A First Look At Communication Theory Education Essay

Published:

This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.

Introduction

Figure : Pyramid depiction of Maslow's Hierarchy of NeedsThis essay will discuss Maslow's hierarchy of needs as a whole as well as each level individually with realistic examples. I will also discuss how each level of needs is applicable to me as a student (This application will be indicated in blue text.)

Growth NeedsMaslow's hierarchy of needs

Deficiency NeedsAbraham Maslow believed that people are driven by the quest to satisfy their needs (Gwyne, R. Maslow's hierarchy of needs. http://dave.lab6.com/acid/dump/2004/maslow's%20Hierarchy%20of%20Needs.pdf. 1977. 1) and reach their greatest potential (Huitt, W.G. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs. www.edpsycinteractive.org/topics/regsys/maslow.html. 2004.6) He created a hierarchy based on this belief and displayed it in the form of a pyramid (figure to the right) and grouped the 7 needs into 2 categories: Deficiency Needs and Growth Needs. (Huitt, W.G. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs. www.edpsycinteractive.org/topics/regsys/maslow.html. 2004.1) He believed that the needs needed to be satisfied one at a time from the bottom up, because only if the very bottom need is satisfied will the next level of needs be felt. The levels of needs are thus interdependent (Huitt, W.G. Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs and Values - A Commentary. www.edpsycinteractive.org/topics/regsys/maslow.html. 2004.1)

The four needs grouped as the 'deficiency needs' are named that way because leaving them unsatisfied causes great tension and discomfort within us. Thus Maslow states that it's healthy to satisfy our needs (Griffin, E. 2009. A First Look at Communication Theory. Deficiency needs must be satisfied for growth to occur. McGraw-Hill. 126). He also states that the need "to fulfil needs is potent but not overpowering". He believes that people can resist the needs listed in Maslow's Hierarchy, but it's more difficultly done in practice than said in theory. Maslow labelled this less insistent motivational force instinctoid seeing as, in his opinion, Freud overstated the case by labelling it instinct. He also explained that instinctoid means that the needs in his hierarchy are universal and that even though everyone shares the same needs, they satisfy them in their own unique ways according to their personalities (Griffin, E. 2009. A First Look at Communication Theory. Deficiency needs must be satisfied for growth to occur. McGraw-Hill. 126).

The Levels of needs

Deficiency needs

These needs are called deficiency needs because they only aid as an motivation to a person when they feel a deficit. Only after these needs are satisfied can one progress to the higher levels of needs that strive towards growth. (Griffin, E. 2009. A First Look at Communication Theory. Deficiency needs must be satisfied for growth to occur. McGraw-Hill. 127).

Physiological needs:

Also known as the need for survival. Thus these needs make up the foundation of Maslow's pyramid as these are the strongest needs of any human being (D. Martin. K.Joomis. 2007. Building Teachers: A Constructive Approach to Introducing Education. Belmont, CA:Wadsworth. 72). These needs include air, water, food, sleep and a stable body temperature and environmental climate (Huitt, W.G. Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs and Values - A Commentary. www.edpsycinteractive.org/topics/regsys/maslow.html. 2004.1). A starving person with no nutritional sources won't deem the upper level needs important before his physical needs (which will be to feed himself) are satisfied (Kruger, S.J. Smit, E.1996. Basic Psychology for Human Resource Practitioners. The self-actualisation theory of Maslow. Juta&Co Ltd. 53) People at this level seek coping information to be able to satisfy these needs (Huitt, W.G. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs. www.edpsycinteractive.org/topics/regsys/maslow.html. 2004.3)

As a student and a basic human being, my basic need is one of survival as well. Thus I need to feed myself, make sure I get enough fluids daily, have a healthy breathing pattern and enough sleep before a can move onto the next level of needs within my day.

Safety Needs

After one's physiological needs are satisfied one will move to this next level which is more psychologically orientated. These needs are satisfied when one feels completely safe from physical, emotional and psychological harm (D. Martin. K.Joomis. 2007. Building Teachers: A Constructive Approach to Introducing Education. Belmont, CA:Wadsworth. 73) Naturally, adults' security needs differ from those to children (Huitt, W.G. Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs and Values - A Commentary. www.edpsycinteractive.org/topics/regsys/maslow.html. 2004.2). For instance, adults will seek security in their career, having a savings account as well as life insurance (Kruger, S.J. Smit, E.1996. Basic Psychology for Human Resource Practitioners. The self-actualisation theory of Maslow. Juta&Co Ltd. 53).

Children seek security in a set bedtime or overall routine that provides stability as well as consistency and keeps surprises to the minimum (Griffin, E. 2009. A First Look at Communication Theory. Deficiency needs must be satisfied for growth to occur. McGraw-Hill. 127). Without categorising, the overall security needs for all people are living in a safe neighbourhood and house, maintenance of law, financial stability, protection, ect. People at this level seek helping information to inform them on how to remain safe from harm (Huitt, W.G. Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs and Values - A Commentary. www.edpsycinteractive.org/topics/regsys/maslow.html. 2004.2).

Many people remain held back at this level because they do not feel safe. For example, when a man is abusive towards his wife, she won't be able to progress to the next level because she is concerned for her own safety. The needs in the next level will only become important to her when she is not cringing in fear on a daily basis (Gwyne, R. Maslow's hierarchy of needs. http://dave.lab6.com/acid/dump/2004/maslow's%20Hierarchy%20of%20Needs.pdf. 1977. 4).

As I am still only 19 years old I am still very wary of my safety. I still have a big, almost childish, need to feel safe at night as I am someone who still has a fear for darkness.

As a person I need to feel safe in my own home and neighbourhood to live comfortably.

My safety needs also apply to when I'm commuting to and from college every day. I have to make sure my car is in a good condition, has enough fuel, that its brakes are working and that its tyres are in a roadworthy condition.

Also when I go out to clubbing with my friends we need to be cautious of the people we surround ourselves with and in which areas we drive at night.

Affiliation, Love and Belonging Needs

Once someone satisfies their physiological and security needs, they begin to seek satisfactory relationships with the people they interact with every day. By satisfactory relationships I mean to be accepted by others (D. Martin. K.Joomis. 2007. Building Teachers: A Constructive Approach to Introducing Education. Belmont, CA:Wadsworth. 73). At this level people are driven by the desire to give and receive love (not sexual) in order to be accepted by their surrounding people. (Gwyne, R. Maslow's hierarchy of needs. http://dave.lab6.com/acid/dump/2004/maslow's%20Hierarchy%20of%20Needs.pdf. 1977. 4). Maslow believed that giving love is more that a natural instinct. He stated that giving love is seeking get rid of a feeling of emptiness by understanding and accepting others and that receiving love is humans' way of escaping the fears of loneliness and alienation. He also stated that love loses it pull when one has had enough of it (Griffin, E. 2009. A First Look at Communication Theory. Deficiency needs must be satisfied for growth to occur. McGraw-Hill. 128). People with these needs spend more time with family, friends and spouses (Kruger, S.J. Smit, E.1996. Basic Psychology for Human Resource Practitioners. The self-actualisation theory of Maslow. Juta&Co Ltd. 53) Thus people at this level seek enlightening information on how to have happier relationships with the people their fond of (Huitt, W.G. Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs and Values - A Commentary. www.edpsycinteractive.org/topics/regsys/maslow.html. 2004.2).

As teenagers we still have a big need for acceptance and a great fear of social rejection. I'm also guilty of those traits. Being in a new environment among new people enlarged my need to feel accepted. And seeing as it takes time to build bonds with the right people, it forced me to be a bit more reserved than usual during the day at college and then seeking more affection at home from my family members as there is already a bond and acceptance among us. Thus I am a bit stuck at this level occasionally (as the foundation of bonds and acceptance I had at high school is missing now and leaving a void to fill) until I find a place or group of people where I belong.

Esteem Needs

There are two types of esteem:

Self-Esteem is an internal esteem that requires self-respect and accomplishments. This need is associated with the feeling of confidence with oneself; that one is independent and capable of achieving what they want (Kruger, S.J. Smit, E.1996. Basic Psychology for Human Resource Practitioners. The self-actualisation theory of Maslow. Juta&Co Ltd. 53).

Self-worth is the external esteem associated with seeking respect and attention from others, being socially recognised, having one's social status acknowledged, being treated with dignity and feeling important and appreciated (Kruger, S.J. Smit, E.1996. Basic Psychology for Human Resource Practitioners. The self-actualisation theory of Maslow. Juta&Co Ltd. 53).

Overall these needs are satisfied by ultimately fostering positive feelings and pride in one's work and in oneself as a person (D. Martin. K.Joomis. 2007. Building Teachers: A Constructive Approach to Introducing Education. Belmont, CA:Wadsworth. 73) People at this level of needs in Maslow's hierarchy seek empowering information in order to help one give one's ego a positive boost (Huitt, W.G. Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs and Values - A Commentary. www.edpsycinteractive.org/topics/regsys/maslow.html. 2004.2).

As a newcomer to studenthood I am faced with new challenges of being more independent and dealing with a bigger work load. I am also surrounded by new people whose respect and acknowledgement I have to earn. Until I have conquered these challenges by gaining respect and earning the marks I am aiming for, my esteem will be at a lower point than it was for example last year among people and environment I am familiar with.

Growth Needs

This part of the pyramid is the need for Self-actualization divided into 3 categorical needs and together they constitute people's growth needs - Their desire to become everything they are capable of becoming. Contrasting deficiency needs, which motivation fades as they are satisfied, once growth needs are satisfied, people become even more eager to do so (D. Martin. K.Joomis. 2007. Building Teachers: A Constructive Approach to Introducing Education. Belmont, CA:Wadsworth. 73). Also contrary to deficiency needs, growth needs are never completely satisfied.

The Need to Understand and Know

This need to know and understand only emerges after all the deficiency needs are satisfied. Thus in order for students and pupils to absorb as much information at their educational institutes as possible, they must arrive that location with their first four needs already satisfied at home, among their peers and family. (D. Martin. K.Joomis. 2007. Building Teachers: A Constructive Approach to Introducing Education. Belmont, CA:Wadsworth. 74)

Being finished with the soul numbing routine of school (a time most 17+ year olds are waiting anxiously for) riddles one with a new curiosity. Personally, because I am studying something I am interested in, I have a greater need to learn new things than I had at school even if not all of my lower needs are satisfied.

Aesthetic Needs

This need refers to one's desire to express oneself in a creative, beautiful and artistically pleasing way. These needs only emerge when the first levels of needs are met. Each person satisfies this need in their own unique way according to their personality and preference in art form (D. Martin. K.Joomis. 2007. Building Teachers: A Constructive Approach to Introducing Education. Belmont, CA:Wadsworth. 74).

Being artists (my co-students in my Graphic Design course and I) this need almost becomes more important that out previous needs. I will skip a night's rest and place myself in danger in driving to college the next morning just to make sure my art portfolio is up to my standards and that my talents are expressed in a pleasurable way for submission the next day.

This is where Maslow's hierarchy has a limitation. His theory doesn't account for all cultures and personalities. Some cultures will put social needs before the needs below it on the pyramid. And Maslow also didn't take into account the phenomenon of the 'starving artist' where a creative person will neglect the lower needs on the hierarchy to strive in satisfying higher ones. There is also minimum evidence that people are only limited to satisfying one need at once (Huitt, W.G. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs. www.edpsycinteractive.org/topics/regsys/maslow.html. 2004.7).

The need for self-Actualization

Imagine someone who is loving, realistic, fair, self-sufficient, relaxed, spontaneous, creative, nice, problem focused, continuously appreciating life, concerned about their personal growth, devoted to something precious to them (usually an external cause) and constantly have peak experiences. The people who fit this bill has met the final need of Maslow's hierarchy, which is realising one's full potential and using it along with their talents and capacities. They are the so called "Olympic Medallists" of the human species it (Griffin, E. 2009. A First Look at Communication Theory. Deficiency needs must be satisfied for growth to occur. McGraw-Hill. 124).

As an artist my final need is to reach my full artistic and creative potential and to use my talents to their fullest in leaving my mark in the artistic industry. I want to make a name for myself and be like a female Milton Glaser or Steven Heller and still have time to support and spend quality time with my family.

While other psychologists labelled these people as having healthy personalities and being fully functioning, Maslow thought of a better term and labelled them as self-actualising (Huitt, W.G. Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs and Values - A Commentary. www.edpsycinteractive.org/topics/regsys/maslow.html. 2004.2). He also estimated that, seeing as this need is rarely completely met, only 1% of adults achieve complete self-actualization as it is an ongoing process (D. Martin. K.Joomis. 2007. Building Teachers: A Constructive Approach to Introducing Education. Belmont, CA:Wadsworth. 75). But if, in the rare occasion, one meets this need, one realises one's calling. People at his fortunate level though seek edifying information such as moral and spiritual upliftment and information on how to connect to something beyond your physical self (Huitt, W.G. Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs and Values - A Commentary. www.edpsycinteractive.org/topics/regsys/maslow.html. 2004.2).

Conclusion

Through investigating Maslow's Hierarchy of needs by discussing each level and applying it to realistic situations as well as my own, one can conclude even though there is some lack in scientific support in his theory one can't help to wonder about how effective it really is seeing as Maslow studied significant people like Albert Einstein, Eleanor Roosevelt and Frederick Douglas to formulate his theory. That alone should be motivation enough to investigate this theory even more and develop it to a full proof ladder to self-actualizing success in life.

Writing Services

Essay Writing
Service

Find out how the very best essay writing service can help you accomplish more and achieve higher marks today.

Assignment Writing Service

From complicated assignments to tricky tasks, our experts can tackle virtually any question thrown at them.

Dissertation Writing Service

A dissertation (also known as a thesis or research project) is probably the most important piece of work for any student! From full dissertations to individual chapters, we’re on hand to support you.

Coursework Writing Service

Our expert qualified writers can help you get your coursework right first time, every time.

Dissertation Proposal Service

The first step to completing a dissertation is to create a proposal that talks about what you wish to do. Our experts can design suitable methodologies - perfect to help you get started with a dissertation.

Report Writing
Service

Reports for any audience. Perfectly structured, professionally written, and tailored to suit your exact requirements.

Essay Skeleton Answer Service

If you’re just looking for some help to get started on an essay, our outline service provides you with a perfect essay plan.

Marking & Proofreading Service

Not sure if your work is hitting the mark? Struggling to get feedback from your lecturer? Our premium marking service was created just for you - get the feedback you deserve now.

Exam Revision
Service

Exams can be one of the most stressful experiences you’ll ever have! Revision is key, and we’re here to help. With custom created revision notes and exam answers, you’ll never feel underprepared again.