming".
It is vital to understand the meaning of fit environment. It "is a good working conditions, responsiveness to pupils needs and good care and decoration of building where associated with better outcomes" (Reynolds & cuttance, 1992, p.9). This concept concerns with creating the factors that make the pupils respond and involve in teaching and learning process. In addition, to caring with the physical appearance of the building. It is argued that some school have no decoration or beautiful appearance however, it produces outstanding outcomes of the pupils.
The effective educational environment is the climate, which provides comfort and effective learning for pupils and meets their needs. This environment should be suitable for whole school. Not merely for pupils but also for staff. In addition, the internal environment within the school can be affected by the external environment encompasses the school. In the following lines, it will examine some different points. Brighouse &wood(2009, p.99-111) divide the environment into three aspects visual, behavioural, and aural environment. All of these aspects can be effective to create a good school and achieve outstanding outcomes of learning.
The visual environment may be the fundamental prospect. Old schools should be re-built or renewed and change it from boring place into interesting and beautiful one. School classrooms contain attractive colours, decoration, and well paint. Moreover, inside the school facilities are available that is mean the corridors contain educational posters, and images. The lavatories should be clean all the time. The classroom is should be interesting and meets the needs of the pupils. (Brighouse &Wood, 2008, p.98-99). So according to the author it should be taken into account the physical appearance of the school because it plays an important role to attract the parents and their children to it of the first glance, and it has great effect on the learning of pupils. However, it is claimed that if the school more decorated it may make the pupils more attracted to these decoration and this may have bad effect on their learning.
The behavioural environment is the language that is used within the school. It has a great influence to ensure the effective learning. The head teacher is responsible for it because he is a role model for members within the school even the pupils. This language or relationships rely on respect, sharing ideas and values. The head teachers generate 'collegiality 'among their staff groups and all generated effective school outputs (Reynolds &Packer, 1990, p.174).
Moreover, using "we" rather than "I" and "you" is important. Using "I" when taking the blame and "you "rather than "we" when giving praise and celebrating genuine success. (Brighouse, 2008, jigsaw, p. 11). In addition, this language is also important when the head teacher writes the newsletters for parents. These weekly newsletters ensure good communication between the school and parents and local community (Brighouse &wood, 2008, p.100). It is born in mind that is particular strategies within the school are important because it gives self confidence for all staff and push the school forward and the opposite of this will may happen if the head teacher speaks in aggressive way specially for teachers. The experience has shown that in Egypt when the head teacher speaks in unsuitable way it has negative effect on the performance of the teacher. Besides, the teacher loses the motivation to work.
Furthermore, the head teacher allows meetings with parents to discuss their children progress and problems. It is important to involve parents and visit the school freely, without the need to make appointments. They will support the school and share ideas. (Ryan &Taylor , 2005, p.20). This study argues that to share parents and local community to follow and share with the school. It is assumed that it is a good way for involve them but it has some time disadvantage. That means some parents may not have idea about educational system so they may cause pitfalls for the head teacher. So not all the parents have awareness to share and involve to do progress within the school. In addition, the appointments should in specific time not free because it may lead to waste the time of teachers and the head teacher. The experience in Egypt has shown that, when the head teacher allows the parents to visit school at any time. It gives them chance to meet the teachers during the lesson to ask the teacher about their children. It will very embarrass situation and waste the time.
The external environment also has a great impact on the school progress as catchment area of the school. The community surrounds with it. The study proves that, if a good school is in catchment area of it is full of drug dealers. Unfortunately, the result of that can bring negative effect on the pupil's social behaviour and low performance."The existence of drug dealers has a fatal affect on the school leads to decline the standard of the school and lost its specialist status". (Taylor &Ryan, 2005, p.14) To overcome this problem not only the school cooperates with the police but also it is required the parents and students to stand against this problem. In nut shell, from this experience appears the importance of co-operation between the head teacher, parents, teachers, staff, pupils and local community to create safe and suitable environment for teaching and learning. In addition, the head teacher should be transfer his vision to all members even the pupils, because he cannot achieve the progress of the school a lone but he is in a dire need to work with all the staff within the school, and receives the support of parents and local community. (Taylor &Ryan, 2005, p.4-5).
By contrast, In Egypt, the experience has shown that there are some schools have the creative and productive environment for teaching, learning, and some have not. Some schools that have a good physical appearance and its building is brand new but they do not have the important materials that teachers are in a dire need of. Such as, laboratory instruments in science lab. Teachers cannot do the experiments practically. They strive to do tasks and at the same time try to find the solution for this problem. To give real example, teachers try to use the available resources or buy these instruments from their salary. When teachers resort to the head teachers say they do not have the budget to get their needs. In addition, there are some schools in Egypt in a dire need to be re-built because the buildings are very old with broken windows, wooden stairs and bare old walls. All of these features do not encourage the teacher to teach or pupils to learn and results in low performance and students hate the schools. So that most of schools face the lack of school facilities. The evidence for that Herrera (2003) stated that the absence of school services because of some factors such as "mismanagement, population growth and insufficient financial resources". These factors can lead to the absence of interesting and fit environment. The response of the ministry is no financial resources to reform and re-build the schools. It suggested that the solution is various authorities and social communities should contribute to improve the schools and create fit atmosphere. It cannot denied that the importance of a collaborative between the public sector and other authorities and this really happened in Egypt the effective interaction between the Ministry of Education and local , international non- governmental organizations to take real steps to improve.(Herrera quoted from AL Ahram weekly,1999,p.188).
In this case it is suggested that, the head teacher can encourage teachers within the school to overcome the difficulties that they face from a lack of resources, and follow up the response of other authorities to carry out reform of the school. On the other hand, in Egypt, some outstanding schools belong to private sector and they are very expensive on the contrary to the governmental schools. The middle between the extremes is the experimental schools, which belong to the public sector but they are distinguished by providing an appropriate environment, school facilities and new buildings with little cost. In Egypt awakening for the amelioration of the Egyptians schools. The effective step that happens recently in Egypt that new law related to schools is called "the National Authority For Quality Assurance And Accreditation of Education " it concerns of school to be outstanding and good school through criteria and follow the school to pass this criteria .
Effective teaching and learning process is a fundamental building block to create outstanding school. The educational change happens by teachers, staff, head teacher, parents, governors and local community through consensus on the same policy. The policy would help to share ideas, values, and beliefs and help all staff to looking for how to continue and improve their practice. "The role of head teacher is a leader of learning" (Brighouse &Wood, 2008, p58-59). It means that there is a policy that collects all members within the school and it draws the right way for good practice and improvement. It argues that this policy should meet the needs of all members even the pupils. Moreover, the values and ideas are to be suitable for the children not to contradict with them.
In addition, the manager has a vital role in managing school because he should provide creative organization and management, ensuring the good managing of human resources are within the school and to achieve safe and effective learning environment. The core of the role of him is the responsibility of all the internal and external school community to ensure that pupils enjoy, motivate, learn independently and get high standards of learning. (National Standards, 2004, p.7-10). According to this, the manager should make balance between the managing within the school and the external environment such as the relationship with parents and local community.
Moreover, the quality of learning comes from sub ideas such as the role of teacher, numeracy and literacy, using ICT and it will be covered in the following lines. The teacher in the first place because the direct relationship between the pupils and their teacher within the classroom. Teachers should have three key elements. These are teaching skills, professional characteristics and classroom environment .These aspects are companied with control, it will have significant effect on pupil's improvement. Firstly, teaching skills may be higher expectations of pupils to perform well or methods and strategies that teachers use. Secondly, Class room environment; teachers should ensure features such as interest, safety, fairness set of rules for pupils and environment should be interesting and motivating for pupils to learn. Finally ,professional characteristics are divided in five clusters are professionalism as challenge and support ,thinking as analytical , planning and setting expectations as initiative , leading as flexibility and relating to others as emotional intelligence .(Swainston,2008, quoted from Hay McBer Report,p.56-58).
Concentrating on literacy and numeracy is very important for teaching and learning. Because it will be very difficult to teach pupils, they cannot read or write. In this case, these pupils will suffer from poor and low standards of outputs of learning. The evidence for that as Blunkett (1997) said, 'A child who cannot read cannot learn.'
On the contrary, in Egypt, there is focus on numeracy and literacy where the pupils suffer from low performance and have difficulties to learn are listed by administration staff. These pupils are distributed on the teachers at free times to enhance and teach them the basics of reading, writing and mathematics. In addition, they give children homework to do as assessment and follow their progress. In certain times, the follow up committees come to the school to follow up the pupils' development. Although it is a good way to follow up, it causes interruption for the teacher in classrooms and may waste the lessons time. Therefore, to solve this problem it is argued that to embark certain times to teach these pupils as on day at the week, calling them before the beginning of the lesson to avoid interruption and reveal the overburdens of the teacher. By doing this it will get fruitful outcomes of learning.
Using internet and communication technologies (ICT) is to support and enrich learning and self- evaluation and improvement of the school because it has merits to name just a few, it helps the teachers, learners, parents, governing body and all stakeholders to follow the educational outcomes and get all data and information they need in evaluation and monitoring processes, facilitate teaching for teachers and learning for pupils. Besides, it gives the motivation for both teachers and learners. It leads the pupils to learn alone by themselves. On the other hand, it assumes that there are some demerits of using internet in the schools; students may play rather not learn, teachers may not good users of internet or computers, so they may face embarrassed situations with their pupils. Moreover, some pupils may not go to the school or need teachers because learning available anytime and anywhere. The evidence shows that 'moral panic'. "The internet is too dangerous for children, no learning happens and digital technologies are a waste of time" (Brighouse &Wood, 2008, p.145). Therefore, it suggested that in the first place, training teachers to use ICT to teach and follow their pupils. The monitoring is very important to observe what students do learn or play and ensuring that they do their tasks. There are some barriers of using ICT in Egypt as the following.
In Egypt, the growth of population has an impact on teaching and learning such as, the size of classrooms, and the number of pupils inside it. Therefore, it makes a difference of outcomes of learning in this case. The experience has shown that the great number within the classroom is a stumbling block for teacher. Real example, when the teachers try to divide the students into groups to allow the opportunity of active engagement in learning, discussion and sharing ideas to learn it is very difficult because they are restricted by time and crowded curriculum. Besides, want to avoid the mess. The teachers may have the skills but the surrounding environment may stand against them. Another real example; is in the science lab big number of the pupils makes problems. Therefore, in some Egyptians schools students may not have the opportunity to do experiments by themselves to avoid the risks and injuries that may happen they are allowed to do experiments with the help of teacher in doing that.
Most schools in Egypt have master classes. Teachers may need assistants to help them but they are not available, because of the shortage of teachers. It is believed that the solution is the teacher can elect one of the talent pupils to be a leader and help him inside the classroom and by doing this it will have great effect and make a difference inside the classroom and enhance the self-confidence and self-esteem of pupils. By this action, the competitive atmosphere is produced among pupils. The evidence for that as Brighouse &Wood (2008) state, "We listen and involve our pupils" by distributing roles and responsibilities between pupils. The large number of the class has an influence of using ICT in Egyptian schools.
In most Egyptians schools, the ICT lab contains 15 to 20 computers and it is insufficient number comparing with students' number. In addition, there are no computers in the classrooms to facilitate the teaching process of the teachers. The reason for the problem is the lack of financial resources and the great number of schools in Egypt. The experience has shown that the solution is that teachers can resort to divide the pupils into groups to use ICT lab through weeks; example group A in the first week, group B in the second week and so on. Therefore, teacher can manage the pupil's number and can teach easily. In the classroom, the teachers can use laptops. It is allowed to do that using of "handheld devices" to overcome this barrier of using ICT. (Brighouse &wood, 2008, p.144). If they have other possibilities such as posters, they will use them. Furthermore, when the teachers have or need to use the internet or computers ask the teacher in charge for ICT lab. Take certain time to illustrate an educational film to the pupils. In this case it have to be all the class inside the lab but they are sitting with organized way as U shape for instances. In addition, to solve is the cooperation between the local communities, parents and governing body this problems it can be solved by sharing to complete the lack of possibilities in terms of (ICT).
By experience, although the school is of big size and with crowded classrooms as well, the outcomes of pupils are very brilliant because of the qualified teachers, good management and cooperation among staff. Not always, the size of the school is an obstacle.
The Continuous Professional Development (CPD) has essential role to flourish education and improve the outcomes of the school. It concerns to the developing staff, teaching and support system. The continuous professional development is a process, which the schools try to make change and improvement for its staff, teaching, learning and support system. (Brighouse Wood, 2008, p.75). This can happen when the schools give the opportunities for all staff to learn together .Consequently; it will lead to outstanding performance of the school. Beside that the remarkable schools provide all member staff with positive climate for teaching and learning. By doing this, every member can engage in the understanding and development of effective practice and this will be reflected on their performance. Needless to say the staffs is all members within the school; they are not only teachers but also the head teacher, manager, governor, administrative staff, bursar and pupils as well. The development and supporting staff can happen through "responsibility, permitting circumstance, new experience, respect and recognition" (Brighouse &Wood, 2008, p80).
It is argued the role of leadership and management to achieve the (CPD) within the school is important where, the performance of management is very vital. The manager can be a drawback or a facilitator for his staff and that is called "management performance" (Brighouse &Wood, 2008, p89). Take an example, the head teacher can encourage, motivate and inspire when he shows respect, writing praise notes, visiting classrooms and thank them in particular situation. On the contrary, the failure of the school may happen when the head teacher is stand against staff.
The leader should be careful to train all staff to improve their practice about good communication and conversations skills. (Brighouse &Wood, 2008, p.90). The experience has shown that when the head teacher do that. It has positive aspects and negative .The positive he will inspire, motivate and encourage the staff, but the negative is that may make some members be lazy and do not work well. Therefore, that it is paramount importance of head teacher to follow and monitor every member within the school by himself South worth (2004) state that the responsibility of head teacher is using group of organizational structure one of them is monitoring system. By observing class rooms and give feedback. In addition, the roles and responsibilities of the leaders are including mentoring and coaching, ensuring the equality among the staff "non -white "staff (Brighouse, 2008). CPD is strongly related to self -evaluation and assessment, and this point will be covered in the following.
By contrast, there is a difference in Egypt. CPD happens through governing body not through the head teacher .There is concentration on teachers and head teachers of training courses. This brings positive and negative sides. The positive sides for training of head teachers it improves the level of practice and pushes the school forward towards success. The teachers gain new strategies and pedagogies of teaching and learning. It has a great influence of their performance within the classroom, and their dealing with their pupils. In addition, encourage, motivate, and enhance the self-confidence of the teachers. The same points are with the head teachers. The negative sides are that the training courses of the Ministry of Education. Firstly, for teachers it causes the lack of the number of teachers. In addition to delaying the curriculum, and when the teachers finish the course they face burdens between the limited time and the crowded curriculum. Secondly, the head teachers in Egypt are old and near of the retirement age so their training is useless. Even if they serve for short time, and they may have no motivation to make benefits of other schools to share experience specially, this is an important role for the head teacher .The evidence shows that the school should engage with the external community of the school and collaborate with others schools in order to share expertise (National Standards,2004). If this point compared with the head teachers in UK through visiting the school the head teacher is young. Therefore, the head teacher can lead and make a change and difference within the school.
It is suggested there are some solutions for these problems; doing training courses during the summer holidays because of relief the burdens of teachers. In addition, teacher can find the opportunity to prepare for new strategies and pedagogies. In addition, using internet is a technology to facilitate training. "Technology is the heart of the school improvement strategy". (Becta , 2009). Teachers can learn independently by using it .All the time teachers seek to improve themselves. "Teachers teach, but unless they learn constantly, they will be unable to perform their central role in a rapidly changing society". (Brighouse &Wood (2008) quoted from Barber (1996), p.75).
The last aspect that will be covered is the importance of leadership and management to achieve the self-evaluation of whole school is an integral part of CPD. The meaning of self-evaluation is" the self-assessment is the process of critically reviewing the quality of own performance and provision". (Harvey, 2004). And HEQC (2004, p. 29) defines: "Self-evaluation:Â refers to the process by which an institution reviews the effectiveness of its quality management system forÂ assuring, developing and monitoring the quality of teaching and learning". Self-evaluation relies on evaluating the level of performance and the outcomes of the school. It is the most important key of development and improvement of whole school. There is an essential question is "why should school engage in self-evaluation?"(Brighouse &Wood, 2008, p .128). These lines will examine the answer of this question. Self-evaluation of the school is appositive experience and has paramount importance, because it helps the school to think about its performance and outcomes how they will do and how they did?. It makes difference in the culture of the school.
In addition, it enables the school to evaluate, analyse and assess the teaching and learning data. It allows the opportunities to share ideas, expertise among staff and teachers so it is the key of professional development. It gives the opportunity for the head teacher to draw the right framework and organise the change of the school. It is clear that, the core aim of self-evaluation is assist the process of achieving goals, promote the levels, to assist teachers' professional development and their performance or, as is often the case of cooperation of these aspects. (Rudd & Davies, 2000).
"In such a thriving self-evaluation culture, there will be supportive and knowledgeable leadership, openness to improvement, honesty and trust, reflective dialogue, good collaboration, and accepted norms". (Brighouse &Wood, 2008, p.129). According to this, it is vital to examine about the application of effective school self-evaluation by different ways to analyse and investigate the teaching and learning outcomes. Of these methods are; firstly, the external review, relies on critical friend such as university partner or researchers who give their opinion about the performance of the school and advices to achieve the improvement. Secondly, the performance of management is to investigate the quality of teaching and learning. Thirdly, the benchmarking is a method that depends on comparative data and information with the others similar schools where the school compare its performance with the others. This is useful and positive experience to share values and expertise by visiting and contacting with the others. (Brighouse &Wood, 2008)
From the previous lines, the essential role of the head teacher to follow the right steps it becomes clear to the continuous journey of improvement through self -evaluation.
By comparison, in Egypt, this happen by examining and analysing of the results of tests. The results may be the most important indicator of the performance of the school and the academic outcomes of pupils. So that, it assumes that there are short outcomes of self-evaluation because there are aspects are ignored totally. That means that the concentration only on the outcomes of pupils through tests regardless, the vision of the staff. The evaluation for teachers concerns with the result of their students. Take an example, the teacher of science his pupils achieved high outcomes of science subject this mean the teacher did well. Sometimes the evaluation of teacher comes through the supervisor or the inspectors. They monitor and observe the teacher when he teaches inside the classroom and the response of the pupils with him. Also the evaluation of administrative staff comes from the inspectors to evaluate and analysis their routine work.
The experience has shown that, self-evaluation in Egyptians schools need support and enhancement. It is argued that the solution is the opportunities to visit and communicate with other schools can get benefits. Besides, it should be taken into account the local community and parents to share evaluation about the school through using ICT where the results available online. Moreover, through meetings are to discuss the difficulties or the pupil's problems. Allow the head teachers the opportunity to encourage staff and teachers to plan for improvement within the school. In addition, the effective dialogue and share ideas with each other outside and inside the school. In nut shell, it is considered that the self evaluation may happen by the interaction between all the pervious factors are talked about.
To conclude, there are differences in the cultures, concepts, and circumstances all over the world not in Egypt only. The matter is how to overcome the difficulties and barriers in teaching and learning to achieve outstanding outcomes. Although the differences between the eastern and western world, Egypt can overcome the difficulties and recently there is more concentration on education. Moreover, the pervious factors can be applied in Egypt. Not only leader and manager are the backbone to enhance and achieve marvel outcomes but also as it is illustrated, this can happen through the interaction with other aspects as local community, governing body, parents, teachers and staff. All of them are responsible for the good education and producing good citizens in the society. The head teacher cannot achieve the progress by himself, but through others as well. He plans the right ways and supports them by his vision. He should involve parents and local community to assess and evaluate the performance of the school. The important task of governing body is to facilitate the professional development through giving the chance to visit other schools to gain experience, values and ideas. In addition, the governing body should facilitate the rules and laws of ministry to fit the environment within the school. Besides, they should give the opportunity to the head teacher to -some extent -to make change and has a choice. The role of management and leadership within the school is to encourage, inspire and motivate all staff even the pupils and ensure the school is a safe, healthy and interesting place for pupils and meets their needs. The participation of parents to follow their children progress illustrates cooperation between all the authorities to share success and to be involved in teaching and learning process to achieve their aims and produce good citizen for the society. Finally, the Ministry of Education should increase the number of good schools to ensure good outcomes to flourish education.