A Case Study On Teacher Training Programs Education Essay

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Instructors want the best for their learners. In particular, they want their learners to have the best possible studying possibilities and results. Often in their own time, instructors search for new training concepts, new sources and accessories to enhance the studying of their learners. They try to enhance the teaching skills, the knowledge about their topics, connections with the learners and control. After finishing the teacher training programs, instructors continue to learn about learning and training throughout their professional lifestyles. The study was designed to investigate the effectiveness of in-service teacher training programs initiated by H.E.C in Islamabad during the session 2007. The main objectives of the study were to investigate the effectiveness of Staff Development Program through documentary study and pin point the flaws, and suggest improvements for the solution of identified problems.

Staff Development Courses conducted in The National University of Modern Languages Islamabad, COMSATS Islamabad was taken as a Case in this study. Researcher personally visited and collected information from Course Coordinator of Staff development Courses of Higher Education Commission, which are appended at per annexure "A" and "F" and stated conclusions and give suggestions for the improvement of the program.

It had been analyzed that Staff Development Courses are valuable for the improvement of the teachers in their profession. There is a need of such sessions to be conducted twice in a year for fresh university and college teachers. These courses are helpful for using new methods and techniques in teaching. The course offered was comprehensive and up -to -date. The study was to analyze the program in future perspective.

ABBREVIATION

Sr. No

Abbreviations

Description

HEC

Higher Education Commission

NAHE

National Academy of Higher Education Commission

LID

Learning Innovation Division

SDCS

Staff Development Courses

ICDL

International Computer Driving License

6.

LTTS

Learning to Teach with Technology Studio

7.

NC

National Conference

Chapter I

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

Higher Education Commission is blamed enough as per his role in the teacher training so researcher focused and selected the Program offered by HEC named as Staff Development Courses to investigate the role of HEC and effectiveness of the program.

The Skilled manpower is a key to enhance the existing capabilities vigorously, so trained teachers can put maximum potential among learners in any classroom setting. As we have known teachers training programs are available at University level of education in the form of B.Ed. and M.Ed. Researcher issue is to bring into light the particular training programs for university teachers. Further, researcher highlights the role of Higher Education Commission in faculty training and investigates the effectiveness of faculty training programs specifically for universities in Pakistan. The researcher is worried about the training programs for university teachers in current scenario in Pakistan. For this purpose researcher have designed initially a Case Study due to time constraints to resolve this sensitive issue and the study could be carried on experimental at the broad level at M. Phil or PhD level of education.

Pakistan is a nation having a low literacy rate and deficiency of awareness. Every governmental party has tried and worked hard to build up and increase good academic parameters regarding the building up of the system of education to its entire people.

The process of education is accomplished when proper education, healthy faculty; proper and advanced faculty members in universities are available.

Quality education is directly affected by the quality of instructors. If the teachers are amazing and highly experienced, the quality of education will be improved. Teachers make the mind of the thought. Education of the children is directly linked with the quality of teacher education both at pre and in-service stage.

In this logical and technological age, in-service programs stress on up-grading knowledge, work and habit, development of new ideas, attitudes, concepts, recent results and logical way of thinking. The only possible way for the transmitting of these things from generation to generation is through qualified and professionally experienced trainers.

All the educational policies have outlined the pre-service as well as in-service training of the instructors.

In-service education of the instructors has been outlined in the National Education Policy 1979 as:

"The teacher is the pin of the whole academic system. Effective teaching requirements that besides having sufficient information of the subject and techniques of teaching, or teachers must also show full commitment to the ideology of Pakistan. To create sure continuous expert growth, all trainers will be required to go through at least in-service program during every five years." (National Education Policy 1979)

For this reason special in-service programs were began all over Pakistan. Higher Education Commission has also initiated program, named as faculty Development program, for enhancing new techniques and methodologies in teachers. This teacher training program allows the trainers to put the concept into work out and offer possibilities for prospective trainers to form a genuine picture of teaching-Learning situation.

'The purpose of Staff Development Program is to expose the relatively fresh university/ degree colleges' teachers to new styles and difficulties in Higher education and provide orientation on modern techniques of teaching and assessment as well as research methodologies."

1.2 Concept of Education

Education is typically considered as the getting information.. The term 'education' is identified as "the art of creating available to each generation the arranged information the past" and "the combined of all the process by means of which an individual generates abilities, attitudes and other kinds of excellent values in the society in which he lives" It is actually more than acquiring a body of information, including a cluster of attitudes, feelings, views and skills of which the abilities to think independently and clearly is of the first importance. Actually, knowledge becomes "a mean to an end and not to an end in itself." (N.C.Joshi, 1978)

Education is a highly effective catalyzing agent who provides emotional, psychological, ideological and moral training to individual, so as to allow them to have full awareness of their purpose in way of life and provide them to achieve that purpose. It is an instrument for the spiritual development as well as the mental realization of individuals' desires. (M. Shahina)

Education may be identified as a process of brining desirable change in the actions of individuals. When learning is progressing towards objectives, it is known as education.

According to Psacharopolous (1987), in almost all countries of the world education is developed to meet up with the following three well described functions:

It is a main individual system not only for the structural details in the core topics of the curricula but also a system for gaining activities, concepts and abilities on which these countries can create later.

It is a mean of meeting other basic needs where it not only influences and is in turn influenced by them but at the same time it serves as a catalyst in creating fresh needs. It is this upward pull or mobility that raises a country's level of aspirations and expectations.

It is an action that maintains and speeds up economical development. Education makes and trains experienced workers at all stage to manage capital, technology, solutions and administration in every sector of national way of life. It enables individual to get knowledge, self understanding and important appreciation of changes happening all around quick, thus becoming a type of future shock viewer.(Aisha A, 2003)

Approaches to Education

Some believe that education is for the intelligent development of individuals and of the whole society, which is in it a sufficient comes back. Others declare that earnings on this economical commitment are to be assessed by the economical measure and that it has unlimited and immeasurable potential of earnings which cannot be always pre- identified and pre- designed. Thus, either it is an object of immediate consumption or it is an economical commitment. In either type, it is important for the society and for the whole community. (Muttalib, M.A)

According to Muslim Philosopher Ibne Khaldoon

"Education is a process which helps in discovering the truth through understanding, considering and subjection to God" Ibne Khaldoon

1.3 Research Questions

Is there any need of in-service training for university teachers?

What is the role of Higher Education Commission in the university teachers training?

1.4 Objectives of the study

The objectives of the study were:

To highlight the working pattern of training of teachers by Higher Education Commission.

To investigate the Effectiveness of the Program.

To give suggestion for improvements.

1.5 Statement of the problem

A Case study was designed to investigate the effectiveness of in-service teacher training programs initiated by Higher Education Commission in Islamabad during the session 2007.

1.6 Significance of the Study

In- service training programs are important for the teachers to develop the teaching skills and to improve the qualification.

This study will be valuable for strategy makers, directors and teacher educators to enhance the teacher-training programs. It will also be valuable for the prospective trainers as well as working teachers in developing excellent mind-set toward teaching profession.

1.7 Methodology

It is a descriptive type case study.

1.7.1 Type of study

It is qualitative research and documentary case study.

1.7.2 Data Collection

As the research were Qualitative and the researcher given the analytical points through documents, which are appended at per annexure "A" and "C" and "F". Data is collected in a document form.

1.7.3 Data Analysis

The researcher has analyzed the strong points and flaws of the Teacher Training Courses with the help of Documentary study.

The conclusion and recommendations is given on the basis of analytical study of the program.

2.1 Introduction

Every country is anticipated to serve its habitants in all spheres of life. The growth is only feasible when all resources are in the same way distributed to all the areas of the entire country. It is obvious fact that development is only doable through effective education which cannot be imagined without committed teachers. The rate of development can only be multiplied through education.

It is an admitted truth that only teacher can boost up the standard of education. If the knowledge is useful, the learners can achieve more from it. So we have to make our instructors skilful with learning activities. It can be only had through appropriate training. In many countries there is a sufficient amount of teachers who are trained. However, the studies have shown those five years after graduation from Teacher Training institutions, educator effectiveness tends to refuse steadily unless systematic in-service training is provided from time to time.

2.2 Concept of Teacher

Teacher is a person who has to do with the intellectual growth of learner and the other, with the acquirement of cultural ideas. Traditionally, the teacher has been looked down upon by the group of people as one possessing superior knowledge to that of his students.

However, he is certainly not expected to be a walking encyclopedia of information to open up anything at any time. Today, the educator is identified as a displeased personality with an intellectually average stage of scholarship. (N.C.Joshi, 1978).

Teacher will need to be efficient in inspiring learning by organizing experiences that will not only authorize learning but that will encourage and guide learning. They will be "facilitator of knowledge" (Knowles, 1975).

2.3 Teacher Education in Pakistan

The moral, social and economical development of a country is reliant on the nature and equality of education which is offered to its children. The education of a child is directly associated with the quality of teacher education. The government of Pakistan is making every effort to develop the teacher education both at pre service and in service level. The curricula of all categories of teachers have been announced during the last few years. It is quite obvious and admitted fact that no system of education is better than its teachers. The teacher's plays central part in enhancing the standard of education. No education change can succeed unless suitable individuals having special mind-set and preference for the teaching profession and possessing a sound academic qualification of recruited and provided with a suitable level of professional training. The standard of education is purely reliant on the excellence of teacher education both at pre service and in service level. The pre service is an essential requirement for the teachers without which they cannot be expected to do their professional duties effectively and efficiently.

2.3.1 General Objectives of Teacher Education

The following objectives are incorporated at the planning stage;

1. Techniques for class management.

2. Consumption of New Education Technology in teaching.

3. Development of mastery of teaching content.

4. Acquisition of skills in individualized instruction.

5. Expansion of skills for teachers made test to appraise student's progress.

6. Cooperation to provide entire some learning /teaching environment in the institution.

These objectives can be utilized if the teachers participate in the planning process, spare time is offered to them, experimentation is encouraged, the environment for proficient improvement.

2.3.2 Importance of Teacher Education

The modernization of the national structure of education and its operational success must depend upon the excellence of the nation's teaching profession. The value of teachers does not lie only in undertaking a scheme of education efficiently. They are above all energetic nation-builders. The supremacy of the teaching profession has been just demonstrated in educationally advance countries.

Since World War II, the educationally highly developed nations have pinned their confidence on the teachers of their children and youth. In America, the commission on

Teacher Education declared in America 1944:

"Teaching is essential to the protection and development of any nation. Through teaching, the powers of youth are pinched out and restricted in practice. Through teaching, the standards that describe a culture are built into the personalities of those, in whose hand that culture's doom must lay. Through teaching, a people's capability to meet up with change in methods that boost the national welfare is strengthened." (N. A. Baloch)

2.3.3 Purpose of Teacher Education in Pakistan

Education is identified as the systematic instruction and training given particularly to the youth in preparation of life. Every department of education signifies the magnitude of teacher education in the training learning process.

"No system of education can grow above the teachers who serve it, and its quality depends finally on the quality and efforts of the teachers. Instructors, like engineer, are prospective constructors and one of the characteristics of our engineers should be their determination to locate uses from locally available materials. Such initiative and self dependence should be equally characteristic of our teachers."

In the policy document of 1978 following characteristics of the teachers are given due emphasis:

"The instructor is the pin of the whole educational system. Effective teaching requirements that besides having sufficient knowledge of the subject matter and methods of teaching, or teachers must also show great commitment to the ideology of Pakistan."

(Govt. of Pakistan 1978)

2.4 Teacher Training Programs in Pakistan

In Pakistan, there are three sources of teacher training:

Conventional or formal training

Non formal training systems

Distance Education through Open University.

In the formal or conventional training system, the programs includes

Existing pre-service and in-service Training

Project related Training programs mostly supported by international agencies.

The integrated programs results in better teachers, better education in our school ready to face the 21st century with the aspiration of Pakistan.

2.4.1 Modes of Teacher Training Program

There are two modes of Teacher Training Program in Pakistan;

1. Pre-service Teacher Training Program

2. In-service Teacher Training Program.

1. Pre-Service Teacher Training Program.

Training imparted to the teachers before joining the education department as teacher is called pre-service training. It is done in different institutions, which are known as Training Centers. The government is strongly devoted to the universalization of Primary Education, which was first of all announced in the National Educational Policy 1978.

The universalization at primary level implies enhance in enrollment in secondary level. To meet this condition at secondary level, requirements of host of facilities for teacher education at pre-service level needs to be increased. If our pre-service training arrangements are not enough and up to the mark, the required target will not be acquired.

There exists a four-layer program of teacher training in the country. These are;

Primary Teacher Certificate (PTC)

Certificate in Teaching (CT)

Bachelor of Education (B.Ed)

Master of Education. (M.Ed)

Bachelor of Science Education BS.ed (Hons)

These programs are mandatory for prospective teachers in Pakistan. BS.ed (Hons) is recently started by higher education commission Pakistan.

2. In-service Teacher Training Program

There are number of concepts used for In-service. Some of these are following:

"Staff Development'," Continuing of teacher Education" and Professional Education etc. In Pakistan we apply following terms of in-service Education; "Refresher Course, "Orientation Courses" and Human resources Development." Educational effort to enhance professional abilities of the teachers on the job is called In-service Education.

According to Diamond (1968) "In service is an activity, generally purposeful and formalized whereby teacher working behind pre service may advance their professional understanding, abilities and attitudes to expand their perspectives." (Diamond 1968)

According to Haris (1957) "In service education is the mixture of all the actions performed by the professional personal during their service and considered to contribute to their professional enhancement". (Haris)

The regional meetings of those answerable for development teacher education in 14 countries, including Pakistan, organized by UNESCO (1986) acknowledged three main concerns of the proficient training of teachers. These were:

Including a value system to a career in teaching

Imparting specific new knowledge and skills

Retraining of teachers to enable them to keep pace with new trends in education. UNESCO (1986)

Since 1960 the science and modern technology have brought about the quick changes and have artificial all areas. Those time have gone when a teacher who had once got training could declare excellence in the profession. Teacher's knowledge becomes out dated after short period of time. This create the need of their in service education.

As Asghar Ali Sheikh wrote "in-service education is viewed as important for the teacher's expert growth". The writers of the Education Policy 1972-80, also have raised the significance and need of in-service teachers training and suggested that a comprehensive of in-service teachers' support program will be performed to allow practicing correctly and efficiently to teach the new curricula. The features of training given to our teachers will obviously depend largely on the expert expertise of the member of the staff training Institution. (Ali Sheikh)

According to the National Education Commission 1959,

"No teacher, once trained, can throughout his career be considered as proficient without providing refresher course". (Govt. of Pakistan 1959)

2.5 National Education Policies and In-service Education

National Education Commission (1959) outlined the in-service training of the skilled working teachers. National Educational Policy (1979) also suggested increase the provisional Education Centers and In-service Training Centers in Provisions.

National Educational Policy (1998-2010) over emphasized the developing up of In-service institutions for given regular and quality in service training to the functioning teachers.

(Govt. of Pakistan, 1998)

2.6 Review of Educational Policies

There are six educational policies given in different periods. As under;

2.6.1 Pakistan Educational Conference (1974)

At the moment of freedom, Pakistan in herited an education structure develops to produce a type of individuals who would offer the control and enable the all socio-economic order in the country. This socio-economic, feudal nature order broken the masses, financially and not permitted them from raising their standard of living. After independence Educational Conference was held in Karachi from November 27 to December 1,

The founder of Pakistan, Quaid-e-Azam said, "There is no hesitation that, the prospect of our state will and must deeply depend upon the style of education, we are giving to our children, and the way in which we bring them up as prospect citizens of Pakistan". (Govt. of Pakistan, 1947)

Participants of the conference raise the issue of teacher training. The primary and secondary education committee settled that a proper training program was important for the growth of great estate.

The committee, for that reason, recommended that the provinces should take crucial steps to ensure

The appropriate training of teachers

An satisfactory salary scale (Govt. of Pakistan)

2.6.2 Commission on National Education (1959)

No education structure is better than its teachers. What to teach is as essential as how to educate it and it is the duty of training institution to make sure that graduate teachers are properly prepared to teach the subject mandatory at the level for which they are expecting to qualify. The excellence of training given to our teachers obviously depends on the expert competency of the member of the training institution. (Govt. of Pakistan)

2.6.3 Educational policy 1972-80

In this educational policy it was planned that teacher education institution for men would be transformed to institution for women. (Govt. of Pakistan)

2.6.4 National Educational Policy 1979

It has constantly acknowledged in all previous policies that no structure of education could be better than its teachers. But unluckily, the standard of Teacher Education at recent seems to be on the lower ebb because of different factors. Urgent need has there been felt to upgrade the quality of teachers education by giving satisfactory services both for pre-service and in-service training program in the country. An Academy of Educational Planning and management will be established to provide opportunities of training to enormous members of administration and supervisor working at different level of the Educational systems.

2.6.5 National Educational Policy 1992

According to National Educational Policy 1992, for the improvement of teacher education.

It was developing up subject-matter preparation.

Providing more and better possibilities for education, major to try out teaching skills.

Integrating theory and the results of the research in effecting teaching into the professional educational curriculum.

Cooperating with schools in preparing teachers. (Govt. of Pakistan, 1992)

2.6.6 National Educational policy (1998-2010)

According to national Education Policy ( 1998-2010) the present teacher education program is consider not being sufficiently responsive to the requirement for quality Education in the school system. There is a variety of problems being indicated about Teachers education in Pakistan to improve the existing condition in the field of important issues.

(Govt. of Pakistan, 1998)

2.7 Role of Higher Education Commission in Teacher's Education and Training:

The entry qualification in the universities teaching is a master's stage or equaling, holding no attention of pedagogy as well as other fundamental teaching skills and research methodologies. Consequently the new or less skilled university teachers are confronted with the challenge of teaching profession. Thus, to deal with the issue, it is incredibly important to empower the university and colleges faculty, providing them with sufficient background and skills necessary for efficient participation in academic research and administrative functioning of the universities introducing an educational civilization coming at per with global values.

As we have already joined in the 21st century, the challenges to raise the quality of Higher Education in the wake up of globalization seem over helming to the complicated process set again a ticking clock. Instructor is the king pin for any Education system all over the globe and in Pakistan no exception to this. Unfortunately, a considerable proportion of the Universities/Colleges Faculty in Pakistan is separated from professional development possibilities and system that are important for the efficient teaching out comes at higher level of Education. Professional development through extreme in-service training can significantly enhance the prospective of universities or colleges teachers in operational vitality, the amazing ideas of teaching learning process.

Higher Education Commission considered this essential process of professional development on its outline through establishment of National Academy of Higher Education Commission (NAHE) in the year 2004 and about 3200 faculty members were listed. NAHE established 38 human resource development centers in various universities and staff development courses of one month duration are being conducted for the proficient development of faculty members through extreme in-service training. The training of 3564 teachers has efficiently completed.

There are approximately 18000 teachers in Higher Education Institutions across Pakistan and NAHE Phase-I and II have been able to reach almost 35% of them by providing professional quality development skills basics of professional teaching at their door steps.

2.7.1 National Academy of Higher Education (NAHE)

(NAHE is a HEC project with the primary aim to achieve professional development courses for 18000 faculty members at different centers/universities across the country.)

HEC makes serious try to promote academic vitality by providing training and development possibilities that support learning and teaching as well as assisting individuals in working efficiently within their departments throughout the university community. In the same perspective, the vast process of faculty development has been taken across the country through HEC project named NATIONAL ACADEMY OF HIGHER EDUCATION COMMISSION (NAHE)

Mission statement:

NAHE is devoted to reinforce Instructional Leadership by providing constant, comprehensive, and efficient long term learning possibilities to be able to promote amazing teaching learning techniques that are increased by innovative research and technology.

Objectives of NAHE

To raise the values of teaching and learning throughout higher education in Pakistan by;

Promoting techniques that make obvious amazing learning outcomes

Enabling institutions to create techniques to teach and learning that motivate a further understanding of the university college student learning needs.

Encouraging cooperation and division of good practice so as to raise the factors of teaching

Contributing to information accessible in the Teaching and learning in higher education sector.

Its primary goal is advertising university college student achievement. To get these objectives, we concentrate our work on changing the culture of classrooms for all learners and training of teachers to teach efficient learning techniques and to promote strength, constructive self-concept, and strong attempt in all students. We will offer participants/University teachers with research based details that addresses the important problems facing instructors nowadays.

We will keep perform with individual techniques to create sure programs that transfer abilities and data that support learners focused needs. NAHE is focused to teach the real essence of leadership that provides the needs of trainers across institutions, stages and areas of instruction.

The NAHE envisages new attempt for training the faculty in the higher education commission and is looking for to enhance main skills in academic techniques. Its objectives are to enhance the factors of learning that express amazing learning outcomes;

To allow institutions to create techniques to teaching and learning that motivate a further understanding of the university college student studying needs; to motivate cooperation and sharing of good practice so as to improve the standards of teaching and to supply the information available in the teaching and learning in higher education sector.

2.8 Learning Innovation Division

The division of learning innovation at the Higher Education Commission was identified in 2003 to promote teaching and learning progression. Its aspect is to navigate, achieve and support the teachers of the universities and higher education institutions of Pakistan in pursuance for brilliance in learning, resource expansion, and leadership in the use of technology and strategy in education and training.

The important purpose of the HEC and LI Department is to lead the responsibility in becoming the main focus of expert growth and development of the higher education faculty according to the complications raised due to the constant rate of information assault. Higher education teacher's main aspect is to spread and discover useful details, create expert abilities, moral tendencies and commitment to excellent. It is incredibly important to motivate them, with sufficient background and most updated abilities necessary for efficient participation in academic research and control of the universities and colleges and universities introducing an academic way of life arriving at par with worldwide requirements.

The Higher Education Commission and its learning innovation Department are very focused and devoted to bring about the model shift and promotion of the spirit of inquiry and deep practice within the faculty to achieve new and research based learning. The teaching staff as change agents, can bring about a national trend through their combined strategic considering, generates and implement amazing and creative techniques and solutions to offer and transform the society and thus ethically transmit the leadership to the prospect generation.

The Learning Innovation Division of HEC identified training needs and the number of experts conducted performs to create sections and training elements uncompressing various emerging locations according to the National and Global perspectives. It covered the following areas:

1. Educational Psychology

2. Advance Teaching Skills

3. Administrative Planning and Communication Skills

4. Curriculum and Material Development

5. Research Skills

6. Educational Measurement and Evaluation.

2.9 What is Staff Development?

Every teacher in every school will be only too well aware of the facts of change over modern periods and willing to admit that many of the changes have helped the education and given it a shake that it well deserved. They will declare that some changes have been detrimental to sound education improvement providing the version into side streets at once when sticking to the freeway was difficult enough..

2.9.1 Stages of Staff Development

Typically staff development has three stages:

The staff development strategy, containing the objectives of staff development in the schools and staff entitlement;

The staff development strategies, which identifies particular objectives and learning results.

The staff development program contains all the staff development Activities, which will take place in line with techniques and strategy,

The strategy contains the ideas on which staff development is based and this would normally contain announcement that the main needs identification comes from three sources: school development strategy, retail and team or interval team strategy, and evaluation. Within the made the decision factors of this technique, this technique and program are drawn up by staff team and are given equal weight for consideration with other factors, which create up this technique needs.

Newton and Mack (1994) says there must been evaluation for staff development and considered it as "important to the agenda", as value able fuel for driving staff development program. In their article they discuss their school's staff development strategy, which has three main aims:

To create the staff's attention of the school's perspective, Management strategy, is developed and objectives, and to allow them to cause its ingredients and submission.

To motivate individual staff affiliates to organize their professions and to identify and manipulate career opportunities

To offer continuous expert development for staff, training and Non-teaching, permanent and temporary, supply staff and university college student Instructors such as initial teacher training activities

If these basic ideological grounds are not well thought-out together, then all training requirements will be fragmented and will serve neither the individual nor the organization.

2.9.2 Process of Staff Development

Newton and Mack go on to suggest that, with this policy clearly in place, 'implementation of the policy' becomes' the company responsibility of all staff in a place to help with the expert development' wish of co-workers.

This responsibility is important element and is driven up by a very genuine staff development work out, which again in three stages:

1. Recognition of needs;

2. Delivery of training;

3. Evaluation/ Feedback

This begins on the first day as a teacher and continues to the last day. It involves the first-hand experience and in-service training joined by the person, expert reading, good practice in teaching and management learnt from other co-workers both knowingly or instinctively, as well as individual and team staff development obtained in activities with other trainers to discuss matters of typical concern. All these process offers to enhance a teacher's skills.

2.10 Staff Development Courses

Staff Development Programs are conducted for expert development of teachers through extreme in-service training. To meet the complications of Existing day and to bring our higher education stage at par with International Requirements, it is the need of the hour to work out the teachers who can bring an improvement in our education system at amazing stage. To enhance their skill of teaching and offer most innovative technology of training, NAHE is conducting Staff Development Programs in all the public sector colleges and universities of Pakistan.

Objectives:

The objectives of Staff Development Courses are:

To offer details to the university teachers which can lead them for the better understanding of the lot to whom they are going to teach.

To present new technologies/ techniques of teaching, to our university teachers that can help them to cope with the complications of the existing day.

To teach the university teachers about administrative skills, and about how planning is done and suggestions are designed for promotion of education. Moreover to this, to enhance the interaction abilities of university so that they can considerably achieve the objectives of their lecture.

To teach university teachers how to create research proposal and how to perform research.

To assess the objectives acquired during teaching learning process through analyzing the students.

These objectives are converted through following training modules which offer suggestions to the resource persons as well as participants of the course.

Serial no.

Module Name

Educational Psychology

Advanced Teaching Skills

Administrative Planning & Communication Skills

Curriculum & Material Development

Research Skills

Educational Measurement & Evaluation

After the completion of the course, participants will learn;

To enhance educational techniques to be able to offer high-quality instruction to the students.

How to facilitate learners through team learning experiences.

How they have to efficiently perform their multidimensional aspect in a classroom situation.

Classroom control techniques that keep learners actively involved on task.

The procedure of curriculum improvement and serious analysis of existing curriculum documents.

Syllabus of Teacher Training in (HEC)

Area wise content Outline of program Modules

List of Modules

Serial no.

Module Name

Educational Psychology

Advanced Teaching Skills

Administrative Planning & Communication Skills

Curriculum & Material Development

Research Skills

Educational Measurement & Evaluation

Chapter III

METHOLODOGY

This chapter deals with the methods and procedures adopted in the study in details.

3.1 Type of study

It is qualitative research and descriptive type case study. Descriptive research involves collecting Data in order to collect the opinion of the respondents related to a current issue and efforts had been made to put suggestions for the improvement of the situation.

Descriptive method is useful for investigating a variety of educational problems. Thus according to the nature of the research area this was the most suitable design.

3.2 Qualitative Research

The study is Qualitative in approach according to L.R. GAY.

"Qualitative approach is applied in order to describe correct condition on the investigate relationship including cause effect relationship. Study is referred to descriptive research.

3.2.1 Methods of Qualitative Research

The primary methods used in qualitative research; Observation, Interviews, and Documentary analysis.

Observation:

In seeking to explore the natural scene, the qualitative researcher aims to be as unobtrusive as possible, so that neither research presence nor methods disturb the situation. This is why participant observation is one of the favored approaches.

Interviews:

A great deal of qualitative material comes from talking with people whether it is through formal interviews or casual conversations. If interviews are going to tap into the depths of reality of the situation and discover subjects' meanings and understandings, it is essential for the researcher:

To build up understanding with interviewees and prevail their confidence;

To be modest, in order not to enforce one's own persuade on the interviewee.

The greatest method for this is the structured interview.

Documents:

Documents are a valuable source of information in qualitative research, but they have to be treated with care. The most usually used are official documents, personal documents, and questionnaires.

3.3 Concept of Case Study

Case study has commonly been the method of alternative among experienced investigators in education for assessing education innovations, implementations of strategy, quantity of instruction and appraisal of performance.

3.2.1 Style of Case Study Method

There are numerous case study methods. The main ones are four:

Ethnographic Case Study

Evaluative Case Study

Educative Case Study

Action Research

It is closely related to educational programs, curriculum and instructional material.

Ethnographic Case Study

It is positioned within the social sciences. In ethnography, an individual case is considered in depth. The participation observation is supported by interview, with the tools of social Anthropology, which focus on the perceptive of human societies and cultures. The technique uses the observation and interpretations of interpersonal affairs in the perspective of emphasis on customs and traditions.

Evaluative Case Study

In evaluative case studies alone case or group of cases is studied in depth with the reason of providing educational across or decision makers (administrators, tutors, parents, pupils, etc) with information that will help them to judge thematic and importance of policies programs, or institutions.

Evaluative Case Studies are fixed in the time level of the programs they are evaluating and decisions are informing and this had led to the development of "strong field work" in which interview typically dominates participant observation. Since the later is a long term, in-depth technique. In evaluation, the case to be evaluated is commonly a program or policy expressed in number of institutions or settings and the evaluator is thus concerned with multiple case studies. (Stenhouse, 1982)

Educational Case Study

Many researcher using case study methods are concerned with the understanding of enrichment in action. They adopt a strategy close to that of the ethnographer. They are concerned with enriching the thinking and discourse of the educational theory or by reflective documentation of experience. It seems likely that multi site approaches will have an increasing part to play in educational case study. (Stenhouse, 1982)

Case Study in Action Research

Action research is concerned with contributing to the development of the case under study by feedback of information, which can guide revision and refinement of the action. In the curriculum movement projects to produce curricular specifications and enriched materials.

(Stenhouse, 1982)

3.4 Content Analysis

Content analysis has been defined as a methodical, replicable technique for compressing many words of text into fewer content categories based on clear rules of coding (Berelson, 1952; GAO, 1996; Krippendorff, 1980; and Weber, 1990). Holsti (1969) offers a broad definition of content analysis as, "any technique for making inferences by objectively and systematically identifying specified characteristics of messages"

3.4 Procedure of the study

The study was designed to investigate the effectiveness of in-service teacher training programs initiated by H.E.C in Islamabad during the session 2007. The main objectives of the study were to investigate the effectiveness of Staff Development Program through documentary study.

For this purpose researcher have designed initially a descriptive type Case Study due to time constraints, and the other obvious reason of the access of trained faculty because H.E.C trained the University and College teachers all over Pakistan, so it is not possible for researcher to reach the trainers in a limited time and get their feedback regarding SDCs.

Staff Development Courses conducted in The National University of Modern Languages Islamabad and COMSATS Islamabad was taken as a Case in this study. Researcher personally visited and collected information from Course Coordinator of Staff development Courses of Higher Education Commission, which are appended at per annexure "A" and "C" and "F" and researcher adopted an Evaluate study method and pin point the flaws, and suggest improvements for the solution of identified problems stated conclusions and give suggestions for the improvement of the program.

3.5 Data Collection

As the research is Qualitative and the researcher is given the analytical points through documents, which are appended at per annexure "A" and "C" and "F". The Data was collected in documents form.

3.6 Data Analysis

The researcher has analyzed the strong points and flaws of the Staff Development Program with the help of Documentary study.

The conclusions and recommendations were given on the basis of analytical study of the program.

Chapter IV

DATA ANALYSIS

This chapter deals with the Analysis of the Data collected from the Course coordinator of Staff development Courses and have a discussion on i.e.

Aims and Objectives of the Program.

Program Modules

Content provided for these Courses

Program evaluation Parameters

4.1 Program Analysis

Staff Development Programs are conducted for expert development of teachers through extreme in-service training. To meet the complications of Existing day and to bring our higher education stage at par with International Requirements, it is the need of the hour to work out the teachers who can bring an improvement in our education system at amazing stage. To enhance their skill of teaching and offer most innovative technology of training, NAHE is conducting Staff Development Programs in all the public sector colleges and universities of Pakistan.

Researcher has taken the courses conducted in the Universities of Islamabad city as a case in this study and initially prepared a Descriptive type Case Study to investigate the effectiveness of the program.

That program effectiveness was investigated with keen interest and the researcher personally visited Learning Innovation Division of H.E.C and collected the information from the Course Coordinator of the Staff Development Courses NAHE Phase 1, i.e.

Working Patterns;

Aims and Objectives of the Program.

Program Modules

Content provided for these Courses

Program evaluation Parameters

I. Aims and Objectives of Staff Development Courses

The objectives of Staff Development Courses are:

To offer details to the university teachers which can lead them for the better understanding of the lot to whom they are going to teach.

To present new technologies/ techniques of teaching, to our university teachers that can help them to cope with the complications of the existing day.

To teach the university teachers about administrative skills, and about how planning is done and suggestions are designed for promotion of education. Moreover to this, to enhance the interaction abilities of university so that they can considerably achieve the objectives of their lecture.

To teach university teachers how to create research proposal and how to perform research.

To assess the objectives acquired during teaching learning process through analyzing the students.

II. Program Modules

Areas to be covered in the course:

Serial no.

Module Name

Educational Psychology

Advanced Teaching Skills

Administrative Planning & Communication Skills

Curriculum & Material Development

Research Skills

Educational Measurement & Evaluation

After the completion of the course, participants will learn;

To enhance educational techniques to be able to offer high-quality instruction to the students.

How to facilitate learners through team learning experiences.

How they have to efficiently perform their multidimensional aspect in a classroom situation.

Classroom control techniques that keep learners actively involved on task.

The procedure of curriculum improvement and serious analysis of existing curriculum documents.

4.2 Masters Trainers of the Program

All faculty members participated in the program teaching in public Sector Universities/ Colleges across the country are the learners of the Staff Development program.

4.3 Participants of the Program

Staff Development Courses conducted in the National University of Modern Languages Islamabad, COMSATS Islamabad was taken as a Case in this study. Researcher personally visited and collected information from Course Coordinator of Staff development Courses of Higher Education commission which are appended at per annexure "A" and "F" and stated conclusion and given suggestions for the improvement of the program.

DATA ANALYSIS

STRUCTERED INTERVIEW

DISCUSSION:

To investigate the effectiveness in a more effective way the researcher posed few Questions to the Course Coordinator of the Staff Development Program, because the program was conducted in past and only feasible person is the Course Coordinator to provide the feedback of the program; following views are collected along with documentary analysis and considered for the purpose of deduction of inference:

Question No, 1

What is the purpose of Staff development Program of Higher Education Commission? The Question was designed to find out the purpose of the SDC Program: The respondent was requested during the interview to comment upon this particular aspect. The respondent offered the following comments:

Respondent said: The purpose of this program is crystal clear that this is for faculty training but it has two purposes first teacher get training all over Pakistan and after that they train un trained faculty in their own cities. Actually this program aims to produce Master Trainers.

In the light of the opinions offered by respondent, it is considered that it was a well need attempt by HEC because only trained teachers can play an effective role in the teaching learning process. HEC should carry on this process in future as well.

Question No, 2

Was the Modules developed and study material was provided with contents? The Question was designed to find out the purpose of the SDC Program: The respondent was requested during the interview to comment upon this particular aspect. The respondent offered the following comments:

Respondent said: The list of the modules were provided and gave free hand to course coordinators to develop them, course content were provided too and the study material was not given because HEC has many books regarding course contents. The course was up to date and resource persons were satisfactory.

In the light of the opinions offered by respondent, it is considered that HEC did not develop the modules those are developed now and as per researcher understanding for better results HEC should first developed the modules and then starts the program because Modules are the basic element of the program and secondly study material should also provided with course content. The factor of similarities matters a lot.

Question No, 3

The knowledge transmitted to trainers effectively? The question was designed to find out that progress of the program: The respondent was requested during the interview to comment upon this particular aspect. The respondent offered the following comments:

Respondent said: Transmitting of knowledge found satisfactory not in all sense but up of our expectations. Coordinators put their strong efforts.

In the light of the opinions offered by respondent, it is considered that the program was productive and knowledge was transferred with keen interest.

Question No, 4

What was the response of the participant regarding Staff Development Courses were they interested? The question was designed to find out the interest of the trainers towards the program: The respondent was requested during the interview to comment upon this particular aspect. The respondent offered the following comments: It was a good experience for us to get a very positive response from the trainers and trainees both and as per our expectations trainers showed great interest in the program.

In the light of the opinions offered by respondent, it is considered that the HEC effort was supported well by the trainers and they acknowledged the effort.

Question No, 5

Which type of technology was introduced and did trainers provided a lab facility? The Question was designed to find out the use of the technology in the program: The respondent was requested during the interview to comment upon this particular aspect. The respondent offered the following comments:

Respondent said: Computer technology was introduced to learners; and new methods of teaching methodologies as well, lab facility was not available at that time.

In the light of the opinions offered by respondent, it is considered that the new teaching techniques were introduced to trainers but the most important facility of lab were not provided is not a good sign and HEC should focus on this important issue.

Question No, 6

Are there indicators to check the improvement of the trainers? The Question was designed to find out the check and balance parameters: The respondent was requested during the interview to comment upon this particular aspect. The respondent offered the following comments:

Respondent said: Yes there were Evaluation Performa's used for this purpose, Evaluation Performa's were given to the trainers with few questions related course to get their feedback to know the program effectiveness.

In the light of the opinions offered by respondent, it is considered the check and balance parameters were available in the form of Evaluation Performa's, to get the feedback regarding program effectiveness.

Question No, 7

Is there any system to check the Masters Trainers current status? The Question was designed to find out the follow up approach to trained faculty: The respondent was requested during the interview to comment upon this particular aspect. The respondent offered the following comments:

Respondent said: Yes we are in contact with Masters Trainers and having an eye on their achievements.

In the light of the opinions offered by respondent, it is considered that follow up to Masters Trainers is a good sign and show the commitment of the HEC.

Question No, 8

What there any system of Daily attendance and what was the ratio? The Question was designed to find out the commitment of the trainers to Program: The respondent was requested during the interview to comment upon this particular aspect. The respondent offered the following comments:

Respondent said: Attendance sheets were provided to course coordinators those were given to the participants on daily basis to count their presence. Attendance was good enough.

In the light of the opinions offered by respondent, it is considered that Daily attendance count is a good sign and the attendance status show the commitment of the HEC.

Question No, 9

Was the effort of Phase I is Fruitful for HEC? The Question was designed to find out the effectiveness of the whole Program: The respondent was requested during the interview to comment upon this particular aspect. The respondent offered the following comments:

Respondent said: It was not the first attempt of HEC, the response of the trainers was satisfactory and Objectives are achieved. Day by day teachers are training others and producing more Masters Trainers. Now we are working on phase II, and will cover the flaws. HEC has started twice courses in a year for fresh university teachers as well.

In the light of the opinions offered by respondent, it is considered that HEC is getting the positive feedback against their Efforts and showing their potential that is nice to hear because HEC blamed enough regarding his role. These efforts should be carry on in future and work for betterment.

Question No, 10

Is there any current programs are in progress? The Question was designed to find out the effectiveness of the whole Program and to know the status of SDCs: The respondent was requested during the interview to comment upon this particular aspect. The respondent offered the following comments:

Respondent said: SDC was the NAHE Phase 1, now we are in Phase II. There are many programs are currently present i.e. PCEPT, CPD, and FPDP etc.

In the light of the opinions offered by respondent, it is considered that NAHE Phase II is started and continuity of Staff Development is a good sign, Courses mentioned in this Phase are a need of time and HEC is going on right directions.

4.4 Outcomes of the Program

Master Trainers

HEC is blamed enough as per his role in teacher training because of that reason HEC focused the university teachers and started Staff Development Courses. HEC is not just only trained the teachers of the universities/colleges of Pakistan it also generate Master trainers whose responsibility to get trained first and give training to un trained teachers in their own cities all over the Pakistan.

4.5 Suggestions for the improvement of the Program

Researcher comes to know that the Modules offered in the program are developed now by Learning Innovation division working under NAHE.

Modules Developed first and then start the program that type of approach will have a great impact on the outcomes of the program.

Study material should be provided to course Coordinators for the sense of resemblance of material distributed any institution in any city.

There should be more emphasis on Practical Work along with theory because practical methods are easy to understand.

Career Counseling has an important role in the career selection and career development of the students. Teachers must be trained to guide students in a better way and assist them in right career selection

New Technology and new trends should be focused more practically and the facilities should be properly provided to trainers at the time of training it gain the success of the program more valuable.

The researcher has analyzed that Staff Development Courses found were helpful for the improvement of the teachers in their profession. There is a need of such programs to be conducted twice in a year for fresh university and college teachers. These courses are also helpful for using new methods and techniques in teaching. The course offered was comprehensive and up -to -date.

The study was to analyze the program in future perspective.

This was the important attempt by Higher Education Commission in which comprehensive teaching-learning had been developed at the International requirements for training of University/College tutors.

No highly effective teaching is possible without an energetic teacher. So, an effective teaching is known through his/her efficient and qualitative teaching. Now, education is supposed to be student based, so the teaching-learning process should be focused at all round development of the human.

The perception of teaching is changing. "Teaching is a myth" has been a typical consensus. In teaching the stress for 'content' has moved to source and means and in-turn to context; not teaching rather telling is the more expert term. Focus is on 'learning to learn', 'learning to think', 'learning to view' and developing study skills' etc.

Teachers are endowed persons, as they get an opportunity to shape the minds, attitudes and character of human being, the main creature of ALLAH ALMIGHTY. Therefore, in this way, teachers support the LORD.

APPENDIX A

Staff Development Program

Objectives:

The objectives of Staff Development Courses are:

To offer details to the university teachers which can lead them for the better understanding of the lot to whom they are going to teach.

To present new technologies/ techniques of teaching, to our university teachers that can help them to cope with the complications of the existing day.

To teach the university teachers about administrative skills, and about how planning is done and suggestions are designed for promotion of education. Moreover to this, to enhance the interaction abilities of university so that they can considerably achieve the objectives of their lecture.

To teach university teachers how to create research proposal and how to perform research.

To assess the objectives acquired during teaching learning process through analyzing the students.

Areas to be covered in the course:

Serial no.

Module Name

Educational Psychology

Advanced Teaching Skills

Administrative Planning & Communication Skills

Curriculum & Material Development

Research Skills

Educational Measurement & Evaluation

APPENDIX F

Staff Development Courses

Evaluation Parameters

Parameters for the course evaluation

Content evaluation of the program,

Resource persons evaluation,

Evaluation of food and logistics arrangements,

Coordinators evaluation,

Suggestions for improvement of the program etc.

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