A Case Study Of Agra City Education Essay

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Education is a dynamic process that starts from birth. A child surrounded by parents and other siblings experiences her surroundings and responds. The surrounding environment, the physical and social, "imparts" some information and the child tries to find a pattern in that information and responds. From those responses we assess whether his/her development is normal, abnormal or extraordinary. Education in India is provided by the public sector as well as the private sector, with control and funding coming from three levels: central, state, and local. The Nalanda University was the oldest university-system of education in the World; Western education became ingrained into Indian society with the establishment of the British Raj.

Indian has made progress in terms of increasing Primary education, attendance rate and expanding literacy to approximately two thirds of the population. India's improved education system is often cited as one of the main contributors to the economic rise of India. The private education market in India is merely 5% although in terms of value is estimated to be worth $40 billion in 2008 and will increase to $68-70 billion by 2012.

However, Indian continues to face stern challenges. Despite growing investment in education, 25% of its population is still illiterate; only 15% of Indian students reach high school, and just 7%, of the 15% who make it to high school, graduate. The quality of education whether at primary or higher education is significantly poor as compared with major developing nations. The ministry of education is responsible for the affairs related to education in the state. The state minister of education in UP takes a keen interest not only in the following up of the state policies of education but also in the quality of education. The education board in Uttar Pradesh provides all the statistics, as well as administers the education policies, grants recognition to school etc. The education department in UP monitors the schools in each district as well as the open schools set up by the government. In keeping with the directives of the Board of Education the education departments implement the directives mention in the Children's Right to Information Act. An effort towards the universalization of education especially at the school level is soon being achieved by the UP Education system offering education for all.

The objectives will be:

To examine the role of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan and Right to Education regarding the implementation of rural education policies.

To know the benefits availed by the students of Agra City.

The most important aspect of this research will be to find out whether the students and their parents of rural areas are conscious for the different educational policies running by government of Uttar Pradesh in Agra District and facilitated for their mental and physical development.

Research Methodology:

The research will be conducted through primary as well as secondary Data. The Primary data will be administered through questionnaire and personnel interviews and secondary data will be collected through magazines, websites, and reports of Government Departments etc.

Sample: the Agra Region consist of approximately 2500 government school in different gram panchayats. The sample will be taken 5 schools at Accidental basis.

The analysis will be done through statistical tools such as percentage method

"Consciousness among the Students - A Case Study of Agra City"

Education is a dynamic process that starts from birth. A child surrounded by parents and other siblings experiences her surroundings and responds. The surrounding environment, the physical and social, "imparts" some information and the child tries to find a pattern in that information and responds. From those responses we assess whether his/her development is normal, abnormal or extraordinary. Education in India is provided by the public sector as well as the private sector, with control and funding coming from three levels: central, state, and local. The Nalanda University was the oldest university-system of education in the World; Western education became ingrained into Indian society with the establishment of the British Raj.

Indian has made progress in terms of increasing Primary education, attendance rate and expanding literacy to approximately two thirds of the population. India's improved education system is often cited as one of the main contributors to the economic rise of India. The private education market in India is merely 5% although in terms of value is estimated to be worth $40 billion in 2008 and will increase to $68-70 billion by 2012. However, Indian continues to face stern challenges. Despite growing investment in education, 25% of its population is still illiterate; only 15% of Indian students reach high school, and just 7%, of the 15% who make it to high school, graduate. The quality of education whether at primary or higher education is significantly poor as compared with major developing nations. The ministry of education is responsible for the affairs related to education in the state. The state minister of education in UP takes a keen interest not only in the following up of the state policies of education but also in the quality of education. The education board in Uttar Pradesh provides all the statistics, as well as administers the education policies, grants recognition to school etc. The education department in UP monitors the schools in each district as well as the open schools set up by the government. In keeping with the directives of the Board of Education the education departments implement the directives mention in the Children's Right to Information Act. An effort towards the universalization of education especially at the school level is soon being achieved by the UP Education system offering education for all.

India has the largest education system in the world after China. The Right to Education (RTE) is now a Fundamental right for all children in the age group of 6 to 14 years. In simple words, it means that the Government will be responsible for providing education to every child up to the eighth standard, free of cost, irrespective of class and gender. However, it will take at least five more years before the target is reached. This is because the infrastructure has to be built, and lakhs of teachers recruited. The RTE is the first legislation in the world that puts the responsibility of enrollment, attendance and completion of education on the government. Though the National Education Policy of 1968 talked of a free and compulsory education, the Right to Education came into effect in April 2010. To fulfill the promise the imparting education as a right, the government has enhanced funds to the education sector.

The existing operational norms of the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan have also been revised to implement the right of children to free and compulsory education, which has come into effect from 1 April 2010. Allocations to achieve the objectives of the Right to Education (RTE), which has been aligned with the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan, were hiked from Rs 15,000 crore to Rs 21,000 crore. While this is targeted at strengthening elementary education, the Centre is now focusing on "vocationalisation" of secondary education, which will enable students to pursue job-oriented courses at the plus two-level. Initiatives have also been taken to increase retention of Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe students in Class IX and X by introducing a pre-matriculation scholarship. Though the recent budget seems to be providing a major impetus towards the country's overall educational growth but due to various socio-economic factors, India's education program continues to be denigrated. Of the biggest victims of the educational system are those living in rural areas. Though for encouraging the growth of rural education, from making policies to introducing laws - our government has lined up the education system up to the mark but implementing the process into an effective way has been the lacunae of the entire system. Children in rural areas continue to be deprived of quality education owing to factors like lack of competent and committed teachers, lack of textbooks or teaching-learning materials, and so on. A large number of teachers refuse to teach in rural areas and those that do, are usually under-qualified. The much publicized mid day meal scheme meant to reduce drop-out rates in schools, seems to be not yielding the desired96.5% of children in the 6 to 14 age group in rural India are enrolled in school.

RIGHT TO EDUCATION

The Act makes it mandatory for every child between the ages of 6-14 to be provided for education by the State. This means that such child does not have to pay a single penny as regards books, uniforms etc… too.

Any time of the academic year, a child can go to a school and demand that this right be respected.

Private education institutions have to reserve 25% of their seats starting from class I in 2011 to disadvantaged students.

Strict criteria for the qualification of teachers. There is a requirement of a teacher student ration of 1:30 at each of these schools that ought to be met within a given time frame.

The schools need to have certain minimum facilities like adequate teachers, playground and infrastructure. The government will evolve some mechanism to help marginalized schools comply with the provisions of the Act.

There is a new concept of 'neighborhood schools' that has been devised. This is similar to the model in the United States. This would imply that the state government and local authorities will establish primary schools within walking distance of one km of the neighborhood. In case of children for Class VI to VIII, the school should be within a walking distance of three km of the neighborhood.

Unaided and private schools shall ensure that children from weaker sections and disadvantaged groups shall not be segregated from the other children in the classrooms nor shall their classes be held at places and timings different from the classes held for the other children.

MAIN FEATURES OF RIGHT TO EDUCATION ACT

Free and compulsory education to all children of India in 6 to 14 age group.

No child shall be held back, expelled or required to pass a board examination until completion of elementary education.

A child who completes elementary education (up to from class VIII ) shall be awarded a certificate.

Calls for a fixed student-teacher ratio.

Will apply to all of India except Jammu and Kashmir.

Provides for 25% reservation for economically disadvantaged communities in admission to class I in all private schools.

Mandates improvement in quality of education.

School teachers will need adequate professional degree within five years or else will lose job.

School infrastructure to be improved in three years, else recognition cancelled.

Financial burden will be shared between state and central government.

No child shall be subjected to physical punishment of mental harassment.

Screening Procedure shall be punishable with fine.

To constitute a school management committee consisting of the elected representatives of the local authority, parents and guardians of children.

N o teacher shall be deployed for any non-educational purposes.

N o teacher shall engage himself or herself in private tuition.

Right to Education Act (2009) is a landmark initiative of the government to strengthen the education system in India.

SARVA SHIKSHA ABHIYAN

A programme with a clear time frame for universal elementary education.

A response to the demand for quality basic education all over the country.

An opportunity for promoting social justice through basic education.

An effort at effectively involving the Panchayati Raj Institutions, School Management Committees, Village and Urban Slum level Education Committees, Parents' Teachers' Associations, Mother Teacher Associations, Tribal Autonomous Councils and other grass root level structures in the management of elementary schools.

An expression of political will for universal elementary education across the country.

A partnership between the Central, State and the local government.

An opportunity for States to develop their own vision of elementary education.

AIMS OF SARVA SHIKSHA ABHIYAN

The Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan is to provide useful and relevant elementary education for all children in the 6 to 14 age group by 2010. There is also another goal to bridge social, regional and gender gaps, with the active participation of the community in the management of schools.

Useful and relevant education signifies a quest for an education system that is not alienating and that draws on community solidarity. Its aim is to allow children to learn about and master their natural environment in a manner that allows the fullest harnessing of their human potential both spiritually and materially. This quest must also be a process of value based learning that allows children an opportunity to work for each other's well being rather than to permit mere selfish pursuits. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan realizes the importance of Early Childhood Care and Education and looks at the 0-14 age as a continuum. All efforts to support pre-school learning in ICDS centres or special pre-school centres in non ICDS areas will be made to supplement the efforts being made by the Department of Women and Child Development.

OBJECTIVES OF SARVA SHIKSHA ABHIYAN

All children in school, Education Guarantee Centre, Alternate School, ' Back-to-School' camp by 2003.

All children complete five years of primary schooling by 2007.

All children complete eight years of elementary schooling by 2010.

Focus on elementary education of satisfactory quality with emphasis on education for life.

Bridge all gender and social category gaps at primary stage by 2007 and at elementary education level by 2010.

Universal retention by 2010.

`ANALYSIS

SARVA SHIKSHA ABHIYAN AS A FRAMEWORK AND AS A PROGRAMME

Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) has two aspects -

It provides a wide convergent framework for implementation of Elementary Education schemes;

It is also a programme with budget provision for strengthening vital areas to achieve universalisation of elementary education.

BROAD STRATEGIES

Institutional Reforms - The central and the State governments will undertake reforms in order to improve efficiency of the delivery system. The states will have to make an objective assessment of their prevalent education system including educational administration, achievement levels in schools, financial issues, decentralisation and community ownership, review of State Education Act, rationalization of teacher deployment and recruitment of teachers, monitoring and evaluation, status of education of girls, SC/ST and disadvantaged groups, policy regarding private schools and ECCE. Many States have already carried out several changes to improve the delivery system for elementary education.

Sustainable Financing - The Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan is based on the premise that financing of elementary education interventions has to be sustainable. This calls for a long -term perspective on financial partnership between the Central and the State governments.

Community Ownership - The programme calls for community ownership of school-based interventions through effective decentralisation. This will be augmented by involvement of women's groups, VEC members and members of Panchayati Raj institutions.

Institutional Capacity Building -The SSA conceives a major capacity building role for national, state and district level institutions like NIEPA / NCERT / NCTE / SCERT / SIEMAT / DIET.

Improvement in quality requires a sustainable support system of resource persons and institutions.

Improving Mainstream Educational Administration - It calls for improvement of mainstream educational administration by institutional development, infusion of new approaches and by adoption of cost effective and efficient methods.

Community Based Monitoring with Full Transparency - The Programme will have a community based monitoring system. The Educational Management Information System (EMIS) will correlate school level data with community-based information from micro planning and surveys. Besides this, every school will be encouraged to share all information with the community, including grants received. A notice board would be put up in every school for this purpose.

Habitation as a Unit of Planning - The SSA works on a community based approach to planning with habitation as a unit of planning. Habitation plans will be the basis for formulating district plans.

Accountability to Community - SSA envisages cooperation between teachers, parents and PRIs, as well as accountability and transparency to the community.

Priority to Education of Girls - Education of girls, especially those belonging to the scheduled castes and scheduled tribes and minorities, will be one of the principal concerns in Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan.

Focus on Special Groups - There will be a focus on the inclusion and participation of children from SC/ST, minority groups, urban deprived children disadvantaged groups and the children with special needs, in the educational process.

Pre-Project Phase - SSA will commence throughout the country with a well planned pre-project phase that provides for a large number of interventions for capacity development to improve the delivery and monitoring system. These include provision for household surveys, community-based micro planning and school mapping, training of community leaders, school level activities, support for setting up information system, office equipment, diagnostic studies, etc.,

Thrust on Quality - SSA lays a special thrust on making education at the elementary level useful and relevant for children by improving the curriculum, child-centered activities and effective teaching learning strategies.

Role of teachers - SSA recognizes the critical and central role of teachers and advocates a focus on their development needs. Setting up of Block Resource Centres/Cluster Resource Centres, recruitment of qualified teachers, opportunities for teacher development through participation in curriculum-related material development, focus on classroom process and exposure visits for teachers are all designed to develop the human resource among teachers.

District Elementary Education Plans - As per the SSA framework, each district will prepare a District Elementary Education Plan reflecting all the investments being made and required in the elementary education sector, with a holistic and convergent approach. There will be a Perspective Plan that will give a framework of activities over a longer time frame to achieve UEE. There will also be an Annual Work Plan and Budget that will list the prioritized activities to be carried out in that year. The Perspective Plan will also be a dynamic document subject to constant improvement in the course of Programme Implementation.

FINANCIAL NORMS UNDER SARVA SHIKSHA ABHIYAN

The assistance under the programme of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan will be on a 50:50 sharing between the Central government and State governments. Commitments regarding sharing of costs would be taken from State governments in writing.

The Government of India would release funds to the State Governments/Union Territories only and installments (except first) would only be released after the previous instalments of Central government and State share has been transferred to the State Implementation Society.

The support for teacher salary appointed under the SSA programme could be shared between the Central Government and the State government in a ratio of 50:50 thereafter.

All legal agreements regarding externally assisted projects will continue to apply unless specific modifications have been agreed to, in consultation with foreign funding agencies.

The National Programme for Nutritional Support to Primary Education (Mid-Day- Meal) would remain a distinct intervention with food grains and specified transportation costs being met by the Centre and the cost of cooked meals being met by the State government.

District Education Plans would inter-alia, clearly show the funds/resource available for various components under schemes like PMGY, JGSY, PMRY, Sunishchit Rozgar Yojana, Area fund of MPs/MLAs, State Plan, foreign funding (if any) and resources generated in the NGO sector.

All funds to be used for up gradation, maintenance, repair of schools and Teaching Learning Equipment and local management to be transferred to VECs/ School Management Committees/ Gram Panchayat/ or any other village/ school level arrangement for decentralisation adopted by that particular State/UT. The village/ school based body may make a resolution regarding the best way of procurement.

Other incentive schemes like distribution of scholarships and uniforms will continue to be funded under the State Plan. They will not be funded under the SSA programme.

NORMS FOR INTERVENTIONS UNDER SSA INTERVENTION NORM

Teacher

One teacher for every 30 children in Primary and upper primary.

At least two teachers in a Primary school.

One teacher for every class in the upper primary.

School / Alternative Schooling Facility

Within one Kilometer of every habitation.

Provision for opening of new schools as per State norms or for setting up EGS like schools in unserved habitations.

Upper Primary Schools/ Sector

As per requirement based on the number of children completing primary education, up to a ceiling of one upper primary school/section for every two primary schools.

Classrooms

A room for every teacher in Primary & Upper Primary, with the provision that there would be two class rooms with verandah to every Primary school with at least two teachers.

A room for Head-Master in upper Primary school/section.

Free Textbooks

To all girls/SC/ST children at primary & upper primary level within an upper ceiling of Rs. 150/- per child.

State to continue to fund free textbooks being currently provided from the State Plans.

Civil Works

Ceiling of 33% of SSA programme funds.

For improvement of school facilities, BRC/CRC construction.

CRCs could also be used as an additional room.

No expenditure to be incurred on construction of office buildings

Districts to prepare infrastructure Plans.

Maintenance and Repair of School Buildings

Only through school management committees/VECs.

Upto Rs. 5000 per year as per specific proposal by the school committee.

Must involve elements of community contribution.

Up-gradation of EGS to regular school or setting up of a new Primary school as per State norm

Provision for TLE @ Rs 10,000/- per school.

TLE as per local context and need.

Involvement of teachers and parents necessary in TLE selection and procurement.

VEC/ school-village level appropriate body to decide on best mode of procurement.

Requirement of successful running of EGS centre for two years before it is considered for up-gradation.

Provision for teacher & classrooms.

TLE for Upper-Primary

@ Rs 50,000 per school for uncovered schools.

As per local specific requirement to be determined by the teachers/ school committee.

School committee to decide on best mode of procurement, in consultation with teachers.

School Committee may recommend district level procurement if there are advantages of scale.

Schools Grant

Rs. 2000/- per year per primary/upper primary school for replacement of non functional school equipment.

Transparency in utilisation.

To be spent only by VEC/SMC.

Teacher grant

Rs 500 per teacher per year in primary and upper primary.

Transparency in utilisation.

Teacher training

Provision of 20 days In-service course for all teachers each year, 60 days refresher course for untrained teachers already employed as teachers, and 30 days orientation for freshly trained recruits @ Rs. 70/- per day.

Unit cost is indicative; would be lower in non residential training programmes

19. Block Resource Centre's/ Cluster Resource Centre's

BRC/CRC to be located in school campus as far as possible.

Rs. 6 lakh ceiling for BRC building construction wherever required.

Rs. 2 lakh for CRC construction wherever required - should be used as an additional classroom in schools.

Total cost of non-school (BRC and CRC) construction in any district should not exceed 5% of the overall projected expenditure under the programme in any year.

Deployment of up to 20 teacher in a block with more than 100 schools; 10 teachers in smaller Blocks in BRCs/CRCs.

Identification of BRC/CRC personnel after intensive selection process in the preparatory phase itself.

Setting up Education Guarantee Centre's in unserved habitations.

Setting up other alternative schooling models.

FINDING & CONCLUSION

Students are interested for attending schools to avail the facilities as midday meal, uniform, bags, free education etc.

High scorers' are more conscious for the facilities provided to them.

Family occupation also play important role in improving awareness among children.

Low income group have more economic buying behavior as high income group, having more spending habits

Students belonging to high class educated families are much aware for the Serve Shiksha Abhiyan and Right to Education Act.

Students providing domestic and financial help to their parents are maintaining their autonomy and having their own internal state of mind

Students are taken active part in inter school and intra school competition.

Parents of rural area are also taken active part in enhancing mental and physical development of their children's.

BTC teachers, Gram Pradhan, Aganwadi behanji, Shikshamitra, etc. are also taken active participation for future development of their students. If not, these students ask for these facilities.

Teachers are using different teaching aids such as Blackboard, Books, Charts, Pictures, natural arts, clay toys, Music, etc. this help in students focused to them self reflectiveness, personnel growth.

Every day school activities are starting by "Gaytri Mantra" every student has to attend prayer. It focuses to the presence of God. This will make the students spirituality strong.

The students ask numerous questions related to their studies or other than that to enhance their knowledge. They want to optimum utilization of their time, energy, resources.

SUGGESTIONS

Parent's teacher conversation should be taken at a suitable time deviation.

Mother's teacher's interaction.

Proper implementation of Educational policies.

Free of cost education for weaker section.

Proper distribution of Scholarship, Free books, Uniform, Vocational training etc.

Basic studies of subject English.

Acceptability of Hindi language (Hindi Medium Students) in higher studies & Jobs.

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