Education is the capacity to realize the value of one's existence and make it worthy for the development of his own and his surroundings. It is a universal process that humanizes the humanity and makes life progressive, civilized and cultured. It targets toward the acquisition of life skills and knowledge of environment to live a happy, enjoying and satisfied life on the lines deemed desirable by ethos of society. It develops all the capacities and qualities in an individual of which he is capable of. This is a process of inner growth and development and goes throughout the life of a person. Education is an experience that has a formative effect on the mind, character or physical abilities of an individual. By education, society deliberately transmits its accumulated knowledge, skill and values from one generation to another. It enables a person to think clearly and act effectively to realize self assertive goals and aspirations. It is a dynamic and continuous process by which human beings develop thinking and reasoning, problem-solving, ability, intelligence, positive sentiments, life coping skills and attitudes. Therefore, education is essential for development of an individual as well as of society. In education, this crucial and all pervasive role is played by the teachers for the development of socio-cultural ethos of society. The teachers are the backbone of any country, because they play vital and constructive role in the development of the nation. A teacher is like a potter who moulds his material (students) in his factory (school). If the teachers are versatile, intellectually enlightened, morally strong, emotionally balanced, socially and culturally advanced, then the nation will have enlightened and excellent citizens.
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Teaching is considered to be one of the stressful professions especially because, it involves daily work based on social interaction, where the teachers must have to make efforts for establishing adjustment and also regulate not only his own emotions but also those of students. Therefore, teachers have to play diverse roles, which they can only play, if they have desirable behavior as well as satisfaction in life. Satisfaction is a Latin word that means to make or to enough. Satisfaction with one's life implies contentment with or acceptance of one's life circumstance, or the fulfillment of one's wants and needs for one's life as whole.
The word life satisfaction is comprised of two words, life and satisfaction. According to Oxford Dictionary, Life is the state of functional activity peculiar to organized matter and especially to the portion of it such as, constituting an animal or plant before death. Life is a state of an organized being in which it maintains or is capable of maintain its structural integrity by the constant interchange of elements with the surrounding environment.
Webster's Encyclopedic Dictionary of English Language (1977) defines Satisfaction as an, "act of satisfying or state of being satisfied, contentment in possession and enjoyment; and to satisfy is to gratify fully the wants, wishes or desires of; and to supply to the full extent, with what is wished for." Satisfaction of an individual depends on his environment, caliber, way of behaving in different situations and nature. Oxford dictionary defines satisfaction as a fulfillment of one's wishes, expectations or needs.
Life satisfaction may be defined as a conscious, cognitive, global judgments of one's own life.Â It is not an assessment based on externally imposed objective standards, but rather depends upon a comparison of one's life circumstances to one's own internal standards or criteria (Diener et al. 1985, Pavot et al. 1991, Pavot and Diener 1993).Â
Life satisfaction involves the sum total of fulfillment of the human desires, happiness and well adjustment to his environment. It includes the material wealth as well as psychological and social stability through the physical and cognitive labor. It enables to live life with enjoyment and pleasures. This is a continuous and dynamic process that varies according to the time, situation and need of individual and society. In other words it is mental perception about the quality of life. It justifies how anyone rates the standard and quality of his life. This is the highest and cumulative objective of human life. Through all the activities, plans and hard labor every individual want to live a satisfied, happy and enjoying life. To sum up life satisfaction is the ultimate desire, that human being is striving for.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Always on Time
Marked to Standard
J. Wilson (1968) found that a man would be completely happy if he is satisfied with all aspects of life. A life that involves the satisfaction of simple desires, gives many pleasures. These desires arise due to a number of behavioral actions that are related to overt or covert behavior of the individual concerned or these may be environmental i.e. related to social, mental and physical environment.
Linda and Morris (1985) investigated the degree to which age moderated the several predictors of life satisfaction using data from a survey of myth and reality of aging. Results indicated that only the total and direct effect of age was trivial on life satisfaction. Effects of marital status, income, health and social support had moderate partial significant effect on life satisfaction.
Kierce(1985) examined the contribution of selected independent variables on a dependent measure - life satisfaction. A total number of 4254 subjects comprised the representative sample of Americans, 18 to 91 years of age. Selected status and social involvement variables constituted the eleven independent variables. The status variables investigated were age, education, employment status, income, health, religion and marital status. The social involvement variables included were the frequency of contact with friends, parents, siblings and children. Life satisfaction was measured using life satisfaction index (LSI-Z). The social involvement variables were not found to be substantially significant in the prediction of life satisfaction. The ratings of life satisfaction did, however, appear to be substantially influenced by the age group of the respondent.
Kaur, H. (2004) observed no statistical significant differences between male and female; primary, middle, and high school teachers; less experienced and more experienced; government and private; studied in rural and urban areas on life satisfaction.
Harleen (2004) opined that happiness enhances reasonable self satisfaction. The three A's of happiness are achievement, acceptance and affection. To be truly satisfied and stimulated by life a person needs to be intrinsically satisfied. It is thus apparent that a person can be happy only when he has a realistic appraisal of his abilities and potentials to develop realistic aspiration and expectations. And finally, an optimistic outlook and cheerful disposition towards life is a healthy outlook without which it is difficult to have satisfaction in life.
Singh, Onkar (2005) reported that there existed no difference in life satisfaction among male and female; rural and urban; government and private; science and arts streams teacher trainees. He further reported that length of teaching has no impact on life satisfaction.
White (2006) analytic social psychologist at the university of leicester, prepared a world map of happiness by analysing data published by UNESCO, the CIA, and WHO and the likes to create a global project of subjective well- being . The study was based on data collected from 178 countries. Participants were asked questions related to happiness and satisfaction with life. The study revealed, "Happiness is found to be most closely associated with health, followed with health, followed by wealth and education."
Sooch, Rajinder (2009) studied the impact of some variables like sex, level of teaching, teaching experience, type of school management, location of school and marital status of teachers on life satisfaction. The data was collected from 600 elementary as well as secondary level school teachers with the help of life satisfaction scale having a five - points rating scale. The t - ratios calculated between the mean values of different categories of teachers indicated that they did not have any significant influence on the life satisfaction of teachers.
JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY
Life satisfaction determines the maximum exposure of an individual's professional as well as life skills. As far as the teaching is concerned, it has been called as noble profession. The whole process of education revolves around the knowledge, skills and efficiency of a teacher. The duty of teacher is manifold and cannot be put in to words. He has to prepare the individual to use the best of his potential to live a happy and satisfied life. So to perform this challenging job, teacher himself should be satisfied in relation to his physical, social, economic, professional, cognitive, mental, emotional and marital aspects of life. A satisfied teacher can perform best in classroom. He will listen the problem of students with interest and show zeal to solve them. He will show enthusiasm in adopting new methodology and handling advanced techniques to prepare the future citizen for knowledge society. So the teachers' life satisfaction is needed to be studied.
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In the present study the investigator is keen to study the life satisfaction of teacher. Satisfaction level of teacher in regard to life directly influences the process of teaching. The investigator wanted to study the life satisfaction of teacher from various perspectives i.e. social, professional, emotional and marital etc.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
A Comparative Study of Life Satisfaction of Working Teachers of Government and Private Schools at Secondary Level in Haryana.
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
To study the life satisfaction of working teachers of government and private schools at secondary level.
To compare the life satisfaction of working teachers of government & private schools at secondary level.
To compare the life satisfaction of working teachers of government & private school located in urban area.
To compare the life satisfaction of working teachers of government and private school located in rural area.
To compare the life satisfaction of male working teachers of government and private school at secondary level.
To compare the life satisfaction of female working teachers of government and private schools at secondary level.
There is no significant difference in the life satisfaction of working teachers of government & private schools at secondary level.
There is no significant difference in the life satisfaction of working teachers of government & private school located in urban area.
There is no significant difference in the life satisfaction of working teachers of government and private school located in rural area.
There is no significant difference in the life satisfaction of male working teachers of government and private school at secondary level.
There is no significant difference in the life satisfaction of female working teachers of government and private schools at secondary level.
OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF THE TERMS USED
Life Satisfaction: Life satisfaction refers to an individual's well being, quality life and happiness.
Government School: Means a school run by the department of education of the union territory/state government.
Private School: Means a school run by society/trust duly constituted and registered under the provisions of central/state acts not getting any regular grant in aid from any government sources.
Keeping in view the nature of study descriptive survey method will be used.
Population and Sample: The study will be conducted on teachers at secondary level in Haryana state. The sample for the study will be selected randomly from two districts of Haryana. Two blocks from each district will be selected randomly. Further ten Governments and ten Private Sr. Secondary Schools from each block of two districts will be taken. Then six teachers from each school (3 Male & 3 female) will be selected randomly. Thus sample will be comprised of 480 teachers (240 Male & 240 Female).
Gender and Locality
Number of Teachers
Tool Used: Life Satisfaction Scale by Dr. Q. G. Alam and Dr. Ramji Srivastava
Statistical Technique: Keeping in view the nature of study appropriate statistical technique will be used.
DELIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
The study will be delimited to Haryana state only.
The study will be delimited to teachers at secondary level of two districts of Haryana state only.
The study will be delimited to four blocks of two districts of Haryana state only.
The study will be delimited to 40 Government and 40 Private schools of Haryana state only.
The study will be delimited to 480 teachers at secondary level on Haryana state only.